Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition with erlotinib partially prevents cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
ABSTRACT: The effects of blocking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in acute kidney injury (AKI) are controversial. Here we investigated the renoprotective effect of erlotinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can block EGFR activity, on cisplatin (CP)-induced AKI. Groups of animals were given either erlotinib or vehicle from one day before up to Day 3 following induction of CP-nephrotoxicity (CP-N). In addition, we analyzed the effects of erlotinib on signaling pathways involved in CP-N by using human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Compared to controls, rats treated with erlotinib exhibited significant improvement of renal function and attenuation of tubulointerstitial injury, and reduced the number of apoptotic and proliferating cells. Erlotinib-treated rats had a significant reduction of renal cortical mRNA for profibrogenic genes. The Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA and protein ratios were significantly reduced by erlotinib treatment. In vitro, we observed that erlotinib significantly reduced the phosphorylation of MEK1 and Akt, processes that were induced by CP in HK-2. Taken together, these data indicate that erlotinib has renoprotective properties that are likely mediated through decreases in the apoptosis and proliferation of tubular cells, effects that reflect inhibition of downstream signaling pathways of EGFR. These results suggest that erlotinib may be useful for preventing AKI in patients receiving CP chemotherapy.
Project description:Despite recent studies have demonstrated that the EGF receptor (EGFR) activation provided a renoprotective role during ischemic and folic acid-induced AKI, the role and regulation mechanism of EGFR in septic AKI remains unclear. Here, gefitinib, a highly selective EGFR inhibitor, abrogated LPS-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2, and STAT3 as well as expression of COX, eNOS, and proinflammatory cytokines in HK-2 cells. In addition, c-Src is an upstream of EGFR signaling pathway and mediates LPS-induced EGFR transactivation. In vivo, either gefitinib or genetic approaches (Wave-2 mutant mice, which have reduced EGFR tyrosine kinase activity) protected against LPS or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced AKI respectively. Interestingly, the beneficial effects of gefitinib or genetic approaches were accompanied by the dephosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2, and STAT3, the down regulation of expression of COX, eNOS, macrophage infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines production and the renal cell apoptosis. Furthermore, mRNA array results indicated that gene families involved in cell death, inflammation, proliferation and signal transduction were down regulated in Wave-2 (Wa-2) mice. Take together, these data suggest that EGFR may mediate renal injury by promoting production of inflammatory factors and cell apoptosis. Inhibition of EGFR may have therapeutic potential for AKI during endotoxemia.
Project description:The molecular mechanism underlying the transition of acute kidney injury (AKI) to chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced by vancomycin (VAN) remains largely unknown. Methods: The mice model of VAN drives AKI to CKD was developed to investigate the role and molecular mechanism of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The EGF receptor mutant (Wa-2) mice and gefitinib were used to inactivation of EGFR. The homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) siRNA was applied to silence of HIPK2. Human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were used to explore the molecular regulation methanism of EGFR. ChIp analysis was used to investigate if STAT3 interaction with the promoter of HIPK2. Results: A novel VAN-induced AKI mouse model was established for the first time. Moreover, the expression levels collagen I&IV, ?-SMA, p-EGFR and the expression of HIPK2 proteins were upregulated in this model. Interestingly, AKI caused by VAN was markedly attenuated in waved-2 mice at the early stage, as evidenced by the suppression of renal dysfunction, renal cell apoptosis and caspase3 activation. In the latter stage, renal fibrosis and inflammation were significantly ameliorated in Wa-2 mice, accompanied by the downregulation of profibrotic molecules and F4/80. Besides, the expression levels of HIPK2 and p-STAT3 were suppressed in Wa-2 mice during VAN-induced transition of AKI to CKD. In addition, renal fibrosis and inflammation, profibrotic molecules, and EGFR/STAT3/HIPK2 signaling were ameliorated by gefitinib treatment after VAN-induced AKI. These results were consistent with the findings of Wa-2 mice. EGFR/STAT3 signaling mediated VAN-induced HIPK2 expression in HK-2 cells. ChIp analysis revealed that STAT3 directly bound to the promoter region of HIPK2. Finally, inhibition of HIPK2 attenuated the VAN drove the progression of AKI to CKD. Conclusion: These data suggest that EGFR plays an important role in VAN-driven progression of AKI to CKD.
Project description:Cisplatin, a highly effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agent, has a major limitation for its nephrotoxicity. We recently identified a novel strategy for attenuating its nephrotoxicity in chemotherapy by an effective adjuvant via epigenetic modification through targeting HDAC2. Molecular docking and SPR assay firstly reported that 18βGA, major metabolite of GA, could directly bind to HDAC2 and inhibit the activity of HDAC2. The effects and mechanisms of GA and 18βGA were assessed in CP-induced AKI in C57BL/6 mice, and in CP-treated HK-2 and mTEC cells lines. TUNEL and FCM results confirmed that GA and 18βGA could inhibit apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by CP in vivo and in vitro. Western blot and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the expression of BMP-7 was clearly induced by 18βGA in AKI models while siRNA BMP-7 could reduce the inhibitory effect of 18βGA on apoptosis. Results of current study indicated that 18βGA inhibited apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells via enhancing the level of BMP-7 epigenetically through targeting HDAC2, therefore protecting against CP-induced AKI. These available evidence, which led to an improved understanding of molecular recognition, suggested that 18βGA could serve as a potential clinical adjuvant in chemotherapy.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in regulating a wide range of biologic processes, such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, and tissue remodeling. However, the role of MMP-10 in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. In this study, we show that MMP-10 was upregulated in the kidneys and predominantly localized in the tubular epithelium in various models of AKI induced by ischemia/reperfusion (IR) or cisplatin. Overexpression of exogenous MMP-10 ameliorated AKI, manifested by decreased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tubular injury and apoptosis, and increased tubular regeneration. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous MMP-10 expression aggravated kidney injury. Interestingly, alleviation of AKI by MMP-10 in vivo was associated with the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Blockade of EGFR signaling by erlotinib abolished the MMP-10-mediated renal protection after AKI. In vitro, MMP-10 potentiated EGFR activation and protected kidney tubular cells against apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation or cisplatin. MMP-10 was colocalized with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in vivo and activated it by a process of proteolytical cleavage in vitro. These studies identify HB-EGF as a previously unrecognized substrate of MMP-10. Our findings also underscore that MMP-10 can protect against AKI by augmenting EGFR signaling, leading to promotion of tubular cell survival and proliferation after injury.
Project description:While disruption of energy production is an important contributor to renal injury, metabolic alterations in sepsis-induced AKI remain understudied. We assessed changes in renal cortical glycolytic metabolism in a mouse model of sepsis-induced AKI. A specific and rapid increase in hexokinase (HK) activity (?2-fold) was observed 3 h after LPS exposure and maintained up to 18 h, in association with a decline in renal function as measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN). LPS-induced HK activation occurred independently of HK isoform expression or mitochondrial localization. No other changes in glycolytic enzymes were observed. LPS-mediated HK activation was not sufficient to increase glycolytic flux as indicated by reduced or unchanged pyruvate and lactate levels in the renal cortex. LPS-induced HK activation was associated with increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity but not glycogen production. Mechanistically, LPS-induced HK activation was attenuated by pharmacological inhibitors of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and Akt, indicating that EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling is responsible. Our findings reveal LPS rapidly increases renal cortical HK activity in an EGFR- and Akt-dependent manner and that HK activation is linked to increased pentose phosphate pathway activity.
Project description:This study was designed to assess whether heat shock protein Hsp72 is an early and sensitive biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as to monitor a renoprotective strategy. Seventy-two Wistar rats were divided into six groups: sham-operated and rats subjected to 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60?min of bilateral ischemia (I) and 24?h of reperfusion (R). Different times of reperfusion (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120?h) were also evaluated in 30 other rats subjected to 30 min of ischemia. Hsp72 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were determined in both kidney and urine. Hsp72-specificity as a biomarker to assess the success of a renoprotective intervention was evaluated in rats treated with different doses of spironolactone before I/R. Renal Hsp72 mRNA and protein, as well as urinary Hsp72 levels, gradually increased relative to the extent of renal injury induced by different periods of ischemia quantified by histomorphometry as a benchmark of kidney damage. Urinary Hsp72 increased significantly after 3?h and continued rising until 18?h, followed by restoration after 120?h of reperfusion in accord with histopathological findings. Spironolactone renoprotection was associated with normalization of urinary Hsp72 levels. Accordingly, urinary Hsp72 was significantly increased in patients with clinical AKI before serum creatinine elevation. Our results show that urinary Hsp72 is a useful biomarker for early detection and stratification of AKI. In addition, urinary Hsp72 levels are sensitive enough to monitor therapeutic interventions and the degree of tubular recovery following an I/R insult.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) predicts poor prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor of AKI. Recent clinical studies have shown the beneficial effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with DM. We recently reported that canagliflozin normalized susceptibility of diabetic rats to AKI after acute MI via ?-hydroxybutyrate-mediated suppression of NOX expression. Here we examined whether the same renoprotective effect is shared by empagliflozin. Serum creatinine levels were not changed by MI induced by coronary artery occlusion in LETO, non-diabetic control rats, and OLETF, obese type 2 diabetic rats. However, immunohistochemistry revealed that MI increased renal expression of NGAL and KIM-1, early markers of tubular injury, by 3.2-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively, in OLETF. These increases in injury markers were not observed in LETO. Pretreatment with empagliflozin of OLETF for 2 weeks improved hyperglycemia, increased blood ?-hydroxybutyrate level, and suppressed MI-induced expression of NGAL and KIM-1. Empagliflozin suppressed upregulation of NOX2 and NOX4 in the kidney of OLETF. Taken together with the results of our previous study, it was concluded that treatment with the SGLT2 inhibitor protects the diabetic kidney from MI-induced AKI.
Project description:Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has a renoprotective effect in chronic kidney disease; however, its effect on acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. In a rat model of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced AKI, we found that ACTH gel prevented kidney injury, corrected acute renal dysfunction, and improved survival. Morphologically, ACTH gel ameliorated TNF-induced acute tubular necrosis, associated with a reduction in tubular apoptosis. While the steroidogenic response to ACTH gel plateaued, the kidney-protective effect continued to increase at even higher doses, suggesting steroid-independent mechanisms. Of note, ACTH also acts as a key agonist of the melanocortin system, with its cognate melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) abundantly expressed in renal tubules. In TNF-injured tubular epithelial cells in vitro, ACTH reinstated cellular viability and eliminated apoptosis. This beneficial effect was blunted in MC1R-silenced cells, suggesting that this receptor mediates the anti-apoptotic signaling of ACTH. Moreover, ACTH gel protected mice against cecal ligation puncture-induced septic AKI better than ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone: a protein equal in biological activity to ACTH except for steroidogenesis. Thus, ACTH has additive renoprotective actions achieved by both steroid-dependent mechanisms and MC1R-directed anti-apoptosis. ACTH may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or treat AKI.
Project description:Background:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the common complications of sepsis. Heretofore, there is no effective treatment for septic AKI. Recent studies have revealed that besides treating hematological malignancies, human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCBMNCs) show good therapeutic effects on other diseases. But whether hUCBMNCs can protect against septic AKI and its underlying mechanism are unknown. Methods:The rat model of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced AKI was developed, and the injection of hUCBMNCs was executed to prevent and treat AKI. ML385, a specific nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) inhibitor, was used to silence Nrf2. The cell experiments were conducted to elaborate the protective mechanism of Nrf2 pathway. Results:An effective model of LPS-induced AKI was established. Compared to the rats only with LPS injection, the levels of inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis in renal tissues after hUCBMNC injection were markedly attenuated. Pathological examination also indicated significant remission of renal tissue injury in the LPS+MNCs group, compared to rats in the LPS group. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the damage of the mitochondria in the LPS+MNCs group was lighter than that in the LPS group. Noteworthily, the renal Nrf2/HO-1 pathway was activated and autophagy was enhanced after hUCBMNC injection. ML385 could partly reverse the renoprotective effect of hUCBMNCs, which could demonstrate that Nrf2 participated in the protection of hUCBMNCs. Cell experiments showed that increasing the expression level of Nrf2 could alleviate LPS-induced cell injury by increasing the autophagy level and decreasing the injury of the mitochondria in HK-2 cells. Conclusion:All results suggest that hUCBMNCs can protect against LPS-induced AKI via the Nrf2 pathway. Activating Nrf2 can upregulate autophagy to protect LPS-induced cell injury.
Project description:Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is the most common cause of AKI. The susceptibility to develop AKI varies widely among patients. However, little is known about the genes involved. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) has an important role in the regulation of renal tubular and vascular function and has been implicated in IR injury. In this study, we examined whether a deficiency in the renal formation of 20-HETE enhances the susceptibility of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats to ischemic AKI. Transfer of chromosome 5 containing the CYP4A genes responsible for the formation of 20-HETE from the Brown Norway (BN) rat onto the SS genetic background increased renal 20-HETE levels after ischemia and reduced plasma creatinine levels (±SEM) 24 hours after IR from 3.7±0.1 to 2.0±0.2 mg/dl in an SS.5(BN)-consomic strain. Transfer of this chromosome also prevented the secondary decline in medullary blood flow and ischemia that develops 2 hours after IR in the susceptible SS strain. Blockade of the synthesis of 20-HETE with HET0016 reversed the renoprotective effects in SS.5(BN) rats. Similar results were observed in an SS.5(Lew)-congenic strain, in which a smaller region of chromosome 5 containing the CYP4A genes from a Lewis rat was introgressed onto the SS genetic background. These results indicate that 20-HETE has a protective role in renal IR injury by maintaining medullary blood flow and that a genetic deficiency in the formation of 20-HETE increases the susceptibility of SS rats to ischemic AKI.