Case fatality rate and associated factors in patients with 22q11 microdeletion syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion is the most commonly occurring known microdeletion syndrome. Deaths related to the syndrome have been reported, but the magnitude of death has not been quantified. This study evaluated the deletion's impact on survival and its clinical manifestations in a large cohort of Chilean patients.Demographic and clinical data of individuals with 22q11 deletions diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were collected from medical records and death certificates. Case fatality rate was calculated and compared with national vital statistics. OR with 95% CI analysis was used to assess the association between clinical manifestations and death.Genetic services in tertiary care centres in Chile, following patients with 22q11.2 deletion.Fatality rate and associated factors.59 of 419 patients (14.1%) died during the study period at a median of 3.4 months (range 0 to 32 years of age). Factors associated with death included congenital heart disease (OR 5.27; 95% CI 2.06 to 13.99; p<0.0001), hypocalcaemia (OR 4.27; 95% CI 1.67 to 11.15; p<0.002) and airway malacia (OR 13.37; 95% CI 1.19 to 110.51; p<0.002). Patients with deletions and defects such as tetralogy of Fallot with or without pulmonary atraesia, truncus arteriosus or ventricular septal defect, had a 2.6-fold to 4.6-fold higher death rate compared with nationwide reports for the same types of defects.In this cohort, we observed a death rate of 14.1%, implying that one in seven patients with 22q11 deletion died during the study period. Significant associations with cardiac defects, hypocalcaemia and airway malacia were observed. Furthermore, the death risk in patients with 22q11 deletion and cardiac defects exceeded the global figures observed in Chile for infants with structurally similar but apparently isolated anomalies. These observations indicate a need to identify patients who may require specific perioperative management to improve survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS) is caused by deletion of chromosome region 22q11.2. However, mosaic cases with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are rarely reported. METHODS:Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to analyze the copy number alterations. Clinical examinations related to 22q11.2DS were performed on the carrier in this family. RESULTS:A healthy female in a Chinese family with a history of two pregnancies with conotruncal defects, one with pulmonary atresia (PA) and another with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) was recruited in this study. CMA revealed that the fetus with TOF has a microdeletion on the 22q11.2 locus, and his mother was further confirmed a somatic mosaicism of 22q11.2 microdeletion by interphase FISH. Somatic mosaic 22q11.2 deletion in the mother was validated in the metaphase lymphocytes. Clinical examinations related to 22q11.2DS showed that the mother had hypocalcemia and low percentages of CD4 + T helper cells. The family history of recurrent fetal conotruncal defects and genetic results demonstrated the inherited possibility of maternal germline mosaicism of the 22q11.2 microdeletion. CONCLUSION:Our report was the first case in a Chinese family to present that a somatic and suspected gonadal mosaicism of the 22q11.2 microdeletion in female causes recurrent fetal conotruncal defects.
Project description:Introduction:Deletion 22q11.2 occurs in 1:4,000-1:6,000 live births while 10p13p14 deletion is found in 1:200,000 newborns. Both deletions have similar clinical features such as congenital heart disease and immunological anomalies. Objective:We looked for a 22q11.2 deletion in Mexican patients with craniofacial dysmorphisms suggestive of DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndromes and at least one major phenotypic feature (cardiac anomaly, immune deficiency, palatal defects or development delay). Methods:A prospective study of 39 patients recruited in 2012-2015 at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social at Guadalajara, Mexico. The patients with velocardiofacial syndrome-like features or a confirmed tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or complex cardiopathy were studied by G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a dual TUPLE1(HIRA)/ARSA or TUPLE1(22q11)/22q13(SHANK3) probe, six patients without the 22q11.2 deletion (arbitrarily selected) were tested with the dual DiGeorge II (10p14)/D10Z1 probe. Results:Twenty-two patients (7 males and 15 females) had the 22q11.2 deletion and 17/39 did not have it; no patient had a 10p loss. Among the 22 deleted patients, 19 had congenital heart disease (mostly TOF). Twelve patients without deletion had heart defects such as TOF (4/12), isolate ventricular septal defect (2/12) or other disorders (6/12). Conclusion:In our small sample about ~56% of the patients, regardless of the clinical diagnosis, had the expected 22q11.2 deletion. We remark the importance of early cytogenetic diagnosis in order to achieve a proper integral management of the patients and their families.
Project description:The most common microdeletion in humans involves the 22q11 region. Congenital anomalies associated with 22q11 loss include cardiac and facial defects. Less frequent is the co-presentation of malignant rhabdoid tumors that are highly aggressive childhood malignancies typically found in renal or extra-renal soft tissues and central nervous system. A newborn patient presented with multiple congenital anomalies consistent with 22q11 deletion syndrome including cleft lip and palate, ear tags and ventricular septal defects co-presenting with an axillary rhabdoid tumor. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed a 2.8 Mb germline deletion in the 22q11.2 region containing genes required for normal fetal development and the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene. Analysis of tumor DNA revealed a somatic deletion of exon 7 in the second allele of SMARCB1. Expression of SMARCB1 was absent, while tumor markers including MYC, GFAP, and CLAUDIN-6 were upregulated. The presence of tandem oriented BCRL modules located within interspersed low copy repeat elements throughout the 22q11 distal region may predispose this area for microdeletions through nonalleleic homologous recombination.
Project description:The presence of chromosome-specific low-copy repeats (LCRs) predisposes chromosome 22 to deletions and duplications. The current diagnostic procedure for detecting aberrations at 22q11.2 is chromosomal analysis coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or PCR-based multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). However, there are copy number variations (CNVs) in 22q11.2 that are only detected by high-resolution platforms such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We report on development of a high-definition MLPA (MLPA-HD) 22q11 kit that detects copy number changes at 37 loci on the long arm of chromosome 22. These include the 3-Mb region commonly deleted in DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS), the cat eye syndrome (CES) region, and more distal regions in 22q11 that have recently been shown to be deleted. We have used this MLPA-HD probe set to analyze 363 previously well-characterized samples with a variety of different rearrangements at 22q11 and demonstrate that it can detect copy number alterations with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition to detection of the common recurrent deletions associated with DGS/VCFS, variant and novel chromosome 22 aberrations have been detected. These include duplications within as well as deletions distal to this region. Further, the MLPA-HD detects deletion endpoint differences between patients with the common 3-Mb deletion. The MLPA-HD kit is proposed as a cost effective alternative to the currently available detection methods for individuals with features of the 22q11 aberrations. In patients with the relevant phenotypic characteristics, this MLPA-HD probe set could replace FISH for the clinical diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions and duplications.
Project description:We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.
Project description:The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common deletion syndromes in newborns. Some affected newborns may be diagnosed shortly after birth because of the presence of heart defects, palatal defects, or severe immune deficiencies. However, diagnosis is often delayed in patients presenting with other associated conditions that would benefit from early recognition and treatment, such as speech delays, learning difficulties, and schizophrenia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the gold standard for deletion detection, but it is costly and time consuming and requires a whole blood specimen. Our goal was to develop a suitable assay for population-based screening of easily collectible specimens, such as buccal swabs and dried blood spots (DBS). We designed a pyrosequencing assay and validated it using DNA from FISH-confirmed 22q11 deletion syndrome patients and normal controls. We tested DBS from nine patients and paired buccal cell and venous blood specimens from 20 patients. Results were 100% concordant with FISH assay results. DNA samples from normal controls (n = 180 cell lines, n = 15 DBS, and n = 88 buccal specimens) were negative for the deletion. Limiting dilution experiments demonstrated that accurate results could be obtained from as little as 1 ng of DNA. This method represents a reliable and low-cost alternative for detection of the common 22q11.2 microdeletions and can be adapted to high-throughput population screening.
Project description:22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a developmental anomaly caused by a microdeletion on human chromosome 22q11. Although mouse models indicated Tbx1 as the gene responsible of the syndrome, the phenotypic spectrum of del22q11 patients is complex suggesting that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, probably during embryonic development, are crucial in delineating the pathogenesis of 22q11DS. In order to define cis-acting regulatory effects of 22q11Ds haploinsufficiency during development we analysed the expression pattern of MM16 mouse genes, that is the syntenic region to 22q11, in RNA from total embryos at different stages (from 4.5 dpc to 14.5 dpc; corresponding to pharyngeal development) by a low density microarray (22q11DS-chip). Keywords: time-course Overall design: Deletion of 22q11.2 chromosomal region causes the most common microdeletion syndrome in man with an incidence of approximately 1:4000 live births (Scambler, 2000). The major malformations include congenital heart defects such as truncus arteriosus (TA) and interrupted aortic arch type B (IAA-B), hypo/aplasia of the parathyroid glands, hypo/aplasia of the thymus gland, and craniofacial dysmorphism. However more than 180 clinical symptoms are due to 22q11 microdeletion (Ryan et al, 1997); in particular the psychiatric disorders are one of the more prevalent phenotype in adult patients (Basset et al., 2003). An unsolved question regarding 22q11 deletions is whether the associated congenital defects are caused by a single dose-dependent 22q11 gene or rather by the combined loss of multiple linked genes that may act in a common pathway or in parallel during a critical period of pharyngeal development. In order to answer to this question we have turned out our attention at analysing the expression level of 68 murine genes, 39 hortologues to human 22q11 genes and 29 mapping outside. The expression level of these 68 genes was analysed in mouse embryos at different stages (from 4.5 dpc to 14.5 dpc), corresponding to the pharyngeal development. The RNA reference used in this study was obtained by pooling different CD1 mouse embryos at 18.5 dpc; total RNA was isolated by the TRIZOL standard protocol (Invitrogen).
Project description:Chromosome 22q11 is characterized by the presence of chromosome-specific low-copy repeats or segmental duplications. This region of the chromosome is very unstable and susceptible to mutations. The misalignment of low-copy repeats during nonallelic homologous recombination leads to the deletion of the 22q11.2 region, which results in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). The 22q11.2 deletion is associated with a wide variety of phenotypes. The term 22q11DS is an umbrella term that is used to encompass all 22q11.2 deletion-associated phenotypes. The haploinsufficiency of genes located at 22q11.2 affects the early morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arches, heart, skeleton, and brain. TBX1 is the most important gene for 22q11DS. This syndrome can ultimately affect many organs or systems; therefore, it has a very wide phenotypic spectrum. An increasing amount of information is available related to the pathogenesis, clinical phenotypes, and management of this syndrome in recent years. This review summarizes the current clinical and genetic status related to 22q11DS.
Project description:Genomic disorders contribute significantly to genetic disease and, as detection methods improve, greater numbers are being defined. Paralogous low copy repeats (LCRs) mediate many of the chromosomal rearrangements that underlie these disorders, predisposing chromosomes to recombination errors. Deletions of proximal 22q11.2 comprise the most frequently occurring microdeletion syndrome, DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS), in which most breakpoints have been localized to a 3 Mb region containing four large LCRs. Immediately distal to this region, there are another four related but smaller LCRs that have not been characterized extensively. We used paralog-specific primers and long-range PCR to clone, sequence, and examine the distal deletion breakpoints from two patients with de novo deletions mapping to these distal LCRs. Our results present definitive evidence of the direct involvement of LCRs in 22q11 deletions and map both breakpoints to the BCRL module, common to most 22q11 LCRs, suggesting a potential region for LCR-mediated rearrangement both in the distal LCRs and in the DGS interval. These are the first reported cases of distal 22q11 deletions in which breakpoints have been characterized at the nucleotide level within LCRs, confirming that distal 22q11 LCRs can and do mediate rearrangements leading to genomic disorders.
Project description:The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common microdeletion disorder, with wide phenotypic variability. To investigate variation within the non-deleted allele we performed targeted resequencing of the 22q11.2 region for 127 patients, identifying multiple deletion sizes, including two deletions with atypical breakpoints. We cataloged ~12,000 hemizygous variant positions, of which 84% were previously annotated. Within the coding regions 95 non-synonymous variants, three stop gains, and two frameshift insertions were identified, some of which we speculate could contribute to atypical phenotypes. We also catalog tolerability of 22q11 gene mutations based on related autosomal recessive disorders in man, embryonic lethality in mice, cross-species conservation and observations that some genes harbor more or less variants than expected. This extensive catalog of hemizygous variants will serve as a blueprint for future experiments to correlate 22q11DS variation with phenotype.