An intramolecular lock facilitates folding and stabilizes the tertiary structure of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1.
ABSTRACT: The cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans uses adhesin P1 to adhere to tooth surfaces, extracellular matrix components, and other bacteria. A composite model of P1 based on partial crystal structures revealed an unusual complex architecture in which the protein forms an elongated hybrid alpha/polyproline type II helical stalk by folding back on itself to display a globular head at the apex and a globular C-terminal region at the base. The structure of P1's N terminus and the nature of its critical interaction with the C-terminal region remained unknown, however. We have cocrystallized a stable complex of recombinant N- and C-terminal fragments and here describe a previously unidentified topological fold in which these widely discontinuous domains are intimately associated. The structure reveals that the N terminus forms a stabilizing scaffold by wrapping behind the base of P1's elongated stalk and physically "locking" it into place. The structure is stabilized through a highly favorable ?G(solvation) on complex formation, along with extensive hydrogen bonding. We confirm the functional relevance of this intramolecular interaction using differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism to show that disruption of the proper spacing of residues 989-1001 impedes folding and diminishes stability of the full-length molecule, including the stalk. Our findings clarify previously unexplained functional and antigenic properties of P1.
Project description:The archaeal ribosomal stalk complex has been shown to have an apparently conserved functional structure with eukaryotic pentameric stalk complex; it provides access to eukaryotic elongation factors at levels comparable to that of the eukaryotic stalk. The crystal structure of the archaeal heptameric (P0(P1)(2)(P1)(2)(P1)(2)) stalk complex shows that the rRNA anchor protein P0 consists of an N-terminal rRNA-anchoring domain followed by three separated spine helices on which three P1 dimers bind. Based on the structure, we have generated P0 mutants depleted of any binding site(s) for P1 dimer(s). Factor-dependent GTPase assay of such mutants suggested that the first P1 dimer has higher activity than the others. Furthermore, we constructed a model of the archaeal 50 S with stalk complex by superposing the rRNA-anchoring domain of P0 on the archaeal 50 S. This model indicates that the C termini of P1 dimers where translation factors bind are all localized to the region between the stalk base of the 50 S and P0 spine helices. Together with the mutational experiments we infer that the functional significance of multiple copies of P1 is in creating a factor pool within a limited space near the stalk base of the ribosome.
Project description:The P0 scaffold protein of the ribosomal stalk is mainly incorporated into pre-ribosomes in the cytoplasm where it replaces the assembly factor Mrt4. In analyzing the role of the P0 carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) during ribosomal stalk assembly, we found that its complete removal yields a protein that is functionally similar to Mrt4, whereas a chimeric Mrt4 containing the P0 CTD behaves more like P0. Deleting the P0 binding sites for the P1 and P2 proteins provoked the nuclear accumulation of P0?AB induced by either leptomycin B-mediated blockage of nuclear export or Mrt4 deletion. This effect was reversed by removing P1/P2 from the cell, whereas nuclear accumulation was restored on reintroduction of these proteins. Together, these results indicate that the CTD determines the function of the P0 in stalk assembly. Moreover, they indicate that in cells lacking Mrt4, P0 and its stalk base partner, the L12 protein, bind to pre-ribosomes in the nucleus, a complex that is then exported to the cytoplasm by a mechanism assisted by the interaction with P1/P2 proteins. Furthermore, in wild-type cells, the presence of nuclear pre-ribosome complexes containing P0 but not L12 is compatible with the existence of an alternative stalk assembly process.
Project description:Dynein ATPases power diverse microtubule-based motilities. Each dynein motor domain comprises a ring-like head containing six AAA+ modules and N- and C-terminal regions, together with a stalk that binds microtubules. How these subdomains are arranged and generate force remains poorly understood. Here, using electron microscopy and image processing of tagged and truncated Dictyostelium cytoplasmic dynein constructs, we show that the heart of the motor is a hexameric ring of AAA+ modules, with the stalk emerging opposite the primary ATPase site (AAA1). The C-terminal region is not an integral part of the ring but spans between AAA6 and near the stalk base. The N-terminal region includes a lever-like linker whose N terminus swings by approximately 17 nm during the ATPase cycle between AAA2 and the stalk base. Together with evidence of stalk tilting, which may communicate changes in microtubule binding affinity, these findings suggest a model for dynein's structure and mechanism.
Project description:In animal ribosomes, two stalk proteins P1 and P2 form a heterodimer, and the two dimers, with the anchor protein P0, constitute a pentameric complex crucial for recruitment of translational GTPase factors to the ribosome. To investigate the functional contribution of each copy of the stalk proteins, we constructed P0 mutants, in which one of the two C-terminal helices, namely helix I (N-terminal side) or helix II (C-terminal side) were unable to bind the P1-P2 dimer. We also constructed 'one-C-terminal domain (CTD) stalk dimers', P1-P2?C and P1?C-P2, composed of intact P1/P2 monomer and a CTD-truncated partner. Through combinations of P0 and P1-P2 variants, various complexes were reconstituted and their function tested in eEF-2-dependent GTPase and eEF-1?/eEF-2-dependent polyphenylalanine synthesis assays in vitro. Double/single-CTD dimers bound to helix I showed higher activity than that bound to helix II. Despite low polypeptide synthetic activity by a single one-CTD dimer, its binding to both helices considerably increased activity, suggesting that two stalk dimers cooperate, particularly in polypeptide synthesis. This promotion of activity by two stalk dimers was lost upon mutation of the conserved YPT sequence connecting the two helices of P0, suggesting a role for this sequence in cooperativity of two stalk dimers.
Project description:The modular structures of repeat proteins afford them distinct properties compared with globular proteins, enabling them to function in a large and diverse range of cellular processes. Here, we show that they can also have different folding mechanisms. Myotrophin comprises four ankyrin repeats stacked linearly to form an elongated structure. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we find that folding of wild-type myotrophin is initiated at the C-terminal repeats. However, close examination of the mutant chevron plots reveals that simple models are insufficient to describe all of the data, and double mutant analysis subsequently confirms that there are parallel folding pathways. Destabilizing mutations in the C-terminal repeats reduce flux through the wild-type pathway, making a new route accessible in which folding is initiated at the N-terminal repeats. Thus, the folding mechanism of the repeat protein is poised on a fulcrum: When one end of the molecule is perturbed, the balance shifts between the different nucleation sites. The vast majority of studies on small globular proteins indicate a single, well defined route between the denatured and native states. By contrast, the potential to initiate folding at more than one site may be a general feature of repeat proteins arising from the symmetry inherent in their structures. We show that this simple architecture makes it straightforward to direct the folding pathway of a repeat protein by design.
Project description:Protein synthesis on the ribosome requires translational GTPase factors to bind to the ribosome in the GTP-bound form, take individual actions that are coupled with GTP hydrolysis, and dissociate, usually in the GDP-bound form. The multiple copies of the flexible ribosomal stalk protein play an important role in these processes. Using biochemical approaches and the stalk protein from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus horikoshii, we here provide evidence that the conserved C terminus of the stalk protein aP1 binds directly to domain I of the elongation factor aEF-2, irrespective of whether aEF-2 is bound to GTP or GDP. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that four hydrophobic amino acids at the C terminus of aP1, Leu-100, 103, 106, and Phe-107, are crucial for the direct binding. P1 was also found to bind to the initiation factor aIF5B, as well as aEF-1?, but not aIF2?, via its C terminus. Moreover, analytical ultracentrifugation and gel mobility shift analyses showed that a heptameric complex of aP1 and aP0, aP0(aP1)(2)(aP1)(2)(aP1)(2), can bind multiple aEF-2 molecules simultaneously, which suggests that individual copies of the stalk protein are accessible to the factor. The functional significance of the C terminus of the stalk protein was also shown using the eukaryotic proteins P1/P2 and P0. It is likely that the conserved C terminus of the stalk proteins of archaea and eukaryotes can bind to translation factors both before and after GTP hydrolysis. This consistent binding ability of the stalk protein may contribute to maintaining high concentrations of translation factors around the ribosome, thus promoting translational efficiency.
Project description:Archaea and eukaryotes have ribosomal P stalks composed of anchor protein P0 and aP1 homodimers (archaea) or P1•P2 heterodimers (eukaryotes). These P stalks recruit translational GTPases to the GTPase-associated center in ribosomes to provide energy during translation. The C-terminus of the P stalk is known to selectively recognize GTPases. Here we investigated the interaction between the P stalk and elongation factor 2 by determining the structures of Pyrococcus horikoshii EF-2 (PhoEF-2) in the Apo-form, GDP-form, GMPPCP-form (GTP-form), and GMPPCP-form bound with 11 C-terminal residues of P1 (P1C11). Helical structured P1C11 binds to a hydrophobic groove between domain G and subdomain G' of PhoEF-2, where is completely different from that of aEF-1? in terms of both position and sequence, implying that such interaction characteristic may be requested by how GTPases perform their functions on the ribosome. Combining PhoEF-2 P1-binding assays with a structural comparison of current PhoEF-2 structures and molecular dynamics model of a P1C11-bound GDP form, the conformational changes of the P1C11-binding groove in each form suggest that in response to the translation process, the groove has three states: closed, open, and release for recruiting and releasing GTPases.
Project description:Alpha-conotoxins isolated from Conus venoms contain 11-19 residues and preferentially fold into the globular conformation that possesses a specific disulfide pairing pattern (C1-3, C2-4). We and others isolated a new family of chi-conotoxins (also called lambda conotoxins) with the conserved cysteine framework of alpha-conotoxins but with alternative disulfide pairing (C1-4, C2-3) resulting in the ribbon conformation. In both families, disulfide pairing and hence folding are important for their biological potency. By comparing the structural differences, we identified potential structural determinants responsible for the folding tendencies of these conotoxins. We examined the role of conserved proline in the first intercysteine loop and the conserved C-terminal amide on folding patterns of synthetic analogues of ImI conotoxin by comparing the isoforms with the regiospecifically synthesized conformers. Deamidation at the C-terminus and substitution of proline in the first intercysteine loop switch the folding pattern from the globular form of alpha-conotoxins to the ribbon form of chi/lambda-conotoxins. The findings are corroborated by reciprocal folding of CMrVIA chi/lambda-conotoxins. Substitution of Lys-6 from the first intercysteine loop of CMrVIA conotoxin with proline, as well as the inclusion of an amidated C-terminal shifted the folding preference of CMrVIA conotoxin from its native ribbon conformation toward the globular conformation. Binding assays of ImI conotoxin analogues with Aplysia and Bulinus acetylcholine binding protein indicate that both these substitutions and their consequent conformational change substantially impact the binding affinity of ImI conotoxin. These results strongly indicate that the first intercysteine loop proline and C-terminal amidation act as conformational switches in alpha- and chi/lambda-conotoxins.
Project description:The lateral stalk of ribosome is responsible for kingdom-specific binding of translation factors and activation of GTP hydrolysis that drives protein synthesis. In eukaryotes, the stalk is composed of acidic ribosomal proteins P0, P1 and P2 that constitute a pentameric P-complex in 1: 2: 2 ratio. We have determined the solution structure of the N-terminal dimerization domain of human P2 (NTD-P2), which provides insights into the structural organization of the eukaryotic stalk. Our structure revealed that eukaryotic stalk protein P2 forms a symmetric homodimer in solution, and is structurally distinct from the bacterial counterpart L12 homodimer. The two subunits of NTD-P2 form extensive hydrophobic interactions in the dimeric interface that buries 2400 A(2) of solvent accessible surface area. We have showed that P1 can dissociate P2 homodimer spontaneously to form a more stable P1/P2 1 : 1 heterodimer. By homology modelling, we identified three exposed polar residues on helix-3 of P2 are substituted by conserved hydrophobic residues in P1. Confirmed by mutagenesis, we showed that these residues on helix-3 of P1 are not involved in the dimerization of P1/P2, but instead play a vital role in anchoring P1/P2 heterodimer to P0. Based on our results, models of the eukaryotic stalk complex were proposed.
Project description:Lateral ribosomal stalk is responsible for binding and recruiting translation factors during protein synthesis. The eukaryotic stalk consists of one P0 protein with two copies of P1•P2 heterodimers to form a P0(P1•P2)? pentameric P-complex. Here, we have solved the structure of full-length P1•P2 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. P1 and P2 dimerize via their helical N-terminal domains, whereas the C-terminal tails of P1•P2 are unstructured and can extend up to ?125 Å away from the dimerization domains. (15)N relaxation study reveals that the C-terminal tails are flexible, having a much faster internal mobility than the N-terminal domains. Replacement of prokaryotic L10(L7/L12)?/L11 by eukaryotic P0(P1•P2)?/eL12 rendered Escherichia coli ribosome, which is insensitive to trichosanthin (TCS), susceptible to depurination by TCS and the C-terminal tail was found to be responsible for this depurination. Truncation and insertion studies showed that depurination of hybrid ribosome is dependent on the length of the proline-alanine rich hinge region within the C-terminal tail. All together, we propose a model that recruitment of TCS to the sarcin-ricin loop required the flexible C-terminal tail, and the proline-alanine rich hinge region lengthens this C-terminal tail, allowing the tail to sweep around the ribosome to recruit TCS.