Defects in the acquisition of tumor-killing capability of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
ABSTRACT: Emerging evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus not only raises risk but also heightens mortality rate of cancer. It is not clear, however, whether antitumor CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is down-modulated in diabetic hosts. We investigated the impact of hyperglycemia on CTLs' acquisition of tumor-killing capability by utilizing streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-diabetic) mice. Murine diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (200 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice, 2C-T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic and P14-TCR transgenic mice. The study found that, despite harboring intact proliferative capacity measured with CFSE labeling and MTT assay, STZ-diabetic CD8+ CTLs displayed impaired effector functions. After stimulation, STZ-diabetic CD8+ CTLs produced less perforin and TNF? assessed by intracellular staining, as well as expressed less CD103 protein. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of STZ-diabetic P14 CD8+ effector cells showed an insufficient recruitment to the B16.gp33 melanoma and inadequate production of perforin, granzyme B and TNF? determined by immunohistochemistry in the tumor milieu. As a result, STZ-diabetic CD8+ effector cells were neither able to eliminate tumor nor to improve survival of tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, our data suggest that CD8+ CTLs are crippled to infiltrate into tumors and thus fail to acquire tumor-killing capability in STZ-diabetic hosts.
Project description:Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) suppress T cell responses directed against their antigens regardless of their own T cell receptor (TCR) specificity. This makes the use of CTLs promising for tolerance induction in autoimmunity and transplantation. It has been established that binding of the CTL CD8 molecule to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ?3 domain of the recognizing T cell must be permitted for death of the latter cell to ensue. However, the signaling events triggered in the CTL by this molecular interaction in the absence of TCR recognition have never been clarified. Here we use single-cell imaging to study the events occurring in CTLs serving as targets for recognition by specific T cells. We demonstrate that CTLs actively respond to recognition by polarizing their cytotoxic granules to the contact area, releasing their lethal cargo, and vigorously proliferating. Using CTLs from perforin knockout (KO) mice and lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck) knockdown with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), we show that the killing of the recognizing CD8 T cell is perforin dependent and is initiated by Lck signaling in the CTL. Collectively, these data suggest a novel mechanism in which the entire cascade generally triggered by TCR engagement is "hijacked" in CTLs serving as targets for T cell recognition without TCR ligation.
Project description:Human CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) contribute to antimicrobial defense against intracellular pathogens through secretion of cytotoxic granule proteins granzyme B, perforin, and granulysin. However, CTLs are heterogeneous in the expression of these proteins, and the subset(s) responsible for antimicrobial activity is unclear. Studying human leprosy, we found that the subset of CTLs coexpressing all three cytotoxic molecules is increased in the resistant form of the disease, can be expanded by interleukin-15 (IL-15), and is differentiated from naïve CD8+ T cells by Langerhans cells. RNA sequencing analysis identified that these CTLs express a gene signature that includes an array of surface receptors typically expressed by natural killer (NK) cells. We determined that CD8+ CTLs expressing granzyme B, perforin, and granulysin, as well as the activating NK receptor NKG2C, represent a population of "antimicrobial CTLs" (amCTLs) capable of T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent and TCR-independent release of cytotoxic granule proteins that mediate antimicrobial activity.
Project description:CD8?? plays crucial roles in the thymic selection, differentiation, and activation of some, but not all, CD8(+) T cells, whereas CD8?? does not. To investigate these roles, we produced mice that expressed transgene P14 T-cell receptor ? (TCR?) chain and CD8? or did not (WT and KO mice, respectively). The primary CD8(+) T-cell response to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was predominantly D(b)/GP33 specific and CD8 independent in KO mice and was mostly CD8 dependent in WT mice. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from KO mice failed to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) and to kill via perforin/granzyme. Their strong Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-? response were signaled via a Ca(2+)-independent, PI3K-dependent pathway. This was also true for 15-20% of CD8-independent CTL found in WT mice. Conversely, the perforin/granzyme-mediated killing and IFN-? response of CD8-dependent CTL were signaled via a Ca(2+), p56(lck), and nuclear factor of activated T cells-dependent pathway. Deep sequencing of millions of TCR? chain transcripts revealed that the TCR repertoires of preimmune CD8(+) T cells were highly diverse, but those of LCMV D(b)/GP33-specific CTL, especially from KO mice, were narrow. The immune repertoires exhibited biased use of V? segments that encoded different complementary-determining region 1? (CDR1?) and CDR2? sequences. We suggest that TCR from WT CD8-independent T cells may engage MHC-peptide complexes in a manner unfavorable for efficient CD8 engagement and Ca(2+) signaling but permissive for Ca(2+)-independent, PI3K-dependent signaling. This duality of the CD8 compartment may provide organisms with broader protective immunity.
Project description:The maturation of naive CD8(+) T cells into effector CTLs is a critical feature of a functional adaptive immune system. Development of CTLs depends, in part, upon the expression of the transcriptional regulator eomesodermin (EOMES), which is thought to regulate expression of two key effector molecules, perforin and granzyme B. Although EOMES is important for effector CTL development, the precise mechanisms regulating CD8(+) effector cell maturation remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that Notch1 regulates the expression of EOMES, perforin, and granzyme B through direct binding to the promoters of these crucial effector molecules. By abrogating Notch signaling, both biochemically as well as genetically, we conclude that Notch activity mediates CTL activity through direct regulation of EOMES, perforin, and granzyme B.
Project description:Acquisition of effector properties is a key step in the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we show that inflammatory signals regulate Dicer expression in CTL, and that deletion or depletion of Dicer in mouse or human activated CD8+ T cells causes upregulation of perforin, granzyme and effector cytokines. Genome-wide analysis of miRNA changes induced by exposure of differentiating CTLs to IL-2 and inflammatory signals identifies miR-139 and miR-150 as components of a miRNA network that controls perforin, eomesodermin (Eomes) and IL-2Ra expression in differentiating CTLs and whose activity is modulated by IL-2, inflammation and antigenic stimulation. Overall our data show that strong IL-2R and inflammatory signals act through Dicer and miRNAs to control the cytolytic program and other aspects of effector CTL differentiation. Comparison of control and Dicer knock-out CTLs differentiated in vitro; Comparison of wild type CTLs differentiated in vitro with or without inflammatory stimuli; Comparison of effector and memory precursor CTLs isolated from mice infected with LCMV-Armstrong
Project description:The phenotype and function of immune cells that reside at the maternal-fetal interface in humans and mice have been, and still are, extensively studied with the aim to fully comprehend the complex immunology of pregnancy. In pigs, information regarding immune cell phenotypes is limited and mainly focused on early gestation whereas late gestation has not yet been investigated. We designed a unique methodology tailored to the porcine epitheliochorial placenta, which allowed us to address immune phenotypes separately in the maternal endometrium (ME) and fetal placenta (FP) by flow cytometry. In-depth phenotyping of NK cells, non-conventional and conventional T cells within maternal blood (mBld), ME, FP, and fetal spleen (fSpln) revealed major differences between these anatomic sites. In both maternal compartments, all NK cells were perforin+ and had NKp46-defined phenotypes indicative of late-stage differentiation. Likewise, T cells with a highly differentiated phenotype including CD2+CD8?+CD27dim/-perforin+ ?? T cells, CD27-perforin+ cytolytic T cells (CTLs), and T-bet+ CD4+CD8?+CD27- effector memory T (Tem) cells prevailed within these compartments. The presence of highly differentiated T cells was also reflected in the number of cells that had the capacity to produce IFN-?. In the FP, we found NK cells and T cell populations with a naive phenotype including CD2+CD8?-CD27+perforin- ?? T cells, T-bet-CD4+CD8?-CD27+ T cells, and CD27+perforin- CTLs. However, also non-naive T cell phenotypes including CD2+CD8?+CD27+perforin- ?? T cells, T-bet+CD4+CD8?+CD27- Tem cells, and a substantial proportion of CD27-perforin+ CTLs resided within this anatomic site. Currently, the origin or the cues that steer the differentiation of these putative effector cells are unclear. In the fSpln, NKp46high NK cells and T cells with a naive phenotype prevailed. This study demonstrated that antigen-experienced immune cell phenotypes reside at the maternal-fetal interface, including the FP. Our methodology and our findings open avenues to study NK and T cell function over the course of gestation. In addition, this study lays a foundation to explore the interplay between immune cells and pathogens affecting swine reproduction.
Project description:Focal inflammation causes systemic fever. Cancer hyperthermia therapy results in shrinkage of tumors by various mechanisms, including induction of adaptive immune response. However, the physiological meaning of systemic fever and mechanisms of tumor shrinkage by hyperthermia have not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated how heat shock influences the adaptive immune system. We established a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone (#IM29) specific for survivin, one of the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), from survivin peptide-immunized cancer patients' peripheral blood, and the CTL activities were investigated in several temperature conditions (37-41 °C). Cytotoxicity and IFN-? secretion of CTL were greatest under 39 °C condition, whereas they were minimum under 41 °C. To address the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we investigated the apoptosis status of CTLs, expression of CD3, CD8, and TCR?? by flow cytometry, and expression of perforin, granzyme B, and Fas ligand by western blot analysis. The expression of perforin and granzyme B were upregulated under temperature conditions of 39 and 41 °C. On the other hand, CTL cell death was induced under 41 °C condition with highest Caspase-3 activity. Therefore, the greatest cytotoxicity activity at 39 °C might depend on upregulation of cytotoxic granule proteins including perforin and granzyme B. These results suggest that heat shock enhances effector phase of the adaptive immune system and promotes eradication of microbe and tumor cells.
Project description:Acquisition of effector properties is a key step in the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we show that inflammatory signals regulate Dicer expression in CTLs, and that deletion or depletion of Dicer in mouse or human activated CD8(+) T cells causes up-regulation of perforin, granzymes, and effector cytokines. Genome-wide analysis of microRNA (miR, miRNA) changes induced by exposure of differentiating CTLs to IL-2 and inflammatory signals identifies miR-139 and miR-150 as components of an miRNA network that controls perforin, eomesodermin, and IL-2R? expression in differentiating CTLs and whose activity is modulated by IL-2, inflammation, and antigenic stimulation. Overall, our data show that strong IL-2R and inflammatory signals act through Dicer and miRNAs to control the cytolytic program and other aspects of effector CTL differentiation.
Project description:Trogocytosis is a contact-dependent unidirectional transfer of membrane fragments between immune effector cells and their targets, initially detected in T cells following interaction with professional antigen presenting cells (APC). Previously, we have demonstrated that trogocytosis also takes place between melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and their cognate tumors. In the present study, we took this finding a step further, focusing on the ability of melanoma membrane-imprinted CD8+ T cells to act as APCs (CD8+ T-APCs). We demonstrate that, following trogocytosis, CD8+ T-APCs directly present a variety of melanoma derived peptides to fraternal T cells with the same TCR specificity or to T cells with different TCRs. The resulting T cell-T cell immune synapse leads to (1) Activation of effector CTLs, as determined by proliferation, cytokine secretion and degranulation; (2) Fratricide (killing) of CD8+ T-APCs by the activated CTLs. Thus, trogocytosis enables cross-reactivity among CD8+ T cells with interchanging roles of effectors and APCs. This dual function of tumor-reactive CTLs may hint at their ability to amplify or restrict reactivity against the tumor and participate in modulation of the anti-cancer immune response.
Project description:Adoptive CD8+ T cell therapy has emerged as an important modality for the treatment of cancers. However, the significant drawback of transfused T cells is their poor survival and functionality in response to tumors. To overcome this limitation, an important consideration is exploring a culture condition to generate superior antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for adoptive therapy. Here, we provide a novel approach to generate potent CTL clones in mouse embryonic fibroblast-conditioned medium (MEF-CM). We found CTLs derived with MEF-CM have higher potential in long-term persistence in tumor bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, adoptive transfer of MEF-CM-cultured CTLs dramatically regressed tumor growth and prolonged mice survival. Characterization of MEF-CM-cultured CTLs (effector molecules, phenotypes, and transcription factors) suggests that MEF-CM enhances the effector functions of CD8+ T cells in part by the upregulation of the T-box transcription factor eomesodermin. Consequently, MEF-CM enhances the intrinsic qualities of effector CD8+ T cells to augment antitumor immunity.