Search by proteins for their DNA target site: 1. The effect of DNA conformation on protein sliding.
ABSTRACT: The recognition of DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) to their specific site often precedes by a search technique in which proteins slide, hop along the DNA contour or perform inter-segment transfer and 3D diffusion to dissociate and re-associate to distant DNA sites. In this study, we demonstrated that the strength and nature of the non-specific electrostatic interactions, which govern the search dynamics of DBPs, are strongly correlated with the conformation of the DNA. We tuned two structural parameters, namely curvature and the extent of helical twisting in circular DNA. These two factors are mutually independent of each other and can modulate the electrostatic potential through changing the geometry of the circular DNA conformation. The search dynamics for DBPs on circular DNA is therefore markedly different compared with linear B-DNA. Our results suggest that, for a given DBP, the rotation-coupled sliding dynamics is precluded in highly curved DNA (as well as for over-twisted DNA) because of the large electrostatic energy barrier between the inside and outside of the DNA molecule. Under such circumstances, proteins prefer to hop in order to explore interior DNA sites. The change in the balance between sliding and hopping propensities as a function of DNA curvature or twisting may result in different search efficiency and speed.
Project description:DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) rapidly search and specifically bind to their target sites on genomic DNA in order to trigger many cellular regulatory processes. It has been suggested that the facilitation of search dynamics is achieved by combining 3D diffusion with one-dimensional sliding and hopping dynamics of interacting proteins. Although, recent studies have advanced the knowledge of molecular determinants that affect one-dimensional search efficiency, the role of DNA molecule is poorly understood. In this study, by using coarse-grained simulations, we propose that dynamics of DNA molecule and its degree of confinement due to cellular crowding concertedly regulate its groove geometry and modulate the inter-communication with DBPs. Under weak confinement, DNA dynamics promotes many short, rotation-decoupled sliding events interspersed by hopping dynamics. While this results in faster 1D diffusion, associated probability of missing targets by jumping over them increases. In contrast, strong confinement favours rotation-coupled sliding to locate targets but lacks structural flexibility to achieve desired specificity. By testing under physiological crowding, our study provides a plausible mechanism on how DNA molecule may help in maintaining an optimal balance between fast hopping and rotation-coupled sliding dynamics, to locate target sites rapidly and form specific complexes precisely.
Project description:Rapid recognition of DNA target sites involves facilitated diffusion through which alternative sites are searched on genomic DNA. A key mechanism facilitating the localization of the target by a DNA-binding protein (DBP) is one-dimensional diffusion (sliding) in which electrostatic forces attract the protein to the DNA. As the protein reaches its target DNA site, it switches from purely electrostatic binding to a specific set of interactions with the DNA bases that also involves hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. High overlap between the DBP patches used for nonspecific and specific interactions with DNA may enable an immediate transition between the two binding modes following target site localization. By contrast, an imperfect overlap may result in greater frustration between the two potentially competing binding modes and consequently slower switching between them. A structural analysis of 125 DBPs indicates frustration between the two binding modes that results in a large difference between the orientations of the protein to the DNA when it slides compared to when it specifically interacts with DNA. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of in silico designed peptides comprising the full range of frustrations between the two interfaces show slower transition from nonspecific to specific DNA binding as the overlap between the patches involved in the two binding modes decreases. The complex search kinetics may regulate the search by eliminating trapping of the protein in semispecific sites while sliding.
Project description:Although the fast association between DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) and DNA is explained by a facilitated diffusion mechanism, in which DBPs adopt a weighted combination of three-dimensional diffusion and one-dimensional (1D) sliding and hopping modes of transportation, the role of cellular environment that contains many nonspecifically interacting proteins and other biomolecules is mostly overlooked. By performing large-scale computational simulations with an appropriately tuned model of protein and DNA in the presence of nonspecifically interacting bulk and DNA-bound crowders (genomic crowders), we demonstrate the structural basis of the enhanced facilitated diffusion of DBPs inside a crowded cellular milieu through, to our knowledge, novel 1D scanning mechanisms. In this one-dimensional scanning mode, the protein can float along the DNA under the influence of nonspecific interactions of bulk crowder molecules. The search mode is distinctly different compared to usual 1D sliding and hopping dynamics in which protein diffusion is regulated by the DNA electrostatics. In contrast, the presence of genomic crowders expedites the target search process by transporting the protein over DNA segments through the formation of a transient protein-crowder bridged complex. By analyzing the ruggedness of the associated potential energy landscape, we underpin the molecular origin of the kinetic advantages of these search modes and show that they successfully explain the experimentally observed acceleration of facilitated diffusion of DBPs by molecular crowding agents and crowder-concentration-dependent enzymatic activity of transcription factors. Our findings provide crucial insights into gene regulation kinetics inside the crowded cellular milieu.
Project description:Several DNA-binding proteins, such as topoisomerases, helicases and sliding clamps, have a toroidal (i.e. ring) shape that topologically traps DNA, with this quality being essential to their function. Many DNA-binding proteins that function, for example, as transcription factors or enzymes were shown to be able to diffuse linearly (i.e. slide) along DNA during the search for their target binding sites. The protein's sliding properties and ability to search DNA, which often also involves hopping and dissociation, are expected to be different when it encircles the DNA. In this study, we explored the linear diffusion of four ring-shaped proteins of very similar structure: three sliding clamps (PCNA, ?-clamp, and the gp45) and the 9-1-1 protein, with a particular focus on PCNA. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations were performed to decipher the sliding mechanism adopted by these ring-shaped proteins and to determine how the molecular properties of the inner and outer ring govern its search speed. We designed in silico variants to dissect the contributions of ring geometry and electrostatics to the sliding speed of ring-shaped proteins along DNA. We found that the toroidal proteins diffuse when they are tilted relative to the DNA axis and able to rotate during translocation, but that coupling between rotation and translocation is quite weak. Their diffusion speed is affected by the shape of the inner ring and, to a lesser extent, by its electrostatic properties. However, breaking the symmetry of the electrostatic potential can result in deviation of the DNA from the center of the ring and cause slower linear diffusion. The findings are discussed in light of earlier computational and experimental studies on the sliding of clamps.
Project description:The current report extends the facilitated diffusion model to account for conflict between the search and recognition binding modes adopted by DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) as they search DNA and subsequently recognize and bind to their specific binding site. The speed of the search dynamics is governed by the energetic ruggedness of the protein-DNA landscape, whereas the rate for the recognition process is mostly dictated by the free energy barrier for the transition between the DBP's search and recognition binding modes. We show that these two modes are negatively coupled, such that fast 1D sliding and rapid target site recognition probabilities are unlikely to coexist. Thus, a tradeoff occurs between optimizing the timescales for finding and binding the target site. We find that these two kinetic properties can be balanced to produce a fast timescale for the total target search and recognition process by optimizing frustration. Quantification of the facilitated diffusion model by including a frustration term enables it to explain several experimental observations concerning search and recognition speeds. The extended model captures experimental estimate of the energetic ruggedness of the protein-DNA landscape and predicts how various molecular properties of protein-DNA binding affect recognition kinetics. Particularly, point mutations may change the frustration and so affect protein association with DNA, thus providing a means to modulate protein-DNA affinity by manipulating the protein's association or dissociation reactions.
Project description:DNA recognition by DNA-binding proteins (DBPs), which is a pivotal event in most gene regulatory processes, is often preceded by an extensive search for the correct site. A facilitated diffusion process in which a DBP combines three-dimensional diffusion in solution with one-dimensional sliding along DNA has been suggested to explain how proteins can locate their target sites on DNA much faster than predicted by three-dimensional diffusion alone. Although experimental and theoretical studies have recently advanced understanding of the biophysical principles underlying the search mechanism, the process under in vivo cellular conditions is poorly understood. In this study, we used various computational approaches to explore how the presence of obstacle proteins on the DNA influences search efficiency. At a low obstacle occupancy (i.e., when few obstacles occupy sites on the DNA), sliding by the searching DBP may be confined, which may impair search efficiency. The obstacles, however, can be bypassed during hopping events, and the number of bypasses is larger for higher obstacle occupancies. Dynamism on the part of the obstacles may even further facilitate search kinetics. Our study shows that the nature and efficiency of the search process may be governed not only by the intrinsic properties of the DBP and the salt concentration of the medium, but also by the in vivo association of DNA with other macromolecular obstacles, their location, and occupancy.
Project description:This paper proposes a novel adaptive Super-Twisting sliding mode control for a microgyroscope under unknown model uncertainties and external disturbances. In order to improve the convergence rate of reaching the sliding surface and the accuracy of regulating and trajectory tracking, a high order Super-Twisting sliding mode control strategy is employed, which not only can combine the advantages of the traditional sliding mode control with the Super-Twisting sliding mode control, but also guarantee that the designed control system can reach the sliding surface and equilibrium point in a shorter finite time from any initial state and avoid chattering problems. In consideration of unknown parameters of micro gyroscope system, an adaptive algorithm based on Lyapunov stability theory is designed to estimate the unknown parameters and angular velocity of microgyroscope. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation results. The comparative study between adaptive Super-Twisting sliding mode control and conventional sliding mode control demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.
Project description:In this article, Smooth Super-twisting Sliding Mode Control (SSTWSMC) is investigated for the class of underactuated system. In underactuated systems, the control design is not directly applicable as for other systems (known as fully actuated systems). Therefore, at initial step, a nonlinear uncertain model of systems is transformed into the controllable canonical form, and then Smooth Super Twisting (SSTW) based Sliding Mode Control (SMC) is devised for the control design purpose for the considered class. In addition, closed loop stability of the proposed technique is presented in a fascinating way. The effectiveness and supremacy of the proposed control technique is proven by extensive analysis between conventional Sliding Mode Control (SMC), Super twisting (STW) sliding mode control and Smooth Super-twisting Sliding Mode Control (SSTWSMC). The comprehensive analysis evaluates the attributes like robustness enhancement, settling time, control effort, chattering reduction, overshoot, sliding mode convergence, etc. and is supported by simulations as well as practical implementation on ball and beam balancer (which is considered as application example).
Project description:Transcription factors search for specific operator sequences by alternating rounds of 3D diffusion with rounds of 1D diffusion (sliding) along the DNA. The details of such sliding have largely been beyond direct experimental observation. For this purpose we devised an analytical formulation of umbrella sampling along a helical coordinate, and from extensive and fully atomistic simulations we quantified the free-energy landscapes that underlie the sliding dynamics and dissociation kinetics for the LacI dimer. The resulting potential of mean force distributions show a fine structure with an amplitude of 1 k(B)T for sliding and 12 k(B)T for dissociation. Based on the free-energy calculations the repressor slides in close contact with DNA for 8 bp on average before making a microscopic dissociation. By combining the microscopic molecular-dynamics calculations with Brownian simulation including rotational diffusion from the microscopically dissociated state we estimate a macroscopic residence time of 48 ms at the same DNA segment and an in vitro sliding distance of 240 bp. The sliding distance is in agreement with previous in vitro sliding-length estimates. The in vitro prediction for the macroscopic residence time also compares favorably to what we measure by single-molecule imaging of nonspecifically bound fluorescently labeled LacI in living cells. The investigation adds to our understanding of transcription-factor search kinetics and connects the macro-/mesoscopic rate constants to the microscopic dynamics.
Project description:ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers are molecular machines that control genome organization by repositioning, ejecting, or editing nucleosomes, activities that confer them essential regulatory roles on gene expression and DNA replication. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism of active nucleosome sliding by means of molecular dynamics simulations of the Snf2 remodeler translocase in complex with a nucleosome. During its inchworm motion driven by ATP consumption, the translocase overwrites the original nucleosome energy landscape via steric and electrostatic interactions to induce sliding of nucleosomal DNA unidirectionally. The sliding is initiated at the remodeler binding location via the generation of a pair of twist defects, which then spontaneously propagate to complete sliding throughout the entire nucleosome. We also reveal how remodeler mutations and DNA sequence control active nucleosome repositioning, explaining several past experimental observations. These results offer a detailed mechanistic picture of remodeling important for the complete understanding of these key biological processes.