Tumour-derived PTH-related protein triggers adipose tissue browning and cancer cachexia.
ABSTRACT: Cachexia is a wasting disorder of adipose and skeletal muscle tissues that leads to profound weight loss and frailty. About half of all cancer patients suffer from cachexia, which impairs quality of life, limits cancer therapy and decreases survival. One key characteristic of cachexia is higher resting energy expenditure levels than in healthy individuals, which has been linked to greater thermogenesis by brown fat. How tumours induce brown fat activity is unknown. Here, using a Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia, we show that tumour-derived parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has an important role in wasting, through driving the expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in adipose tissues. Neutralization of PTHrP in tumour-bearing mice blocked adipose tissue browning and the loss of muscle mass and strength. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP mediates energy wasting in fat tissues and contributes to the broader aspects of cancer cachexia. Thus, neutralization of PTHrP might hold promise for ameliorating cancer cachexia and improving patient survival.
Project description:Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with elevated basal energy expenditure and loss of adipose and muscle tissues. It accompanies many chronic diseases including renal failure and cancer and is an important risk factor for mortality. Our recent work demonstrated that tumor-derived PTHrP drives adipose tissue browning and cachexia. Here, we show that PTH is involved in stimulating a thermogenic gene program in 5/6 nephrectomized mice that suffer from cachexia. Fat-specific knockout of PTHR blocked adipose browning and wasting. Surprisingly, loss of PTHR in fat tissue also preserved muscle mass and improved muscle strength. Similarly, PTHR knockout mice were resistant to cachexia driven by tumors. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP and PTH mediate wasting through a common mechanism involving PTHR, and there exists an unexpected crosstalk mechanism between wasting of fat tissue and skeletal muscle. Targeting the PTH/PTHrP pathway may have therapeutic uses in humans with cachexia.
Project description:Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) are involved in cachexia associated with chronic kidney disease and cancer respectively. Tumor-derived PTHrP triggers adipose tissue browning and thereby leads to wasting of fat tissue in tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, elevated in 5/6 nephrectomized mice, PTH stimulates adipose tissue browning and wasting. Mice lacking the PTH/PTHrP receptor in their fat tissue are resistant to wasting of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Therefore, the PTH/PTHrP signaling in adipocytes should activate various pathways that contribute to hypermetabolism and muscle wasting. Overall design: Inguinal stroma-vascular fractions were cultured and differentiated into primary adipocytes. 8 days after differentiation, cells were treated with PTH(1-34) or PTHrP(1-34) (100 ng/ml each) for 4 hours.
Project description:Cancer is commonly associated with cachexia, a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by body weight loss, muscle wasting, adipose tissue atrophy and inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of multiple types of cancer, and enhances cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. To test, C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0% or 20% (w/v) alcohol for 3 months, then inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma cells subcutaneously in the right side of the hip and continued to feed with/without alcohol for 3 or 4 weeks. Alcohol intake upregulated ALDH1A1 expression and elevated retinoic acid (RA) content in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), which led to enhanced iWAT browning and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation, accelerating fat loss. Moreover, alcohol increased muscle loss through augmenting muscle protein degradation, cell apoptosis and inflammation. In addition, alcohol reduced satellite cell density and impaired myogenesis in skeletal muscle. Taken together, alcohol aggravates cancer-associated cachexia at least partially through elevating adipose browning and muscle atrophy.
Project description:Cachexia is a complex tissue-wasting syndrome characterized by inflammation, hypermetabolism, increased energy expenditure, and anorexia. Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the significant factors that contribute to energy wasting in cachexia. By utilizing a cell implantation model, we demonstrate here that the lipid mobilizing factor zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) induces WAT browning in mice. Increased circulating levels of ZAG not only induced lipolysis in adipose tissues but also caused robust browning in WAT. Stimulating WAT progenitors with ZAG recombinant protein or expression of ZAG in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) strongly enhanced brown-like differentiation. At the molecular level, ZAG stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and early B cell factor 2 expression and promoted their recruitment to the PR/SET domain 16 (Prdm16) promoter, leading to enhanced expression of Prdm16, which determines brown cell fate. In brown adipose tissue, ZAG stimulated the expression of PPARγ and PPARγ coactivator 1α and promoted recruitment of PPARγ to the uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) promoter, leading to increased expression of Ucp1. Overall, our results reveal a novel function of ZAG in WAT browning and highlight the targeting of ZAG as a potential therapeutic application in humans with cachexia.-Elattar, S., Dimri, M., Satyanarayana, A. The tumor secretory factor ZAG promotes white adipose tissue browning and energy wasting.
Project description:Increasing brown and beige fat thermogenesis have an anti-obesity effect and thus great metabolic benefits. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating brown and beige fat thermogenesis remain to be further elucidated. We recently found that fat-specific knockout of Rheb promoted beige fat thermogenesis. In the current study, we show that Rheb has distinct effects on thermogenic gene expression in brown and beige fat. Fat-specific knockout of Rheb decreased protein kinase A (PKA) activity and thermogenic gene expression in brown adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice. On the other hand, overexpression of Rheb activated PKA and increased uncoupling protein 1 expression in brown adipocytes. Mechanistically, Rheb overexpression in brown adipocytes increased Notch expression, leading to disassociation of the regulatory subunit from the catalytic subunit of PKA and subsequent PKA activation. Our study demonstrates that Rheb, by selectively modulating thermogenic gene expression in brown and beige adipose tissues, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis.
Project description:Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show that ablation of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R) improves insulin sensitivity during aging. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, old Ghsr(-/-) mice have reduced fat and preserve a healthier lipid profile. Old Ghsr(-/-) mice also exhibit elevated energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate, yet have similar food intake and locomotor activity. While GHS-R expression in white and brown adipose tissues was below the detectable level in the young mice, GHS-R expression was readily detectable in visceral white fat and interscapular brown fat of the old mice. Gene expression profiles reveal that Ghsr ablation reduced glucose/lipid uptake and lipogenesis in white adipose tissues but increased thermogenic capacity in brown adipose tissues. Ghsr ablation prevents age-associated decline in thermogenic gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Cell culture studies in brown adipocytes further demonstrate that ghrelin suppresses the expression of adipogenic and thermogenic genes, while GHS-R antagonist abolishes ghrelin's effects and increases UCP1 expression. Hence, GHS-R plays an important role in thermogenic impairment during aging. Ghsr ablation improves aging-associated obesity and insulin resistance by reducing adiposity and increasing thermogenesis. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonists may be a new means of combating obesity by shifting the energy balance from obesogenesis to thermogenesis.
Project description:Cachexia is a devastating pathology induced by several kinds of diseases, including cancer. The hallmark of cancer cachexia is an extended weight loss mainly due to skeletal muscle wasting and fat storage depletion from adipose tissue. The latter exerts key functions for the health of the whole organism, also through the secretion of several adipokines. These hormones induce a plethora of effects in target tissues, ranging from metabolic to differentiating ones. Conversely, the decrease of the circulating level of several adipokines positively correlates with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. A lot of findings suggest that cancer cachexia is associated with changed secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue. In agreement, cachectic patients show often altered circulating levels of adipokines. This review reported the findings of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, apelin, and visfatin) in cancer cachexia, highlighting that to study in-depth the involvement of these hormones in this pathology could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Loss of body weight, especially loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle weight, characterizes cancer-associated cachexia (CAC). Clinically, therapeutic options for CAC are limited due to the complicated signaling between cancer and other organs. Recent research advances show that adipose tissues play a critical role during thermogenesis, glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism. Understanding the adipocyte lipolysis, the formation of beige adipocytes, and the activation of brown adipocytes is vital for novel therapies for metabolic syndromes like CAC. The system-level crosstalk between adipose tissue and other organs involves adipocyte lipolysis, white adipose tissue browning, and secreted factors and metabolites. Novel CAC animal models and accumulating molecular signaling knowledge have provided mechanisms that may ultimately be translated into future therapeutic possibilities that benefit CAC patients. This mini review discusses the role of adipose tissue in CAC development, mechanism, and therapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The T-box gene Tbx15 is abundantly expressed in adipose tissues, especially subcutaneous and brown fat. Although its expression is correlated with obesity, its precise biological role in adipose tissue is poorly understood in vivo. Here we investigated the function of Tbx15 in brown adipose thermogenesis and white adipose browning in vivo. METHODS:In the present study, we generated adipose-specific Tbx15 knockout (AKO) mice by crossing Tbx15 floxed mice with adiponectin-Cre mice to delineate Tbx15 function in adipose tissues. We systematically investigated the influence of Tbx15 on brown adipose thermogenesis and white adipose browning in mice, as well as the possible underlying molecular mechanism. RESULTS:Upon cold exposure, adipocyte browning in inguinal adipose tissue was significantly impaired in Tbx15 AKO mice. Furthermore, ablation of Tbx15 blocked adipocyte browning induced by β3 adrenergic agonist CL 316243, which did not appear to alter the expression of Tbx15. Analysis of DNA binding sites using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that TBX15 bound directly to a key region in the Prdm16 promoter, indicating it regulates transcription of Prdm16, the master gene for adipocyte thermogenesis and browning. Compared to control mice, Tbx15 AKO mice displayed increased body weight gain and decreased whole body energy expenditure in response to high fat diets. CONCLUSION:Taken together, these findings suggest that Tbx15 regulates adipocyte browning and might be a potential target for the treatment of obesity.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by many cell types. IL-15 is also produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscle and has been reported to reduce weight gain in mice. Contrarily, our findings on IL-15 knockout (KO) mice indicate that IL-15 promotes obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pro-obesity role of IL-15 in adipose tissues.<h4>Methods</h4>Control and IL-15 KO mice were maintained on high fat diet (HFD) or normal control diet. After 16 weeks, body weight, adipose tissue and skeletal mass, serum lipid levels and gene/protein expression in the adipose tissues were evaluated. The effect of IL-15 on thermogenesis and oxygen consumption was also studied in primary cultures of adipocytes differentiated from mouse preadipocyte and human stem cells.<h4>Results</h4>Our results show that IL-15 deficiency prevents diet-induced weight gain and accumulation of lipids in visceral and subcutaneous white and brown adipose tissues. Gene expression analysis also revealed elevated expression of genes associated with adaptive thermogenesis in the brown and subcutaneous adipose tissues of IL-15 KO mice. Accordingly, oxygen consumption was increased in the brown adipocytes from IL-15 KO mice. In addition, IL-15 KO mice showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in their adipose tissues.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Absence of IL-15 results in decreased accumulation of fat in the white adipose tissues and increased lipid utilization via adaptive thermogenesis. IL-15 also promotes inflammation in adipose tissues that could sustain chronic inflammation leading to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome.