Dysbindin-associated proteome in the p2 synaptosome fraction of mouse brain.
ABSTRACT: The gene DTNBP1 encodes the protein dysbindin and is among the most promising and highly investigated schizophrenia-risk genes. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbindin plays an important role in the regulation of neuroplasticity. Dysbindin was reported to be a stable component of BLOC-1 complex in the cytosol. However, little is known about the endogenous dysbindin-containing complex in the brain synaptosome. In this study, we investigated the associated proteome of dysbindin in the P2 synaptosome fraction of mouse brain. Our data suggest that dysbindin has three isoforms associating with different complexes in the P2 fraction of mouse brain. To facilitate immunopurification, BAC transgenic mice expressing a tagged dysbindin were generated, and 47 putative dysbindin-associated proteins, including all components of BLOC-1, were identified by mass spectrometry in the dysbindin-containing complex purified from P2. The interactions of several selected candidates, including WDR11, FAM91A1, snapin, muted, pallidin, and two proteasome subunits, PSMD9 and PSMA4, were verified by coimmunoprecipitation. The specific proteasomal activity is significantly reduced in the P2 fraction of the brains of the dysbindin-null mutant (sandy) mice. Our data suggest that dysbindin is functionally interrelated to the ubiquitin-proteasome system and offer a molecular repertoire for future study of dysbindin functional networks in brain.
Project description:Dysbindin was identified as a dystrobrevin-binding protein potentially involved in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Subsequently, genetic studies have implicated variants of the human dysbindin-encoding gene, DTNBP1, in the pathogeneses of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and schizophrenia. The protein is a stable component of a multisubunit complex termed BLOC-1 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1). In the present study, the significance of the dystrobrevin-dysbindin interaction for BLOC-1 function was examined. Yeast two-hybrid analyses, and binding assays using recombinant proteins, demonstrated direct interaction involving coiled-coil-forming regions in both dysbindin and the dystrobrevins. However, recombinant proteins bearing the coiled-coil-forming regions of the dystrobrevins failed to bind endogenous BLOC-1 from HeLa cells or mouse brain or muscle, under conditions in which they bound the Dp71 isoform of dystrophin. Immunoprecipitation of endogenous dysbindin from brain or muscle resulted in robust co-immunoprecipitation of the pallidin subunit of BLOC-1 but no specific co-immunoprecipitation of dystrobrevin isoforms. Within BLOC-1, dysbindin is engaged in interactions with three other subunits, named pallidin, snapin and muted. We herein provide evidence that the same 69-residue region of dysbindin that is sufficient for dystrobrevin binding in vitro also contains the binding sites for pallidin and snapin, and at least part of the muted-binding interface. Functional, histological and immunohistochemical analyses failed to detect any sign of muscle pathology in BLOC-1-deficient, homozygous pallid mice. Taken together, these results suggest that dysbindin assembled into BLOC-1 is not a physiological binding partner of the dystrobrevins, likely due to engagement of its dystrobrevin-binding region in interactions with other subunits.
Project description:BLOC-1 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1) is critical for melanosome biogenesis and has also been implicated in neurological function and disease. We show that BLOC-1 is an elongated complex that contains one copy each of the eight subunits pallidin, Cappuccino, dysbindin, Snapin, Muted, BLOS1, BLOS2, and BLOS3. The complex appears as a linear chain of eight globular domains, ?300 ? long and ?30 ? in diameter. The individual domains are flexibly connected such that the linear chain undergoes bending by as much as 45°. Two stable subcomplexes were defined, pallidin-Cappuccino-BLOS1 and dysbindin-Snapin-BLOS2. Both subcomplexes are 1:1:1 heterotrimers that form extended structures as indicated by their hydrodynamic properties. The two subcomplexes appear to constitute flexible units within the larger BLOC-1 chain, an arrangement conducive to simultaneous interactions with multiple BLOC-1 partners in the course of tubular endosome biogenesis and sorting.
Project description:Membrane trafficking pathways must be exquisitely coordinated at synaptic terminals to maintain functionality, particularly during conditions of high activity. We have generated null mutations in the Drosophila homolog of pallidin, a central subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), to determine its role in synaptic development and physiology. We find that Pallidin localizes to presynaptic microtubules and cytoskeletal structures, and that the stability of Pallidin protein is highly dependent on the BLOC-1 components Dysbindin and Blos1. We demonstrate that the rapidly recycling vesicle pool is not sustained during high synaptic activity in pallidin mutants, leading to accelerated rundown and slowed recovery. Following intense activity, we observe a loss of early endosomes and a concomitant increase in tubular endosomal structures in synapses without Pallidin. Together, our data reveal that Pallidin subserves a key role in promoting efficient synaptic vesicle recycling and re-formation through early endosomes during sustained activity.
Project description:Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS; MIM 203300) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, prolonged bleeding and pulmonary fibrosis due to abnormal vesicle trafficking to lysosomes and related organelles, such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. In mice, at least 16 loci are associated with HPS, including sandy (sdy; ref. 7). Here we show that the sdy mutant mouse expresses no dysbindin protein owing to a deletion in the gene Dtnbp1 (encoding dysbindin) and that mutation of the human ortholog DTNBP1 causes a novel form of HPS called HPS-7. Dysbindin is a ubiquitously expressed protein that binds to alpha- and beta-dystrobrevins, components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DPC) in both muscle and nonmuscle cells. We also show that dysbindin is a component of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1; refs. 9-11), which regulates trafficking to lysosome-related organelles and includes the proteins pallidin, muted and cappuccino, which are associated with HPS in mice. These findings show that BLOC-1 is important in producing the HPS phenotype in humans, indicate that dysbindin has a role in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and identify unexpected interactions between components of DPC and BLOC-1.
Project description:Previous studies have implicated DTNBP1 as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene and its encoded protein, dysbindin, as a potential regulator of synaptic vesicle physiology. In this study, we found that endogenous levels of the dysbindin protein in the mouse brain are developmentally regulated, with higher levels observed during embryonic and early postnatal ages than in young adulthood. We obtained biochemical evidence indicating that the bulk of dysbindin from brain exists as a stable component of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), a multi-subunit protein complex involved in intracellular membrane trafficking and organelle biogenesis. Selective biochemical interaction between brain BLOC-1 and a few members of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) superfamily of proteins that control membrane fusion, including SNAP-25 and syntaxin 13, was demonstrated. Furthermore, primary hippocampal neurons deficient in BLOC-1 displayed neurite outgrowth defects. Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for the dysbindin-containing complex, BLOC-1, in neurodevelopment, and provide a framework for considering potential effects of allelic variants in DTNBP1--or in other genes encoding BLOC-1 subunits--in the context of the developmental model of schizophrenia pathogenesis.
Project description:Dysbindin is a schizophrenia susceptibility factor and subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1) required for lysosome-related organelle biogenesis, and in neurons, synaptic vesicle assembly, neurotransmission, and plasticity. Protein networks, or interactomes, downstream of dysbindin/BLOC-1 remain partially explored despite their potential to illuminate neurodevelopmental disorder mechanisms. Here, we conducted a proteome-wide search for polypeptides whose cellular content is sensitive to dysbindin/BLOC-1 loss of function. We identified components of the vesicle fusion machinery as factors downregulated in dysbindin/BLOC-1 deficiency in neuroectodermal cells and iPSC-derived human neurons, among them the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). Human dysbindin/BLOC-1 coprecipitates with NSF and vice versa, and both proteins colocalized in a Drosophila model synapse. To test the hypothesis that NSF and dysbindin/BLOC-1 participate in a pathway-regulating synaptic function, we examined the role for NSF in dysbindin/BLOC-1-dependent synaptic homeostatic plasticity in Drosophila. As previously described, we found that mutations in dysbindin precluded homeostatic synaptic plasticity elicited by acute blockage of postsynaptic receptors. This dysbindin mutant phenotype is fully rescued by presynaptic expression of either dysbindin or Drosophila NSF. However, neither reduction of NSF alone or in combination with dysbindin haploinsufficiency impaired homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Our results demonstrate that dysbindin/BLOC-1 expression defects result in altered cellular content of proteins of the vesicle fusion apparatus and therefore influence synaptic plasticity.
Project description:The ionophore valinomycin inhibited adult and neonatal synaptosome fraction protein synthesis with half-maximal inhibition at approximately 10nM. Valinomycin had no effect on [3H]leucine uptake into synaptosomes at high or low external [K+]. Synaptosome-fraction protein synthesis was dependent on [K+]e reaching a maximum at 25mM-K+. Valinomycin inhibition of protein synthesis was not reversed at high [K+]e. Valinomycin failed to influence the intrasynaptosomal [K+] even at zero [K+]e. A significant increase in State-4 respiration of synaptosomal fractions was found at 5nM-valinomycin with a decrease in the respiratory control index. At these concentrations of valinomycin there was no inhibition of the ADP-stimulated (State 3) respiration rate. Valinomycin had no effect on cerebral microsomal protein synthesis in vitro, which was inhibited by puromycin (100 micrograms/ml) or the absence of ATP. Valinomycin, 2,4-dinitrophenol and KCN inhibition of protein synthesis was not reversed by added ATP, suggesting impermeability of the membrane to ATP. Valinomycin induced a rapid fall in synaptosome ATP content not observed with atractylate or ouabain. Valinomycin inhibition of protein synthesis under these conditions is secondary to uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with a subsequent decrease in intraterminal ATP necessary for translation.
Project description:There is growing interest in the biology of dysbindin and its genetic locus (DTNBP1) due to genetic variants associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Reduced levels of dysbindin mRNA and protein in the hippocampal formation of schizophrenia patients further support involvement of this locus in disease risk. Here, we discuss phylogenetically conserved dysbindin molecular interactions that define its contribution to the assembly of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1). We explore fundamental cellular processes where dysbindin and the dysbindin-containing BLOC-1 complex are implicated. We propose that cellular, tissue, and system neurological phenotypes from dysbindin deficiencies in model genetic organisms, and likely individuals affected with schizophrenia, emerge from abnormalities in few core cellular mechanisms controlled by BLOC-1-dysbindin-containing complex rather than from defects in dysbindin itself.
Project description:Proteome modifications downstream of monogenic or polygenic disorders have the potential to uncover novel molecular mechanisms participating in pathogenesis and/or extragenic modification of phenotypic expression. We tested this idea by determining the proteome sensitive to genetic defects in a locus encoding dysbindin, a protein required for synapse biology and implicated in schizophrenia risk. We applied quantitative mass spectrometry to identify proteins expressed in neuronal cells the abundance of which was altered after downregulation of the schizophrenia susceptibility factor dysbindin (Bloc1s8) or two other dysbindin-interacting polypeptides, which assemble into the octameric biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). We found 491 proteins sensitive to dysbindin and BLOC-1 loss of function. Gene ontology of these 491 proteins singled out the actin cytoskeleton and the actin polymerization factor, the Arp2/3 complex, as top statistical molecular pathways contained within the BLOC-1-sensitive proteome. Subunits of the Arp2/3 complex were downregulated by BLOC-1 loss of function, thus affecting actin dynamics in early endosomes of BLOC-1-deficient cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arp2/3, dysbindin, and subunits of the BLOC-1 complex biochemically and genetically interact, modulating Drosophila melanogaster synapse morphology and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Our results indicate that ontologically prioritized proteomics identifies novel pathways that modify synaptic phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorder gene defects.The mechanisms associated with schizophrenia are mostly unknown despite the increasing number of genetic loci identified that increase disease risk. We present an experimental strategy that impartially and comprehensively interrogates the proteome of neurons to identify effects of genetic mutations in a schizophrenia risk factor, dysbindin. We find that the expression of the actin polymerization complex Arp2/3 is reduced in dysbindin-deficient cells, thus affecting actin-dependent phenotypes in two cellular compartments where dysbindin resides, endosomes and presynapses. Our studies indicate that a central cellular structure affected by schizophrenia susceptibility loci is the actin cytoskeleton, an organelle necessary for synaptic function in the presynaptic and postsynaptic compartment.
Project description:Environmental factors and susceptible genomes interact to determine the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Although few genes and environmental factors have been linked, the intervening cellular and molecular mechanisms connecting a disorder susceptibility gene with environmental factors remain mostly unexplored. Here we focus on the schizophrenia susceptibility gene DTNBP1 and its product dysbindin, a subunit of the BLOC-1 complex, and describe a neuronal pathway modulating copper metabolism via ATP7A. Mutations in ATP7A result in Menkes disease, a disorder of copper metabolism. Dysbindin/BLOC-1 and ATP7A genetically and biochemically interact. Furthermore, disruption of this pathway causes alteration in the transcriptional profile of copper-regulatory and dependent factors in the hippocampus of dysbindin/BLOC-1-null mice. Dysbindin/BLOC-1 loss-of-function alleles do not affect cell and tissue copper content, yet they alter the susceptibility to toxic copper challenges in both mammalian cells and Drosophila. Our results demonstrate that perturbations downstream of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene DTNBP1 confer susceptibility to copper, a metal that in excess is a neurotoxin and whose depletion constitutes a micronutrient deficiency.