Intracellular and extracellular domains of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRZ-B differentially regulate glioma cell growth and motility.
ABSTRACT: Gliomas are primary brain tumors for which surgical resection and radiotherapy is difficult because of the diffuse infiltrative growth of the tumor into the brain parenchyma. For development of alternative, drug-based, therapies more insight in the molecular processes that steer this typical growth and morphodynamic behavior of glioma cells is needed. Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRZ-B is a transmembrane signaling molecule that is found to be strongly up-regulated in glioma specimens. We assessed the contribution of PTPRZ-B protein domains to tumor cell growth and migration, via lentiviral knock-down and over-expression using clinically relevant glioma xenografts and their derived cell models. PTPRZ-B knock-down resulted in reduced migration and proliferation of glioma cells in vitro and also inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, expression of only the PTPRZ-B extracellular segment was sufficient to rescue the in vitro migratory phenotype that resulted from PTPRZ-B knock-down. In contrast, PTPRZ-B knock-down effects on proliferation could be reverted only after re-expression of PTPRZ-B variants that contained its C-terminal PDZ binding domain. Thus, distinct domains of PTPRZ-B are differentially required for migration and proliferation of glioma cells, respectively. PTPRZ-B signaling pathways therefore represent attractive therapeutic entry points to combat these tumors.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type Z (PTPRZ) is aberrantly over-expressed in glioblastoma and a causative factor for its malignancy. However, small molecules that selectively inhibit the catalytic activity of PTPRZ have not been discovered. We herein performed an in vitro screening of a chemical library, and identified SCB4380 as the first potent inhibitor for PTPRZ. The stoichiometric binding of SCB4380 to the catalytic pocket was demonstrated by biochemical and mass spectrometric analyses. We determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PTPRZ, and the structural basis of the binding of SCB4380 elucidated by a molecular docking method was validated by site-directed mutagenesis studies. The intracellular delivery of SCB4380 by liposome carriers inhibited PTPRZ activity in C6 glioblastoma cells, and thereby suppressed their migration and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in a rat allograft model. Therefore, selective inhibition of PTPRZ represents a promising approach for glioma therapy.
Project description:The R5 subfamily of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) comprises PTPRZ and PTPRG. A recent study on primary human glioblastomas suggested a close association between PTPRZ1 (human PTPRZ) expression and cancer stemness. However, the functional roles of PTPRZ activity in glioma stem cells have remained unclear. In the present study, we found that sphere-forming cells from the rat C6 and human U251 glioblastoma cell lines showed high expression levels of PTPRZ-B, the short receptor isoform of PTPRZ. Stable PTPRZ knockdown altered the expression levels of stem cell transcription factors such as SOX2, OLIG2, and POU3F2 and decreased the sphere-forming abilities of these cells. Suppressive effects on the cancer stem-like properties of the cells were also observed following the knockdown of PTPRG. Here, we identified NAZ2329, a cell-permeable small molecule that allosterically inhibits both PTPRZ and PTPRG. NAZ2329 reduced the expression of SOX2 in C6 and U251 cells and abrogated the sphere-forming abilities of these cells. Tumor growth in the C6 xenograft mouse model was significantly slower with the co-treatment of NAZ2329 with temozolomide, an alkylating agent, than with the individual treatments. These results indicate that pharmacological inhibition of R5 RPTPs is a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant gliomas.
Project description:The long non-coding RNA, urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) has been demonstrated to play important roles in various types of cancers. This study investigated the functional role of UCA1 in glioma and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. UCA1 was found to be highly up-regulated in glioma cells, and knock-down of UCA1 inhibited cell growth, invasion and migration, and also induced apoptosis in glioma cells. On the other hand, overexpression of UCA1 promoted cell proliferation, cell invasion and migration in glioma cells. Knock-down of UCA1 suppressed the activity of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, and treatment with lithium chloride restored the inhibitory effect of UCA1 knock-down on cell invasion and migration. More importantly, the aberrant expression of UCA1 was associated with chemo-resistance to cisplatin and temozolomide in glioma cells via interacting with Wnt/?-catenin signaling. In vivo studies showed that overexpression of UCA1 promoted the in vivo tumor growth of U87 cells in the nude mice. Clinically, UCA1 was found to be up-regulated in glioma tissues and higher expression level of UCA1 was correlated with poor survival in patients with glioma. Taken together, our results showed that UCA1 had a functional role in the regulation of glioma cell growth, invasion and migration, and chemo-resistance possibly via Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Project description:Background:High-grade glioma is the most pervasive and lethal of all brain malignancies. Despite advances in imaging technologies, discriminating between gliomas and other brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) often requires brain biopsy. Several reports show that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Z (PTPRZ) is highly expressed in glioblastoma, and we found that a soluble cleaved form of PTPRZ (sPTPRZ) was present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to determine whether the sPTPRZ level in CSF has utility as a diagnostic marker for glioma. Methods:Microarray datasets from normal brain tissue and brain tumors were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. PTPRZ protein expression in clinical specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Semiquantitative western blotting was used to measure sPTPRZ levels in CSF samples from patients with glioma, schwannoma, MS, or nontumor disorders. Results:Expression of PTPRZ mRNA and protein was markedly increased in glioblastoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and schwannoma tissues compared with control brain tissue. sPTPRZ was present at significantly elevated levels in the CSF of patients with glioma (grades 1-4), but not in patients with schwannoma or MS, compared with the control samples. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that sPTPRZ in CSF could discriminate between glioma and MS patients (area under the curve 0.9676; P < .0001). Conclusions:sPTPRZ in CSF is a promising diagnostic biomarker for glioma and could reduce the need for a surgical biopsy.
Project description:Glioma is one of the most common brain tumors, suggesting the importance of investigating the molecular mechanism of gliomas. We studied the roles of Ribonucleotide Reductase Regulatory Subunit M2 (RRM2) in glioma. Expressions of RRM2 are higher in glioma tissues evidenced by TCGA data, western blot and immunohistochemistry. RRM2 is negatively correlated with glioma patient's survival. RNA-seq showed that genes involved in apoptosis, proliferation, cell adhesion and negative regulation of signaling were up-regulated upon RNAi-mediated knock-down of RRM2. Cell phenotypes specific for stably knocking down RRM2 were determined using stable transfection in vitro. In an in vivo model, knock-down of RRM2 inhibited tumor growth and caused suppression of AKT and ERK1/2 signalings. Interfering RRM2 also down-regulated the expression of cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin, and elevated E-cadherin expression. Moreover, overexpression of RRM2 failed to increase the expression of cyclin B1, cyclin D1, and N-cadherin when phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 was suppressed by LY294002 or PD98059. These findings indicated that RRM2 is a positive regulator of glioma progression which contributes to the migration and proliferation of glioma cells through ERK1/2 and AKT signalings and might be a novel prognostic indicator for glioma patients.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ) is preferentially expressed in the central nervous system as two transmembrane receptor isoforms PTPRZ-A/B and one secretory isoform PTPRZ-S. Ptprz-knockout mice lacking the expression of all three isoforms show behavioral, learning, and neurological abnormalities, including increased exploratory activities to novelty, deficits in spatial and contextual learning, and reduced responses to methamphetamine, relative to wild-type mice. To investigate whether PTPRZ isoforms play distinct physiological roles, we herein performed behavioral studies on two knock-in mouse lines: One expresses the catalytically inactive Cys-1930 to Ser (CS) mutants of PTPRZ-A/B, while the other generated in the present study expresses catalytically active mutants of PTPRZ-A/B lacking the negative regulatory PTP-D2 domain and C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (?D2) instead of wild-type PTPRZ-A/-B. In contrast to Ptprz-knockout mice, neither increased responses to novelty in the open field nor memory impairments in the inhibitory-avoidance task were observed in Ptprz-CS or Ptprz-?D2 mice. However, the effects of methamphetamine on locomotor activity were significantly weaker in Ptprz-KO mice and CS mutant mice than in wild-type mice, but were normal in ?D2 mutant mice. Furthermore, microdialysis experiments revealed that methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens was reduced in Ptprz-KO mice and CS mutant mice. These results suggest that the extracellular region of PTPRZ, including the secretory isoform, is crucial for behavioral responses to novelty and the formation of aversive memories, whereas the PTPase activities of PTPRZ receptor isoforms are involved in regulating the dopaminergic system.
Project description:The six members of the contactin (CNTN) family of neural cell adhesion molecules are involved in the formation and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) and have been linked to mental retardation and neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism. Five of the six CNTNs bind to the homologous receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases gamma (PTPRG) and zeta (PTPRZ), but the biological roles of these interactions remain unclear. We report here the cocrystal structure of the carbonic anhydrase-like domain of PTPRZ bound to tandem Ig repeats of CNTN1 and combine these structural data with binding assays to show that PTPRZ binds specifically to CNTN1 expressed at the surface of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Furthermore, analyses of glial cell populations in wild-type and PTPRZ-deficient mice show that the binding of PTPRZ to CNTN1 expressed at the surface of oligodendrocyte precursor cells inhibits their proliferation and promotes their development into mature oligodendrocytes. Overall, these results implicate the PTPRZ/CNTN1 complex as a previously unknown modulator of oligodendrogenesis.
Project description:Protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ) is predominantly expressed in the developing brain as a CS proteoglycan. PTPRZ has long (PTPRZ-A) and short type (PTPRZ-B) receptor forms by alternative splicing. The extracellular CS moiety of PTPRZ is required for high-affinity binding to inhibitory ligands, such as pleiotrophin (PTN), midkine, and interleukin-34; however, its functional significance in regulating PTPRZ activity remains obscure. We herein found that protein expression of CS-modified PTPRZ-A began earlier, peaking at approximately postnatal days 5-10 (P5-P10), and then that of PTN peaked at P10 at the developmental stage corresponding to myelination onset in the mouse brain. Ptn-deficient mice consistently showed a later onset of the expression of myelin basic protein, a major component of the myelin sheath, than wild-type mice. Upon ligand application, PTPRZ-A/B in cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells exhibited punctate localization on the cell surface instead of diffuse distribution, causing the inactivation of PTPRZ and oligodendrocyte differentiation. The same effect was observed with the removal of CS chains with chondroitinase ABC but not polyclonal antibodies against the extracellular domain of PTPRZ. These results indicate that the negatively charged CS moiety prevents PTPRZ from spontaneously clustering and that the positively charged ligand PTN induces PTPRZ clustering, potentially by neutralizing electrostatic repulsion between CS chains. Taken altogether, these data indicate that PTN-PTPRZ-A signaling controls the timing of oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation in vivo, in which the CS moiety of PTPRZ receptors maintains them in a monomeric active state until its ligand binding.
Project description:Glioma is one of the most common tumors in the brain and complete cure still a challenge. The present research aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of circular RNA SMO (circSMO742) in glioma, via targeting miR-338-3p and regulating SMO expression. QRT-PCR was utilized to examine the expression profiles of circSMO742 and microRNA-338-3p (miR-338-3p) in glioma. SMO protein in glioma was tested via western blot. RNA pulldown assay and dual luciferase reporter assays were used to explore the targeting correlation between RNAs. MTT assay, transwell assays and flow cytometry were used to investigate cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and apoptosis, respectively. Tumor xenograft was done to ascertain the effect of circSMO742 knocking down on tumor growth. CircSMO742 and SMO were highly expressed in glioma tissues, while miR-338-3p expression was reduced. CircSMO742 together with SMO could promote cells proliferation, migration and invasion while inhibit cells apoptosis, whereas miR-338-3p showed negative impacts on the cell activity. Knocking down of circSMO742 suppressed glioma growing in vivo. CircSMO742 promoted glioma growth by sponging miR-338-3p to regulate SMO expression. Our research revealed a new molecular mechanism of glioma growth and provide a fresh perspective on circRNAs in glioma progression.
Project description:TRIM11 (tripartite motif-containing protein 11), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is known to be involved in the development of the central nervous system. However, very little is known regarding the role of TRIM11 in cancer biology. Here, we examined the expression profile of TRIM11, along with two stem cell markers CD133 and nestin, in multiple glioma patient specimens, glioma primary cultures derived from tumors taken at surgery and normal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). The oncogenic function of TRIM11 in glioma biology was investigated by knockdown and/or overexpression in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that TRIM11 expression levels were upregulated in malignant glioma specimens and in high-grade glioma-derived primary cultures, whereas remaining low in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stable cell lines, low-grade glioma-derived primary cultures and NSCs. The expression pattern of TRIM11 strongly correlated with that of CD133 and nestin and differentiation status of malignant glioma cells. Knock down of TRIM11 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GBM cells, significantly decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, and downregulated HB-EGF (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor) mRNA levels. Meanwhile, TRIM11 overexpression promoted a stem-like phenotype in vitro (tumorsphere formation) and enhanced glial tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. These findings suggest that TRIM11 might be an indicator of glioma malignancy and has an oncogenic function mediated through the EGFR signaling pathway. TRIM11 overexpression potentially leads to a more aggressive glioma phenotype, along with increased malignant tumor growth and poor survival. Taken together, clarification of the biological function of TRIM11 and pathways it affects may provide novel therapeutic strategies for treating malignant glioma patients.