Expression of the p53 target Wig-1 is associated with HPV status and patient survival in cervical carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: The p53 target gene WIG-1 (ZMAT3) is located in chromosomal region 3q26, that is frequently amplified in human tumors, including cervical cancer. We have examined the status of WIG-1 and the encoded Wig-1 protein in cervical carcinoma cell lines and tumor tissue samples. Our analysis of eight cervical cancer lines (Ca Ski, ME-180, MS751, SiHa, SW756, C-4I, C-33A, and HT-3) by spectral karyotype, comparative genomic hybridization and Southern blotting revealed WIG-1 is not the primary target for chromosome 3 gains. However, WIG-1/Wig-1 were readily expressed and WIG-1 mRNA expression was higher in the two HPV-negative cervical cell lines (C33-A, HT-3) than in HPV-positive lines. We then assessed Wig-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 38 cervical tumor samples. We found higher nuclear Wig-1 expression levels in HPV-negative compared to HPV positive cases (p = 0.002) and in adenocarcinomas as compared to squamous cell lesions (p<0.0001). Cases with moderate nuclear Wig-1 staining and positive cytoplasmic Wig-1 staining showed longer survival than patients with strong nuclear and negative cytoplasmic staining (p = 0.042). Nuclear Wig-1 expression levels were positively associated with age at diagnosis (p = 0.023) and histologic grade (p = 0.034). These results are consistent with a growth-promoting and/or anti-cell death function of nuclear Wig-1 and suggest that Wig-1 expression can serve as a prognostic marker in cervical carcinoma.
Project description:RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression through a variety of post-transcriptional mechanisms. The p53-induced RBP Wig-1 (Zmat3) binds RNA through its zinc finger domains and enhances stability of p53 and N-Myc mRNAs and decreases stability of FAS mRNA. To identify novel Wig-1-bound RNAs, we performed RNA-immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (RIP-Seq) in HCT116 and Saos-2 cells. We identified 286 Wig-1-bound mRNAs common between the two cell lines. Sequence analysis revealed that AU-rich elements (AREs) are highly enriched in the 3'UTR of these Wig-1-bound mRNAs. Network enrichment analysis showed that Wig-1 preferentially binds mRNAs involved in cell cycle regulation. Moreover, we identified a 2D Wig-1 binding motif in HIF1A mRNA. Our findings confirm that Wig-1 is an ARE-BP that regulates cell cycle-related processes and provide a novel view of how Wig-1 may bind mRNA through a putative structural motif. We also significantly extend the repertoire of Wig-1 target mRNAs. Since Wig-1 is a transcriptional target of the tumor suppressor p53, these results have implications for our understanding of p53-dependent stress responses and tumor suppression.
Project description:Wig-1, also known as ZMAT3, is a p53 target gene that encodes an RNA-binding zinc-finger protein involved in the regulation of mRNA stability through binding to AU-rich elements (AREs). We have used microarray analysis to identify novel Wig-1 target mRNAs. We identified 2447 transcripts with >fourfold differential expression between Wig-1 and control small interfering (si)RNA-treated HCT116 cells. Several p53 target genes were among the deregulated transcripts. We found that Wig-1 regulates FAS and 14-3-3? mRNA independently of p53. We show that Wig-1 binds to FAS mRNA 3'-UTR and decreases its stability through an ARE in the 3'-UTR. Depletion of Wig-1 was associated with increased cell death and reduced cell cycle arrest upon DNA damage. Our results suggest a role of Wig-1 as a survival factor that directs the p53 stress response toward cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis through the regulation of FAS and 14-3-3? mRNA levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Wig-1 is a transcription factor regulated by p53 that can interact with hnRNP A2/B1, RNA Helicase A, and dsRNAs, which plays an important role in RNA and protein stabilization. in vitro studies have shown that wig-1 binds p53 mRNA and stabilizes it by protecting it from deadenylation. Furthermore, p53 has been implicated as a causal factor in neurodegenerative diseases based in part on its selective regulatory function on gene expression, including genes which, in turn, also possess regulatory functions on gene expression. In this study we focused on the wig-1 transcription factor as a downstream p53 regulated gene and characterized the effects of wig-1 down regulation on gene expression in mouse liver and brain. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) were identified that specifically target mouse wig-1 mRNA and produce a dose-dependent reduction in wig-1 mRNA levels in cell culture. These wig-1 ASOs produced marked reductions in wig-1 levels in liver following intraperitoneal administration and in brain tissue following ASO administration through a single striatal bolus injection in FVB and BACHD mice. Wig-1 suppression was well tolerated and resulted in the reduction of mutant Htt protein levels in BACHD mouse brain but had no effect on normal Htt protein levels nor p53 mRNA or protein levels. Expression microarray analysis was employed to determine the effects of wig-1 suppression on genome-wide expression in mouse liver and brain. Reduction of wig-1 caused both down regulation and up regulation of several genes, and a number of wig-1 regulated genes were identified that potentially links wig-1 various signaling pathways and diseases. CONCLUSION: Antisense oligonucleotides can effectively reduce wig-1 levels in mouse liver and brain, which results in specific changes in gene expression for pathways relevant to both the nervous system and cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth cause of mortality by neoplasia in women worldwide. The use of immunomarkers is an alternative tool to complement currently used algorithms for detection of cancer, and to improve selection of therapeutic schemes. Aberrant expression of Ezrin and E-cadherin play an important role in tumor invasion. In this study we analyzed Ezrin and E-cadherin expression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples, and evaluated their potential use as prognostic immunomarkers.<h4>Methods</h4>Immunocytochemical staining of Ezrin and E-cadherin was performed in cervical samples of 125 patients. The cytological or histological diagnostic was performed by Papanicolaou staining or H&E staining, respectively. HPV genotyping was determined using INNO-LIPA Genotyping Extra kit and the HPV physical status by in situ hybridization. Ezrin expression in HaCaT, HeLa and SiHa cell lines was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot.<h4>Results</h4>High Ezrin expression was observed in cervical cancer samples (70%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV (43%), and samples with integrated viral genome (47%). High Ezrin expression was associated with degree of SIL, viral genotype and physical status. In contrast, low E-cadherin expression was found in cervical cancer samples (95%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV/LR-HPV (87%) and integrated viral genome (72%). Low E-cadherin expression was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. Interestingly, Ezrin nuclear staining was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. High Ezrin expression, high percent of nuclear Ezrin and low E-cadherin expression behaved as risk factors for progression to HSIL and cervical cancer.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology samples could be a potential prognostic marker, useful for identifying cervical lesions with a high-risk of progression to cervical cancer.
Project description:To identify cellular genes that may be involved in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated immortalization mRNA differential display analysis was performed on preimmortal and subsequent immortal stages of four human keratinocyte cell lines transformed by HPV type 16 or 18 DNA. This yielded a cDNA fragment encoding the transcription factor GATA-3 that was strongly reduced in intensity in all immortal stages of the four cell lines. A marked reduction in both GATA-3 mRNA and protein expression in HPV-immortalized cell lines was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry and was also shown to be apparent in cervical carcinoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of cervical tissue specimens showed a clear nuclear staining for GATA-3 in normal cervical squamous epithelium (n = 14) and all cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 6) and CIN II lesions (n = 2). In contrast, 11% (1 of 9) of CIN III lesions and 67% (8 of 12) of cervical squamous cell carcinomas revealed a complete absence of GATA-3 immunostaining. Hence, complete down-regulation of GATA-3 expression represents a rather late event during cervical carcinogenesis. Whether GATA-3 down-regulation is etiologically involved in HPV-mediated immortalization and cervical carcinogenesis remains to be examined.
Project description:Wig-1 is a p53 target gene that encodes an RNA-binding protein involved in regulation of mRNA stability through binding to AU-rich elements (AREs). The aims of this study were to identify novel Wig-1 target mRNAs and to characterize the mechanisms of their regulation. Using a microarray approach, we identified 2447 transcripts with >4-fold differential expression between Wig-1 siRNA and control siRNA treated HCT116 cells. Among the deregulated transcripts we found a number of p53 target genes. We demonstrated that Wig-1increases 14-3-3M-OM-^C transcription while it binds to an ARE in the FAS 3M-bM-^@M-^YUTR and decreases the FAS mRNA stability. Furthermore, we show that Wig-1 depletion favours cell death rather that cell cycle arrest after DNA damage. We propose a role of Wig-1 in directing the p53 stress response towards cell cycle arrest rather than cell death through regulation of 14-3-3M-OM-^C and FAS mRNA levels. Use HEEBO microarrays to examine the effects of Wig-1 protein knockdown by siRNA silencing in HCT116 cells. 3 microarrays in total.
Project description:Analysis of wig-1 pathways via suppression of Wig-1 by antisense oligonucleotides Total RNA obtained from mouse brain subjected to antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatement compared to PBS (control), and negative control ASO brain treatment.
Project description:Wig-1 is a transcriptional target of the p53 tumor suppressor and encodes an mRNA stability-regulating protein. We show here that Wig-1 knockdown causes a dramatic inhibition of N-Myc expression and triggers differentiation in neuroblastoma cells carrying amplified N-Myc. Transient Wig-1 knockdown significantly delays development of N-Myc-driven tumors in mice. We also show that N-Myc expression is induced upon moderate p53-activating stress, suggesting a role of the p53-Wig-1-N-Myc axis in promoting cell cycle re-entry upon p53-induced cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Moreover, our findings raise possibilities for the improved treatment of poor prognosis neuroblastomas that carry amplified N-Myc.
Project description:TP53 is a critical tumor suppressor that is mutated in approximately 50% of human cancers. Unveiling the downstream target genes of TP53 that fulfill its tumor suppressor function is an area of intense investigation. Zmat3 (also known as Wig-1 or PAG608) is one such downstream target of p53, whose loss in hemopoietic stem cells lacking the apoptosis and cell cycle regulators, Puma and p21, respectively, promotes the development of leukemia. The function of Zmat3 in tumorigenesis however remains unclear. Here, to investigate which oncogenic drivers co-operate with Zmat3 loss to promote neoplastic transformation, we utilized Zmat3 knockout mice in models of c-MYC-driven lymphomagenesis and KrasG12D-driven lung adenocarcinoma development. Interestingly, unlike loss of p53, Zmat3 germline loss had little impact on the rate of tumor development or severity of malignant disease upon either the c-MYC or KrasG12D oncogenic activation. Furthermore, loss of Zmat3 failed to rescue KrasG12D primary lung tumor cells from oncogene-induced senescence. Taken together, we conclude that in the context of c-MYC-driven lymphomagenesis or mutant KrasG12D-driven lung adenocarcinoma development, additional co-occurring mutations are required to resolve Zmat3 tumor suppressive activity.
Project description:Purpose:High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR HPV) cause cervical cancer, and in these cancers, HPV type 16 is the most common HR type. The HR viral oncogenes E6 and E7 partner with cellular proteins to drive cancer and modulate immune pathways; previously, we demonstrated in keratinocytes that HPV 16 E6 and high expression of the endogenous host protein partner NFX1-123 led to the increased expression of multiple genes, including Notch1, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), and retinoic acid early transcript 1G (RAET1G). The present study was conducted to determine if NFX1-123 was highly expressed in cervical cancer and if genes increased by NFX1-123 and 16E6 in keratinocytes were also increased in cervical cancers. Materials and Methods:The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and The Human Protein Atlas database were used to compare relative mRNA and protein gene expression, respectively, in the normal cervix and cervical cancers. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) normal cervix and HPV 16 positive cervical cancer samples were analyzed for relative protein expression by immunohistochemical staining. Protein expression of a subset of regulated genes was quantified by Western blot of HPV positive and negative cell lines. Results:Immunohistochemical staining of HPV 16 positive cervical dysplasias and cancers revealed high NFX1-123, Ki67, and Notch1 expression. NFX1 and NFX1L1 mRNA levels were increased in cervical cancers compared to normal cervix in the TCGA database. Fourteen genes previously identified as upregulated in keratinocytes with 16E6 and overexpressed NFX1-123 also had high mRNA expression and selected genes had high protein expression in cervical cancers and cell lines. Conclusion:In cervical cancer, NFX1-123 is highly expressed, and 16E6 and NFX1-123 together alter the expression of a wide set of genes. The involvement of these genes in cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis provides further insight into potential ways that HR HPVs promote cancer initiation and maintenance.