Nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 suppress cell invasion by inhibiting respiratory complex-I activity via Bcl-2 family proteins.
ABSTRACT: Although the p53 tumor suppressor/transcription factor often accumulates in the cytoplasm of healthy cells, limited information is available on the cytoplasmic function of p53. Here, we show that cytoplasmic p53 suppresses cell invasion by reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis revealed that this function is mediated by Bcl-2 family proteins: Cytoplasmic p53 binds Bcl-w, liberating Bax, which then binds ND5, a subunit of respiratory complex-I, thereby suppressing complex-I activity and thus ROS production. The G13289A mutation of ND5, identified in cancer patients, prevents Bax/ND5 interactions and promotes ROS production and cell invasion. We also showed that Bcl-XL and Bak can substitute for Bcl-w and Bax, respectively, regulating complex-I activity and supporting the cytoplasmic function of p53; nuclear p53 also suppresses complex-I activity by inducing Bax expression. Studies in animal models support the notion that p53 and Bcl-2 family proteins exhibit these functions in vivo. This study demonstrates a link between p53 and Bcl-2 proteins as regulators of ROS production and cellular invasiveness, and reveals complex-I, especially ND5, as their functional target.
Project description:The effects and underlying mechanisms of butyrate and butyrate+niacin on apoptosis in sheep rumen epithelial cells were investigated. Cells were exposed to butyrate (0-140?mM) for 6?h. A low concentration (20?mM) of butyrate increased cell viability and promoted growth whereas high concentrations (40-140?mM) inhibited proliferation. Cells were then cocultured with 120?mM butyrate and niacin (0-100?mM) for 6?h. Niacin addition attenuated butyrate-induced cellular damage and promoted proliferation at 20-80?mM; 40?mM presented the optimal effect. Higher concentrations (100?mM) of niacin resulted in low cell viability. Subsequent experiments confirmed that 120?mM butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced the intracellular total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) versus the untreated control. Compared with 120?mM butyrate, cotreatment with 40?mM niacin significantly reduced the intracellular ROS content and increased the intracellular T-AOC. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 120?mM butyrate increased the proportion of apoptotic cells by 17.8% versus the untreated control, and 120?mM butyrate+40?mM niacin treatment reduced the proportion of apoptotic cells by 28.6% and 39.4% versus the untreated control and butyrate treatment, respectively. Treatment with 120?mM butyrate increased caspase-9 and p53 mRNA levels and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio versus the untreated control. Treatment with 120?mM butyrate+40?mM niacin downregulated the expression of caspase-3 and p53 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax versus butyrate treatment alone but had no effect on the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Thus, high concentrations of butyrate may induce rumen epithelial cell apoptosis by increasing oxidative stress and inducing caspase-9 and p53 expression. Cotreatment with niacin regulates apoptosis-related gene expression by reducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage and downregulating caspase-3 and p53 expressions to protect rumen epithelial cells against butyrate-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Although Bcl-2 family proteins were originally identified as key regulators of apoptosis, an impressive body of evidence has shown that pro-survival members of the Bcl-2 family, including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w, can also promote cell migration, invasion, and cancer metastasis. Interestingly, cell invasion was recently found to be suppressed by multidomain pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bax and Bak. While the mechanisms underlying these new functions of Bcl-2 proteins are just beginning to be studied, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as inducers of cell invasion and the production of ROS from mitochondrial respiration is known to be promoted and suppressed by the pro-survival and multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, respectively. Here, I review the evidence supporting the ability of Bcl-2 proteins to regulate cancer cell invasion and metastasis, and discuss our current understanding of their underlying mechanisms, with a particular focus on mitochondrial respiration and ROS, which could have implications for the development of strategies to overcome tumor progression.
Project description:Nuclear tumor suppressor p53 transactivates proapoptotic genes or antioxidant genes depending on stress severity, while cytoplasmic p53 induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis without gene transactivation. Although SIRT1, a p53 deacetylase, inhibits p53-mediated transactivation, how SIRT1 regulates these p53 multifunctions is unclear. Here we show that SIRT1 blocks nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic p53 in response to endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and triggers mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. ROS generated by antioxidant-free culture caused p53 translocation into mitochondria in wild-type mES cells but induced p53 translocation into the nucleus in SIRT1(-/-) mES cells. Endogenous ROS triggered apoptosis of wild-type mES through mitochondrial translocation of p53 and BAX but inhibited Nanog expression of SIRT1(-/-) mES, indicating that SIRT1 makes mES cells sensitive to ROS and inhibits p53-mediated suppression of Nanog expression. Our results suggest that endogenous ROS control is important for mES cell maintenance in culture.
Project description:Most existing cancer treatments involve high-cost chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with major side effects, prompting effort to develop alternative treatment modalities. It was reported that the combination of thermal-cycling hyperthermia (TC-HT) and phenolic compound exhibited a moderate cytotoxic effect against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of triple combination in PANC-1 cancer cells by adopting low-intensity pulsed electric field (LIPEF) to couple with TC-HT and CGA (chlorogenic acid). The study finds that this triple combination can significantly impede the proliferation of PANC-1 cells, with only about 20% viable cells left after 24h, whereas being non-toxic to normal cells. The synergistic activity against the PANC-1 cells was achieved by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, which were associated with up-regulation of p53 and coupled with increased expression of downstream proteins p21 and Bax. Further mechanism investigations revealed that the cytotoxic activity could be related to mitochondrial apoptosis, characterized by the reduced level of Bcl-2, mitochondrial dysfunction, and sequential activation of caspase-9 and PARP. Also, we found that the triple treatment led to the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Notably, the triple treatment-induced cytotoxic effects and the elevated expression of p53 and p21 proteins as well as the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, all could be alleviated by the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). These findings indicate that the combination of CGA, TC-HT, and LIPEF may be a promising modality for cancer treatment, as it can induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through accumulation of ROS in PANC-1 cells.
Project description:Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a natural antioxidant, has antitumor activity in different types of cancer cells. However the antitumor effect of ISL on human tongue squamous carcinoma cells (TSCC) is not clear. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of synthetic isoliquiritigenin (S-ISL) on TSCC and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. S-ISL was synthesized and elucidated from its nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and examined using high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of S-ISL on TSCC cells (Tca8113) were evaluated in relation to cell proliferation, apoptosis and adhesion, migration, and invasion using sulforhodamine B assay, fluorescence microscopy technique, flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and Boyden chamber assay. The associated regulatory mechanisms were examined using FCM and fluorescence microscopy for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, Gelatin zymography assay for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities, and Western blot for apoptosis regulatory proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax). Our data indicated that S-ISL inhibited Tca8113 cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion while promoting the cell apoptosis. Such effects were accompanied by downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ROS production. We conclude that S-ISL is a promising agent targeting TSCC through multiple anticancer effects, regulated by its antioxidant mechanism.
Project description:Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ?1 ?M (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G(0)/G(1)-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis.
Project description:The combination of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) and borneol (BO) protects against cerebral ischemia. However, the mechanism for their synergistic effect is unclear. In this study, an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) injured brain model was induced in microvascular endothelium cells (BMECs). TMPP and BO concentrations were optimized according to an MTT assay. Cells were divided into five groups: control, model, TMPP, BO, and TMPP+BO. Subsequently, oxidative stress was evaluated based on the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was detected using a laser confocal microscope. Cellular apoptosis was examined via Hoechst 33342 staining, flow cytometry, and expression of p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), BCL-2-like protein 4 (BAX), and caspase-3 mRNA. Angiogenesis was evaluated based on expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), and VEGFR2. Results showed that 5.0 ?M TMPP and 0.5 ?M BO were optimal. Monotherapy significantly enhanced CAT, BCL-2, and VEGF, and also reduced [Ca2+]i, apoptosis, and BAX. TMPP increased SOD, GSH-Px, and bFGF, and reduced MDA, ROS, p53, and caspase-3 levels. BO reduced VEGFR1 expression. TMPP+BO combination exhibited synergistic effects in decreasing apoptosis, and modulating expression of BCL-2, BAX, and VEGFR1. These results indicate that protection of OGD-injured BMECs by TMPP+BO combination involves anti-oxidation, apoptosis inhibition, and angiogenesis. Moreover, their synergistic mechanism was mainly related to the regulation of apoptosis and angiogenesis.
Project description:The current study investigates the cellular events which trigger activation of proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated × protein (Bax) in retinal cell death induced by all-trans-retinal (atRAL). Cellular events which activate Bax, such as DNA damage by oxidative stress and phosphorylation of p53, were evaluated by immunochemical and biochemical methods using ARPE-19 cells, 661 W cells, cultured neural retinas and a retinal degeneration model, Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. atRAL-induced Bax activation in cultured neural retinas was examined by pharmacological and genetic methods. Other Bax-related cellular events were also evaluated by pharmacological and biochemical methods. Production of 8-OHdG, a DNA damage indicator, and the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 were detected prior to Bax activation in ARPE-19 cells incubated with atRAL. Light exposure to Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice also caused the above mentioned events in conditions of short term intense light exposure and regular room lighting conditions. Incubation with Bax inhibiting peptide and deletion of the Bax gene partially protected retinal cells from atRAL toxicity in cultured neural retina. Necrosis was demonstrated not to be the main pathway in atRAL mediated cell death. Bcl-2-interacting mediator and Bcl-2 expression levels were not altered by atRAL in vitro. atRAL-induced oxidative stress results in DNA damage leading to the activation of Bax by phosphorylated p53. This cascade is closely associated with an apoptotic cell death mechanism rather than necrosis.
Project description:The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has frequently been reported in cancer studies; miRNAs play roles in development, progression, metastasis, and prognosis. Recent studies indicate that the miRNAs within the Dlk1-Dio3 genomic region are involved in the development of liver cancer, but the role of miR-1188 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the pathway by which it exerts its function remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that miR-1188 is significantly down-regulated in mouse hepatoma cells compared with normal liver tissues. Enhanced miR-1188 suppresses cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and inhibits the tumor growth of HCC cells in vivo. Moreover, overexpressed miR-1188 promotes apoptosis, enhances caspase-3 activity, and also up-regulates the expression of Bax and p53. MiR-1188 directly targets and negatively regulates Bcl-2 and Sp1. Silencing of Bcl-2 and Sp1 exactly copies the proapoptotic and anti-invasive effects of miR-1188, respectively. The expression of apoptosis- and invasion-related genes, such as Vegfa, Fgfr1, and Rprd1b, decreases after enhancement of miR-1188, as determined by gene expression profiling analysis. Taken together, our results highlight an important role for miR-1188 as a tumor suppressor in hepatoma cells and imply its potential role in cancer therapy.
Project description:Under conditions of genotoxic stress, human p53 activates the apoptotic effectors BAX or BAK to result in mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. Antiapoptotic BCL-2 family member BCL-xL opposes this activity by sequestering cytosolic p53 via association with its DNA-binding domain, an interaction enhanced by p53 tetramerization. Here we characterized the BCL-xL-p53 complex by NMR spectroscopy and modulated it through mutagenesis to determine the relative contributions of BCL-xL's interactions with p53 or other BCL-2 family proteins to the BCL-xL-dependent inhibition of UV irradiation-induced apoptosis. Under our experimental conditions, one-third of the antiapoptotic activity of BCL-xL was mediated by p53 sequestration and the remaining two-thirds through sequestration of proapoptotic BCL-2 family members. Our studies define the contributions of cytosolic p53 to UV irradiation-induced apoptosis and provide opportunities to explore its contributions to other p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathways.