Systematic review: interactions between aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and polymorphisms in relation to colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA). Long-term use of NSAIDs has been associated with lowered risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the use is hampered by adverse effects. Also, the anti-carcinogenic effects of NSAIDs are incompletely understood. Understanding biological effects of NSAIDs may help developing new preventive medical strategies. AIM: To identify gene-environment interactions between genetic variation and NSAID use in relation to risk of CRC. METHODS: We performed a PubMed literature search and all studies reporting original data on interactions between NSAIDs and polymorphisms in relation to CRC were evaluated. RESULTS: We found indications that aspirin interacted with rs6983267 close to MYC (encoding a transcription factor involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation) and NSAIDs interacted with rs3024505 and rs1800872 in or close to IL10 (encoding IL-10) in preventing CRC. Homozygous carriers of the variant allele of rs6983267 (ca. 25% of the population) halved their risk for CRC by aspirin use compared to homozygous wildtype carriers who did not benefit from aspirin intake. No interaction between use of NSAIDs and PTGS-2 (encoding COX-2) in relation to CRC risk was detected. Other findings of interactions between genes in inflammatory and oncogenic pathways and NSAIDs were considered suggestive. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of underlying biological effects of NSAIDs in relation to CRC is scarce and the basis for stratifying the patients for preventive treatment is not yet available. Further studies assessing interactions between long-term NSAID exposure and genetic variation in relation to CRC are warranted in large well-characterised prospective cohorts.
Project description:Red and processed meat have been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), whereas long-term use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the risk. The aim was to investigate potential interactions between meat intake, NSAID use, and gene variants in fatty acid metabolism and NSAID pathways in relation to the risk of CRC. A nested case-cohort study of 1038 CRC cases and 1857 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Gene variants in SLC25A20, PRKAB1, LPCAT1, PLA2G4A, ALOX5, PTGER3, TP53, CCAT2, TCF7L2, and BCL2 were investigated. CCAT2 rs6983267 was associated with the risk of CRC per se (p < 0.01). Statistically significant interactions were found between intake of red and processed meat and CCAT2 rs6983267, TP53 rs1042522, LPCAT1 rs7737692, SLC25A20 rs7623023 (pinteraction = 0.04, 0.04, 0.02, 0.03, respectively), and the use of NSAID and alcohol intake and TP53 rs1042522 (pinteraction = 0.04, 0.04, respectively) in relation to the risk of CRC. No other consistent associations or interactions were found. This study replicated an association of CCAT2 rs6983267 with CRC and an interaction between TP53 rs1042522 and NSAID in relation to CRC. Interactions between genetic variants in fatty acid metabolism and NSAID pathways and the intake of red and processed meat were found. Our results suggest that meat intake and NSAID use affect the same carcinogenic mechanisms. All new findings should be sought replicated in independent prospective studies. Future studies on the cancer-protective effects of aspirin/NSAID should include gene and meat assessments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many studies have suggested that the regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, has a protective effect and survival benefit on colorectal cancer (CRC). However, recent data suggest that CRCs have different responses to NSAIDs depending on the timing of NSAID initiation, duration of NSAID use, and molecular characteristics of the tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term prediagnostic aspirin use on the prognosis of stage III CRC. METHODS:From 2007 to 2009, patients who were diagnosed with stage III CRC were recruited, and their medical records were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into prediagnostic aspirin users (who used aspirin for more than three months continuously before CRC diagnosis) and non-users (who did not use of aspirin and NSAIDs). The two groups were compared in terms of recurrence, cancer-specific mortality, disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival. In an experimental study, three CRC cell lines (Caco2, SW480, and DLD-1) were pretreated with aspirin (1 mM) for four days or 28 days to make aspirin-resistant cells, treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 2 µM), and apoptosis was measured with flow cytometry using Annexin-V and propidium iodide double staining. RESULTS:Compared with the aspirin non-users (N=565), the prediagnostic aspirin users (N=121) were not different in terms of baseline characteristics including tumor characteristics, except for comorbidities and diabetes medication and statin use, which were higher in the prediagnostic aspirin users. Recurrence and cancer-specific mortality in stage III CRC were significantly higher in prediagnostic aspirin users than non-users (46.7% vs. 32.3%, P=0.003 and 32.2% vs. 19.8%, P=0.003, respectively). Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrated that DFS was significantly worse in prediagnostic aspirin users than non-users (HR, 1.525 (1.018-2.286); P=0.041). In cell line experiments, long-term aspirin pretreatment induced an increase in 5-FU-induced apoptosis in SW480 cells compared with control treatment without aspirin pretreatment. However, Caco2 cells showed a significant decrease of apoptosis in the same experiments and no change in DLD1 cells. CONCLUSION:Prediagnostic long-term aspirin use in stage III CRC could be a negative prognostic factor depending on the characteristics of the CRC.
Project description:Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer.To identify common genetic markers that may confer differential benefit from aspirin or NSAID chemoprevention, we tested gene?×?environment interactions between regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to risk of colorectal cancer.Case-control study using data from 5 case-control and 5 cohort studies initiated between 1976 and 2003 across the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany and including colorectal cancer cases (n=8634) and matched controls (n=8553) ascertained between 1976 and 2011. Participants were all of European descent.Genome-wide SNP data and information on regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and other risk factors.Colorectal cancer.Regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.64-0.74]; P?=?6.2?×?10(-28)) compared with nonregular use. In the conventional logistic regression analysis, the SNP rs2965667 at chromosome 12p12.3 near the MGST1 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with aspirin and/or NSAID use (P?=?4.6?×?10(-9) for interaction). Aspirin and/or NSAID use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs2965667-TT genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.61-0.70]; P?=?7.7?×?10(-33)) but with a higher risk among those with rare (4%) TA or AA genotypes (prevalence, 35% vs 29%; OR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.27-2.81]; P?=?.002). In case-only interaction analysis, the SNP rs16973225 at chromosome 15q25.2 near the IL16 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs (P?=?8.2?×?10(-9) for interaction). Regular use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs16973225-AA genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.62-0.71]; P?=?1.9?×?10(-30)) but was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer among those with less common (9%) AC or CC genotypes (prevalence, 36% vs 39%; OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.78-1.20]; P?=?.76).In this genome-wide investigation of gene?×?environment interactions, use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer, and this association differed according to genetic variation at 2 SNPs at chromosomes 12 and 15. Validation of these findings in additional populations may facilitate targeted colorectal cancer prevention strategies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk.<h4>Methods</h4>Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including <i>DPP10</i> (P<sub>G×E</sub> = 1.96 × 10<sup>-4</sup>), <i>KRT16</i> (P<sub>G×E</sub> = 2.3 × 10<sup>-4</sup>), <i>CD14</i> (P<sub>G×E</sub> = 9.38 × 10<sup>-4</sup>), and <i>CYP27A1</i> (P<sub>G×E</sub> = 1.44 × 10<sup>-3</sup>). There was a significant interaction between expression level of <i>RP11-89N17</i> and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (P<sub>G×E</sub> = 3.23 × 10<sup>-5</sup>). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2.<h4>Conclusions</h4>By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use.<h4>Impact</h4>These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.
Project description:Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) lower the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated whether plasma inflammatory markers were associated with risk of CRC and if use of anti-inflammatory drugs was differentially associated with risk of CRC according to levels of inflammatory markers.We measured levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR-2) in blood samples from 32,826 women, collected from 1989 to 1990. Through 2004, we documented 280 cases of incident CRC; each case was matched for age to 2 randomly selected participants without cancer (controls). Information on anti-inflammatory drug (aspirin and NSAIDs) use was collected biennially.Compared with women in the lowest quartile of plasma levels of sTNFR-2, women in the highest quartile had an increased risk of CRC (multivariate relative risk [RR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.68; P for trend = .03). Among women with high baseline levels of sTNFR-2, those who initiated aspirin/NSAID use after blood collection had significant reductions in subsequent risk of CRC (multivariate RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.86). In contrast, among women with low baseline levels of sTNFR-2, initiation of aspirin/NSAID use was not associated with significant risk reduction (multivariate RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.41-1.79). Plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 were not significantly associated with CRC risk.Plasma levels of sTNFR-2, but not CRP or IL-6, are associated with an increased risk of CRC. Anti-inflammatory drugs appear to reduce risk of CRC among women with high, but not low, baseline levels of sTNFR-2. Certain subsets of the population, defined by inflammatory markers, may obtain different benefits from anti-inflammatory drugs.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>There are clinical trial data on risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients at increased cardiovascular (CV) risk requiring chronic daily treatment. This study investigated whether risks of acute MI with real-world prescription NSAIDs, such as low-dose or intermittent use, vary according to an individual's CV profile.<h4>Methods</h4>Nested case-control analyses were carried out on an administrative health cohort from Quebec, Canada by randomly selecting 10 controls per case matched on age ± 1 year, sex, and month and year of cohort entry. We measured the additive joint effects on acute MI of current NSAID use and presence of hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), history of previous MI, or concomitant use of cardioprotective aspirin. The endpoint was the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). To verify the robustness of interaction findings, we performed sensitivity analyses with varying specifications of NSAID exposure-related variables.<h4>Results</h4>The cohort consisted of 233 816 elderly individuals, including 21 256 acute MI cases. For hypertension, CHD, and previous MI, we identified additive interactions on MI risk with some but not all NSAIDs, which also depended on the definition of NSAID exposure. Hypertension was sub-additive with naproxen but not with the other NSAIDs. Celecoxib and CHD were sub-additive in the primary analysis only (modelling NSAID dose on index date or up to 7 days before-best-fitting base model) whereas celecoxib and rofecoxib were super-additive with a history of previous MI in the secondary analysis only (modelling NSAID use on index date). For cardioprotective aspirin we found no evidence for an additive interaction with any of the NSAIDs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Alternative specifications of NSAID exposure concurred in finding that concomitant use of cardioprotective aspirin does not attenuate the risks of acute MI with NSAIDs. However we were unable to demonstrate consistent interactions between an individual's cardiovascular comorbidities and NSAID-associated acute MI. Our study highlights challenges of studying additive interactions in a healthcare database and underscores the need for sensitivity analyses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Regular aspirin use reduces the risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), possibly through inhibition of WNT/cadherin-associated protein β1 (CTNNB1 or β-catenin) signaling. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6983267 on chromosome 8q24 is a CRC susceptibility locus that affects binding activity of transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2) to CTNNB1, thereby altering expression of target oncogenes, including MYC.<h4>Methods</h4>We evaluated regular aspirin use and CRC risk according to genotypes of SNP rs6983267 and CTNNB1 expression status in two prospective case-control studies (840 CRC case patients and 1686 age- and race-matched control subjects) nested within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided.<h4>Results</h4>A lower risk of CRC was associated with regular aspirin use and the T allele of rs6983267. The effect of aspirin was confined to individuals with protective T allele of rs6983267 (additive matching factors-adjusted OR for T allele = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.74 to 0.94; P trend = .002; P interaction = .01). Additionally, the T allele of rs6983267 was associated with a reduced expression of MYC oncogene (P trend = .03). Moreover, among individuals with protective T allele, the effect of regular aspirin use was limited to those with positive nuclear CTNNB1 expression. In a functional analysis, in vitro treatment of LS174T cells (a cell line heterozygous for rs6983267) with aspirin was statistically significantly associated with higher G/T allelic ratio of TCF7L2 immunoprecipitated DNA (P = .03).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results support an influence of aspirin on WNT/CTNNB1 signaling and suggest that aspirin chemoprevention may be tailored according to rs6983267 genotype.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are preventive against cardiovascular disease (CVD) and several cancer types, but long-term use has been associated with significant health risks, resulting in conflicting recommendations on NSAID use for prevention of CVD and cancer. Previous research indicates that aspirin use increases with age and CVD risk factors and that a large percentage of the US population regularly use analgesics, including NSAIDs, but there has not been a recent, in-depth assessment of NSAID use prevalence, changes in use over time or predictors of NSAID use in the USA. METHODS:We used the cross-sectional, National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1988 to 1994 and three continuous cycles (1999-2004) to assess regular NSAID use prevalence, changes over time and predictors of regular NSAID use. RESULTS:Overall, regular NSAID use increased over time and varied by demographic features. Participants over 60 years of age, women, participants with high body mass index, increased waist circumference or heart disease were significantly more likely to be regular NSAID users. By contrast, non-Hispanic African American and Mexican American participants were significantly less likely to regularly use NSAIDs. CONCLUSIONS:This study uses a nationally representative data set (NHANES) to provide an exploration of regular NSAID use patterns over time, highlighting several demographic, lifestyle and clinical conditions associated with regular NSAID use. Understanding who is likely to regularly use NSAIDs enables more targeted messaging both for increasing the preventive benefits and for limiting the toxicities associated with regular use of NSAIDs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic inflammation may play an etiologic role in ovarian and endometrial cancer, and it is hypothesized that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) decrease the risk of developing these malignancies. No prospective study with a large multiethnic population has explored this hypothesis. METHODS:We investigated whether NSAID use was associated with risks of ovarian and endometrial cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Medication use of at least twice a week for ?1 month was assessed at baseline. Multivariable relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:During 13.3 years of follow-up, 275 ovarian and 620 endometrial incident cases were identified among approximately 64,000 women included in this analysis (16.5% African Americans, 30.8% Japanese, 7.7% Native Hawaiians, 18.9%, Latinas, and 26.0% whites). The RR (95% CI) for ovarian cancer associated with aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen were 0.87 (0.68-1.14), 0.97 (0.74-1.26), and 0.86 (0.67-1.12), respectively. The RR (95% CI) for endometrial cancer associated with aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen were 0.93 (0.79-1.10), 0.88 (0.74-1.05), and 0.96 (0.81-1.13), respectively. No heterogeneity across ethnic groups (P ? 0.29) or dose-response relation with increased duration of use (P(trend) ? 0.16) was observed. The results did not differ by tumor histology. CONCLUSIONS:We found no compelling evidence to support an association between the use of NSAIDs and risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers in a multiethnic population. IMPACT:It is unlikely that NSAID is involved in the etiology of endometrial and ovarian cancer.
Project description:Frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been shown to reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas in randomized trials. We examined the persistence of the protective effect after the cessation of randomized aspirin treatment and whether it is affected by the duration and frequency of subsequent NSAID use.We used data from the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study (AFPPS), in which 1121 subjects were randomly assigned to receive placebo or aspirin (81 or 325 mg/d) for 3 years. After the end of treatment and a follow-up colonoscopy, AFPPS participants were invited to remain under follow-up until their next surveillance colonoscopies, scheduled 3-5 years later. Information regarding use of NSAIDs during posttreatment follow-up was gathered periodically via questionnaires. Average weekly NSAID use was classified as sporadic (<2 days per week), moderate (2 to <4 days per week), or frequent (>or=4 days per week). The analysis was stratified according to randomized aspirin groups and posttreatment NSAID use; placebo subjects who later were sporadic NSAID users formed the reference group. The primary outcomes were all adenomas and advanced lesions. Adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed with generalized linear models. All statistical tests were two-sided.A total of 850 subjects underwent a posttreatment colonoscopy, on average 4 years after the end of study treatment. The protective effect of 81 mg of aspirin for colorectal adenomas persisted with continued posttreatment NSAID use. The risk of any adenoma among frequent NSAID users was 26.8% vs 39.9% among placebo subjects who later used NSAIDs sporadically (adjusted relative risk = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.98; P(trend) with NSAID use frequency = .03). The unadjusted absolute risk reduction was 13.1 percentage points (95% CI = -0.3 to 26.5 percentage points) (P = .07). Results for 325 mg of aspirin were similar, although not statistically significant. For advanced lesions, small numbers of endpoints limited the analysis, but findings among subjects randomly assigned to 81 mg of aspirin suggested a protective association regardless of posttreatment NSAID use.Long-term and frequent use of NSAIDs may enhance the chemopreventive effect of aspirin against colorectal neoplasia.