Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation.
ABSTRACT: Despite its economic relevance, little is known about salt tolerance mechanisms in pepper plants. To address this question, we compared differences in responses to NaCl in two Capsicum chinense varieties: Rex (tolerant) and Chichen-Itza (sensitive). Under salt stress (150 mM NaCl over 7 days) roots of Rex variety accumulated 50 times more compatible solutes such as proline compared to Chichen-Itza. Mineral analysis indicated that Na(+) is restricted to roots by preventing its transport to leaves. Fluorescence analysis suggested an efficient Na(+) compartmentalization in vacuole-like structures and in small intracellular compartments in roots of Rex variety. At the same time, Na(+) in Chichen-Itza plants was compartmentalized in the apoplast, suggesting substantial Na(+) extrusion. Rex variety was found to retain more K(+) in its roots under salt stress according to a mineral analysis and microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE). Vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux was higher in Chichen-Itza variety plants, suggesting a higher activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, which fuels the extrusion of Na(+), and, possibly, also the re-uptake of K(+). Our results suggest a combination of stress tolerance mechanisms, in order to alleviate the salt-induced injury. Furthermore, Na(+) extrusion to apoplast does not appear to be an efficient strategy for salt tolerance in pepper plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Na+ extrusion from cells is important for plant growth in high saline environments. SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1), an Na+/H+ antiporter located in the plasma membrane (PM), functions in toxic Na+ extrusion from cells using energy from an electrochemical proton gradient produced by a PM-localized H+-ATPase (AHA). Therefore, SOS1 and AHA are involved in plant adaption to salt stress. RESULTS:In this study, the genes encoding SOS1 and AHA from the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum (SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, respectively) were introduced together or singly into Arabidopsis plants. The results indicated that either SpSOS1 or SpAHA1 conferred salt tolerance to transgenic plants and, as expected, Arabidopsis plants expressing both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better under salt stress than plants expressing only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. In response to NaCl treatment, Na+ and H+ in the roots of plants transformed with SpSOS1 or SpAHA1 effluxed faster than wild-type (WT) plant roots. Furthermore, roots co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 had higher Na+ and H+ efflux rates than single SpSOS1/SpAHA1-expressing transgenic plants, resulting in the former amassing less Na+ than the latter. As seen from comparative analyses of plants exposed to salinity stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lowest in the co-transgenic SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 plants, but the K+ level was the highest. CONCLUSION:These results suggest SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 coordinate to alleviate salt toxicity by increasing the efficiency of Na+ extrusion to maintain K+ homeostasis and protect the PM from oxidative damage induced by salt stress.
Project description:Plants acclimate rapidly to stressful environmental conditions. Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to influence tolerance to stresses such as soil salinity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. To resolve this issue, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were grown under ambient (380 ?mol mol(-1)) or high (760 ?mol mol(-1)) CO2 in the absence or presence of sodium chloride (100mM). The higher atmospheric CO2 level induced the expression of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (SlRBOH1) and enhanced H2O2 accumulation in the vascular cells of roots, stems, leaf petioles, and the leaf apoplast. Plants grown with higher CO2 levels showed improved salt tolerance, together with decreased leaf transpiration rates and lower sodium concentrations in the xylem sap, vascular tissues, and leaves. Silencing SlRBOH1 abolished high CO2 -induced salt tolerance and increased leaf transpiration rates, as well as enhancing Na(+) accumulation in the plants. The higher atmospheric CO2 level increased the abundance of a subset of transcripts involved in Na(+) homeostasis in the controls but not in the SlRBOH1-silenced plants. It is concluded that high atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase salt stress tolerance in an apoplastic H2O2 dependent manner, by suppressing transpiration and hence Na(+) delivery from the roots to the shoots, leading to decreased leaf Na(+) accumulation.
Project description:SBP-box (Squamosa-promoter binding protein) genes are a type of plant-specific transcription factor and play important roles in plant growth, signal transduction, and stress response. However, little is known about the role of pepper SBP-box transcription factor genes in response to abiotic stress. Here, one of the pepper SBP-box gene, CaSBP12, was selected and isolated from pepper genome database in our previous study. The CaSBP12 gene was induced under salt stress. Silencing the CaSBP12 gene enhanced pepper plant tolerance to salt stress. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the detached leaves of CaSBP12-silenced plants was significantly lower than that of control plants. Besides, the Na+, malondialdehyde content, and conductivity were significantly increased in control plants than that in the CaSBP12-silenced plants. In addition, the CaSBP12 over-expressed Nicotiana benthamiana plants were more susceptible to salt stress with higher damage severity index percentage and accumulation of ROS as compared to the wild-type. These results indicated that CaSBP12 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in pepper may relate to ROS signaling cascades.
Project description:Sodium chloride (NaCl) induced expression of a jacalin-related mannose-binding lectin (JRL) gene in leaves, roots, and callus cultures of Populus euphratica (salt-resistant poplar). To explore the mechanism of the PeJRL in salinity tolerance, the full length of PeJRL was cloned from P. euphratica and was transformed into Arabidopsis. PeJRL was localized to the cytoplasm in mesophyll cells. Overexpression of PeJRL in Arabidopsis significantly improved the salt tolerance of transgenic plants, in terms of seed germination, root growth, and electrolyte leakage during seedling establishment. Under NaCl stress, transgenic plants retained K⁺ and limited the accumulation of Na⁺. PeJRL-transgenic lines increased Na⁺ extrusion, which was associated with the upward regulation of SOS1, AHA1, and AHA2 genes encoding plasma membrane Na⁺/proton (H⁺) antiporter and H⁺-pumps. The activated H⁺-ATPases in PeJRL-overexpressed plants restricted the channel-mediated loss of K⁺ that was activated by NaCl-induced depolarization. Under salt stress, PeJRL⁻transgenic Arabidopsis maintained reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by activating the antioxidant enzymes and reducing the production of O₂- through downregulation of NADPH oxidases. Of note, the PeJRL-transgenic Arabidopsis repressed abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, thus reducing the ABA-elicited ROS production and the oxidative damage during the period of salt stress. A schematic model was proposed to show the mediation of PeJRL on ABA response, and ionic and ROS homeostasis under NaCl stress.
Project description:The progress in plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance is handicapped by the lack of understanding of the specificity of salt stress signalling and adaptation at the cellular and tissue levels. In this study, we used electrophysiological, fluorescence imaging, and real-time quantitative PCR tools to elucidate the essentiality of the cytosolic Na+ extrusion in functionally different root zones (elongation, meristem, and mature) in a large number of bread and durum wheat accessions. We show that the difference in the root's ability for vacuolar Na+ sequestration in the mature zone may explain differential salinity stress tolerance between salt-sensitive durum and salt-tolerant bread wheat species. Bread wheat genotypes also had on average 30% higher capacity for net Na+ efflux from the root elongation zone, providing the first direct evidence for the essentiality of the root salt exclusion trait at the cellular level. At the same time, cytosolic Na+ accumulation in the root meristem was significantly higher in bread wheat, leading to the suggestion that this tissue may harbour a putative salt sensor. This hypothesis was then tested by investigating patterns of Na+ distribution and the relative expression level of several key genes related to Na+ transport in leaves in plants with intact roots and in those in which the root meristems were removed. We show that tampering with this sensing mechanism has resulted in a salt-sensitive phenotype, largely due to compromising the plant's ability to sequester Na+ in mesophyll cell vacuoles. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed.
Project description:The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the shoots was simultaneously promoted. PgTIP1 transformation into soybean plants enhanced the expression of some stress-related genes (GmPOD, GmAPX1, GmSOS1, and GmCLC1) in the roots and leaves under salt treatment. This indicates that the causes of enhanced salt tolerance of heterologous PgTIP1-transformed soybean are associated with the positive regulation on water relations, ion homeostasis, and ROS scavenging under salt stress both at root-specific and whole plant levels.
Project description:The salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, SOS1, that is mainly responsible for extruding Na+ from the cytoplasm and reducing the Na+ content in plants under salt stress and is considered a vital determinant in conferring salt tolerance to the plant. However, studies on the salt tolerance function of the TrSOS1 gene of recretohalophytes, such as Tamarix, are limited. In this work, the effects of salt stress on cotton seedlings transformed with tobacco-rattle-virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the endogenous GhSOS1 gene, or Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599-mediated TrSOS1-transgenic hairy root composite cotton plants exhibiting VIGS of GhSOS1 were first investigated. Then, with Arabidopsis thaliana AtSOS1 as a reference, differences in the complementation effect of TrSOS1 or GhSOS1 in a yeast mutant were compared under salt treatment. Results showed that compared to empty-vector-transformed plants, GhSOS1-VIGS-transformed cotton plants were more sensitive to salt stress and had reduced growth, insufficient root vigor, and increased Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in roots, stems, and leaves. Overexpression of TrSOS1 enhanced the salt tolerance of hairy root composite cotton seedlings exhibiting GhSOS1-VIGS by maintaining higher root vigor and leaf relative water content (RWC), and lower Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in roots, stems, and leaves. Transformations of TrSOS1, GhSOS1, or AtSOS1 into yeast NHA1 (Na+/H+ antiporter 1) mutant reduced cellular Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio, increased K+ level under salt stress, and had good growth complementation in saline conditions. In particular, the ability of TrSOS1 or GhSOS1 to complement the yeast mutant was better than that of AtSOS1. This may indicate that TrSOS1 is an effective substitute and confers enhanced salt tolerance to transgenic hairy root composite cotton seedlings, and even the SOS1 gene from salt-tolerant Tamarix or cotton may have higher efficiency than salt-sensitive Arabidopsis in regulating Na+ efflux, maintaining Na+ and K+ homeostasis, and therefore contributing to stronger salt tolerance.
Project description:Phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS)-mediated phosphatidylserine (PS) synthesis is crucial for plant development. However, little is known about the contribution of PSS to Na+ homeostasis regulation and salt tolerance in plants. Here, we cloned the IbPSS1 gene, which encodes an ortholog of Arabidopsis AtPSS1, from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.). The transient expression of IbPSS1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves increased PS abundance. We then established an efficient Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated in vivo root transgenic system for sweet potato. Overexpression of IbPSS1 through this system markedly decreased cellular Na+ accumulation in salinized transgenic roots (TRs) compared with adventitious roots. The overexpression of IbPSS1 enhanced salt-induced Na+/H+ antiport activity and increased plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+-permeable channel sensitivity to NaCl and H2O2 in the TRs. We confirmed the important role of IbPSS1 in improving salt tolerance in transgenic sweet potato lines obtained from an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system. Similarly, compared with the wild-type (WT) plants, the transgenic lines presented decreased Na+ accumulation, enhanced Na+ exclusion, and increased PM Ca2+-permeable channel sensitivity to NaCl and H2O2 in the roots. Exogenous application of lysophosphatidylserine triggered similar shifts in Na+ accumulation and Na+ and Ca2+ fluxes in the salinized roots of WT. Overall, this study provides an efficient and reliable transgenic method for functional genomic studies of sweet potato. Our results revealed that IbPSS1 contributes to the salt tolerance of sweet potato by enabling Na+ homeostasis and Na+ exclusion in the roots, and the latter process is possibly controlled by PS reinforcing Ca2+ signaling in the roots.
Project description:Salinity-induced osmotic, ionic and oxidative stress responses were investigated on Asakaze/Manas wheat/barley addition lines 7H, 7HL and 7HS, together with their barley (salt-tolerant) and wheat (relatively salt-sensitive) parents. Growth, photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll degradation, proline, glycine betaine accumulation, sugar metabolism, Na+ and K+ uptake and transport processes and the role of polyamines and antioxidants were studied in young plants grown in hydroponic culture with or without salt treatment. Changes in plant growth and photosynthetic activity of plants demonstrated that the salt tolerance of the addition lines 7H and 7HL was similar to that of barley parent cv. Manas, while the sensitivity of the addition line 7HS was similar to that of the wheat parent cv. Asakaze. The Na accumulation in the roots and shoots did not differ between the addition lines and wheat parent. The activation of various genes related to Na uptake and transport was not correlated with the salt tolerance of the genotypes. These results indicated that the direct regulation of Na transport processes is not the main reason for the salt tolerance of these genotypes. Salt treatment induced a complex metabolic rearrangement in both the roots and shoots of all the genotypes. Elevated proline accumulation in the roots and enhanced sugar metabolism in the shoots were found to be important for salt tolerance in the 7H and 7HL addition lines and in barley cv. Manas. In wheat cv. Asakaze and the 7HS addition line the polyamine metabolism was activated. It seems that osmotic adjustment is a more important process in the improvement of salt tolerance in 7H addition lines than the direct regulation of Na transport processes or antioxidant defence.
Project description:We characterized an Na+ transporter SvHKT1;1 from a halophytic turf grass, Sporobolus virginicus. SvHKT1;1 mediated inward and outward Na+ transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes and did not complement K+ transporter-defective mutant yeast. SvHKT1;1 did not complement athkt1;1 mutant Arabidopsis, suggesting its distinguishable function from other typical HKT1 transporters. The transcript was abundant in the shoots compared with the roots in S. virginicus and was upregulated by severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl), but not by lower stress. SvHKT1;1-expressing Arabidopsis lines showed higher shoot Na+ concentrations and lower salt tolerance than wild type (WT) plants under nonstress and salt stress conditions and showed higher Na+ uptake rate in roots at the early stage of salt treatment. These results suggested that constitutive expression of SvHKT1;1 enhanced Na+ uptake in root epidermal cells, followed by increased Na+ transport to shoots, which led to reduced salt tolerance. However, Na+ concentrations in phloem sap of the SvHKT1;1 lines were higher than those in WT plants under salt stress. Based on this result, together with the induction of the SvHKT1;1 transcription under high salinity stress, it was suggested that SvHKT1;1 plays a role in preventing excess shoot Na+ accumulation in S. virginicus.