Pyrethroids differentially alter voltage-gated sodium channels from the honeybee central olfactory neurons.
ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of neurons from the honey bee olfactory system to pyrethroid insecticides was studied using the patch-clamp technique on central 'antennal lobe neurons' (ALNs) in cell culture. In these neurons, the voltage-dependent sodium currents are characterized by negative potential for activation, fast kinetics of activation and inactivation, and the presence of cumulative inactivation during train of depolarizations. Perfusion of pyrethroids on these ALN neurons submitted to repetitive stimulations induced (1) an acceleration of cumulative inactivation, and (2) a marked slowing of the tail current recorded upon repolarization. Cypermethrin and permethrin accelerated cumulative inactivation of the sodium current peak in a similar manner and tetramethrin was even more effective. The slow-down of channel deactivation was markedly dependent on the type of pyrethroid. With cypermethrin, a progressive increase of the tail current amplitude along with successive stimulations reveals a traditionally described use-dependent recruitment of modified sodium channels. However, an unexpected decrease in this tail current was revealed with tetramethrin. If one considers the calculated percentage of modified channels as an index of pyrethroids effects, ALNs are significantly more susceptible to tetramethrin than to permethrin or cypermethrin for a single depolarization, but this difference attenuates with repetitive activity. Further comparison with peripheral neurons from antennae suggest that these modifications are neuron type specific. Modeling the sodium channel as a multi-state channel with fast and slow inactivation allows to underline the effects of pyrethroids on a set of rate constants connecting open and inactivated conformations, and give some insights to their specificity. Altogether, our results revealed a differential sensitivity of central olfactory neurons to pyrethroids that emphasize the ability for these compounds to impair detection and processing of information at several levels of the bees olfactory pathway.
Project description:Pyrethroid insecticides exert their insecticidal and toxicological effects primarily by disrupting voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) function, resulting in altered neuronal excitability. Numerous studies of individual pyrethroids have characterized effects on mammalian VGSC function and neuronal excitability, yet studies examining effects of complex pyrethroid mixtures in mammalian neurons, especially in environmentally relevant mixture ratios, are limited. In the present study, concentration-response functions were characterized for five pyrethroids (permethrin, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, ?-cyfluthrin and esfenvalerate) in an in vitro preparation containing cortical neurons and glia. As a metric of neuronal network activity, spontaneous mean network firing rates (MFR) were measured using microelectorde arrays (MEAs). In addition, the effect of a complex and exposure relevant mixture of the five pyrethroids (containing 52% permethrin, 28.8% cypermethrin, 12.9% ?-cyfluthrin, 3.4% deltamethrin and 2.7% esfenvalerate) was also measured. Data were modeled to determine whether effects of the pyrethroid mixture were predicted by dose-addition. At concentrations up to 10?M, all compounds except permethrin reduced MFR. Deltamethrin and ?-cyfluthrin were the most potent and reduced MFR by as much as 60 and 50%, respectively, while cypermethrin and esfenvalerate were of approximately equal potency and reduced MFR by only ?20% at the highest concentration. Permethrin caused small (?24% maximum), concentration-dependent increases in MFR. Effects of the environmentally relevant mixture did not depart from the prediction of dose-addition. These data demonstrate that an environmentally relevant mixture caused dose-additive effects on spontaneous neuronal network activity in vitro, and is consistent with other in vitro and in vivo assessments of pyrethroid mixtures.
Project description:Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. Numerous point mutations in sodium channel genes have been identified in pyrethroid-resistant insect species, and many have been confirmed to reduce or abolish sensitivity of channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to pyrethroids. Recently, several novel mutations were reported in sodium channel genes of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes mosquito populations. One of the mutations is a phenylalanine (F) to cysteine (C) change in segment 6 of domain III (IIIS6) of the Aedes mosquito sodium channel. Curiously, a previous study showed that alanine substitution of this F did not alter the action of deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid, on a cockroach sodium channel. In this study, we changed this F to C in a pyrethroid-sensitive cockroach sodium channel and examined mutant channel sensitivity to permethrin as well as five other type I or type II pyrethroids in Xenopus oocytes. Interestingly, the F to C mutation drastically reduced channel sensitivity to three type I pyrethroids, permethrin, NRDC 157 (a deltamethrin analogue lacking the ?-cyano group) and bioresemthrin, but not to three type II pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin. These results confirm the involvement of the F to C mutation in permethrin resistance, and raise the possibility that rotation of type I and type II pyrethroids might be considered in the control of insect pest populations where this particular mutation is present.
Project description:Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Although previous work has tested the additivity of pyrethroids in vivo, this has not been assessed directly at the primary molecular target using a functional measure.We investigated the potency and efficacy of 11 structurally diverse food-use pyrethroids to evoke sodium (Na+) influx in neurons and tested the hypothesis of dose additivity for a mixture of these same 11 compounds.We determined pyrethroid-induced increases in Na+ influx in primary cultures of cerebrocortical neurons using the Na+-sensitive dye sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI). Concentration-dependent responses for 11 pyrethroids were determined, and the response to dilutions of a mixture of all 11 compounds at an equimolar mixing ratio was assessed. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model.Seven pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ influx. The rank order of potency was deltamethrin > S-bioallethrin > ?-cyfluthrin > ?-cyhalothrin > esfenvalerate > tefluthrin > fenpropathrin. Cypermethrin and bifenthrin produced modest increases in Na+ influx, whereas permethrin and resmethrin were inactive. When all 11 pyrethroids were present at an equimolar mixing ratio, their actions on Na+ influx were consistent with a dose-additive model.These data provide in vitro relative potency and efficacy measurements for 7 pyrethroid compounds in intact mammalian neurons. Despite differences in individual compound potencies, we found the action of a mixture of all 11 pyrethroids to be additive when we used an appropriate statistical model. These results are consistent with a previous report of the additivity of pyrethroids in vivo.
Project description:Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Pyrethroids have also been reported to alter the function of other channel types, including activation of voltage-gated calcium channels. Therefore, the present study compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroids to evoke Ca(2+) influx in primary cultures of mouse neocortical neurons. Nine pyrethroids (tefluthrin, deltamethrin, ?-cyhalothrin, ?-cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, S-bioallethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, and bifenthrin) produced concentration-dependent elevations in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in neocortical neurons. Permethrin and resmethrin were without effect on [Ca(2+)](i). These pyrethroids displayed a range of efficacies on Ca(2+) influx; however, the EC(50) values for active pyrethroids all were within one order of magnitude. Tetrodotoxin blocked increases in [Ca(2+)](i) caused by all nine active pyrethroids, indicating that the effects depended on VGSC activation. The pathways for deltamethrin- and tefluthrin-induced Ca(2+) influx include N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors, L-type Ca(2+) channels, and reverse mode of operation of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inasmuch as antagonists of these sites blocked deltamethrin-induced Ca(2+) influx. These data demonstrate that pyrethroids stimulate Ca(2+) entry into neurons subsequent to their actions on VGSCs.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Pyrethroids are widely used for the control of pests and insects, as pyrethroids are believed to pose little risk to human health and environment. However, exposure to the pyrethroids exceeding the label directions might adversely affect human health and environment. Hence a careful selection of environment friendly household product is required that must contain exactly the label claimed pyrethroids amount. RESULTS: A sensitive and robust TLC-densitometric method for simultaneous quantification of commonly used synthetic pyrethroids including esbiothrin, alpha-cypermethrin and cis/trans permethrin in agricultural and domestic products has been developed and validated. TLC aluminum sheets, precoated with 0.2?mm thick layer of silica gel 60?F-254, were used for chromatographic process. Densitometric analysis of chromatoplates was carried out in absorbance mode at corresponding ?max of each pyrethroid. Equally valid common mobile phase for all pyrethroids consisted of hexane-dichloromethane-ethylacetate-formic acid (8:1.5:0.4:0.1?v/v/v/v) which provided sharp and symmetrical peaks of esbiothrin, alpha-cypermethrin, trans-permethrin and cis-permethrin, at Rf 0.31, 0.53, 0.6 and 0.65, respectively. Linear regression data for respective calibration curves showed a good linearity for all pyrethroids with r = 0.991-0.996. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for all pyrethroids were found in the range of 1.6-2.8 and 4.9-8.5?ng/spot, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The developed method is applicable for separating the mixture of pyrethroids and at the same time, it is also valid for separating their isomers. The method is reproducible, precise and accurate for the quantitative determination of pyrethroids in agricultural and domestic products.
Project description:In the framework of the first regional Total Diet Study in Sub-Saharan Africa, 3696 foodstuffs, commonly consumed in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 308 composite samples. Those core foods were tested for up to 470 pesticides residues by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. 39 pesticides were detected with 294 total occurrences, including 47.3% organophosphate pesticides and 35.7% pyrethroids. More specifically, 6 substances represented 75.5% of all 3 organophosphates and 3 pyrethroids: chlorpyrifos (22.4%) cypermethrin (18.0%) dichlorvos (13.6%), lambda cyhalothrin (8.2%), permethrin (7.5%) and profenofos (5.8%). One pesticide or more was detected in 45.8% of samples. Strikingly, several pesticides were quantified in 2 composite samples of smoked fish from Mali: chlorpyrifos (5236-18 084 μg/kg), profenofos (30-182 μg/kg), cypermethrin (22-250 μg/kg), cyfluthrin (16-117 μg/kg), lambda cyhalothrin (9-17 μg/kg) and permethrin (3-6 μg/kg).
Project description:Pyrethroid insecticides are frequently used to control insects in residential and agriculture settings in the United States and worldwide. As a result, children can be potentially exposed to pyrethroid residues in food and at home. This review summarizes data reported in 15 published articles from observational exposure measurement studies conducted from 1999 to present that examined children's (5 months to 17 years of age) exposures to pyrethroids in media including floor wipes, floor dust, food, air, and/or urine collected at homes in the United States. At least seven different pyrethroids were detected in wipe, dust, solid food, and indoor air samples. Permethrin was the most frequently detected (>50%) pyrethroid in these media, followed by cypermethrin (wipes, dust, and food). 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a urinary metabolite of several pyrethroids, was the most frequently (?67%) detected pyrethroid biomarker. Results across studies indicate that these children were likely exposed to several pyrethroids, but primarily to permethrin and cypermethrin, from several sources including food, dust, and/or on surfaces at residences. Dietary ingestion followed by nondietary ingestion were the dominate exposure routes for these children, except in homes with frequent pesticide applications (dermal followed by dietary ingestion). Urinary 3-PBA concentration data confirm that the majority of the children sampled were exposed to one or more pyrethroids.
Project description:Pyrethroid insecticides exert toxic effects by prolonging the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels. More than 20 sodium channel mutations from arthropod pests and disease vectors have been confirmed to confer pyrethroid resistance. These mutations have been valuable in elucidating the molecular interaction between pyrethroids and sodium channels, including identification of two pyrethroid receptor sites. Previously, two alanine to valine substitutions, one in the pore helix IIIP1 and the other in the linker-helix connecting S4 and S5 in domain III (IIIL45), were found in Drosophila melanogaster mutants that are resistant to DDT and deltamethrin (a type II pyrethroid with an ?-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids), but their role in target-site-mediated insecticide resistance has not been functionally confirmed. In this study, we functionally examined the two mutations in cockroach sodium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Both mutations caused depolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of activation, conferred DDT resistance and also resistance to two Type I pyrethroids by almost abolishing the tail currents induced by Type I pyrethroids. In contrast, neither mutation reduced the amplitude of tail currents induced by the Type II pyrethroids, deltamethrin or cypermethrin. However, both mutations accelerated the decay of Type II pyrethroid-induced tail currents, which normally decay extremely slowly. These results provided new insight into the molecular basis of different actions of Type I and Type II pyrethroids on sodium channels. Computer modeling predicts that both mutations may allosterically affect pyrethroid binding.
Project description:Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for pest control in agriculture or in human public health commonly as a topical treatment for scabies and head lice. Exposure to pyrethroids such as permethrin or tetramethrin (TM) causes sensory alterations such as transient pain, burning, stinging sensations, and paraesthesias. Despite the well-known effects of pyrethroids on sodium channels, actions on other channels that control sensory neuron excitability are less studied. Given the role of 2-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels in modulating sensory neuron excitability and firing, both in physiological and pathological conditions, we examined the effect of pyrethroids on K2P channels mainly expressed in sensory neurons. Through electrophysiological and calcium imaging experiments, we show that a high percentage of TM-responding neurons were nociceptors, which were also activated by TRPA1 and/or TRPV1 agonists. This pyrethroid also activated and enhanced the excitability of peripheral saphenous nerve fibers. Pyrethroids produced a significant inhibition of native TRESK, TRAAK, TREK-1, and TREK-2 currents. Similar effects were found in transfected HEK293 cells. At the behavioral level, intradermal TM injection in the mouse paw produced nocifensive responses and caused mechanical allodynia, demonstrating that the effects seen on nociceptors in culture lead to pain-associated behaviors in vivo. In TRESK knockout mice, pain-associated behaviors elicited by TM were enhanced, providing further evidence for a role of this channel in preventing excessive neuronal activation. Our results indicate that inhibition of K2P channels facilitates sensory neuron activation and increases their excitability. These effects contribute to the generation of paraesthesias and pain after pyrethroid exposure.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Insecticide-based vector control, which comprises use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is the key method to malaria control in Madagascar. However, its effectiveness is threatened as vectors become resistant to insecticides. This study investigated the resistance status of malaria vectors in Madagascar to various insecticides recommended for use in ITNs and/or IRS.<h4>Methods</h4>WHO tube and CDC bottle bioassays were performed on populations of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis. Adult female An. gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and pupae were tested for their resistance to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Resting An. funestus and An. mascarensis female mosquitoes collected from unsprayed surfaces were tested against permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. The effect on insecticide resistance of pre-exposure to the synergists piperonyl-butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) also was assessed. Molecular analyses were done to identify species and determine the presence of knock-down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase resistance (ace-1 <sup>R</sup> ) gene mutations.<h4>Results</h4>Anopheles funestus and An. mascarensis were fully susceptible to permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was fully susceptible to bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Among the 17 An. gambiae (s.l.) populations tested for deltamethrin, no confirmed resistance was recorded, but suspected resistance was observed in two sites. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was resistant to permethrin in four out of 18 sites (mortality 68-89%) and to alpha-cypermethrin (89% mortality) and lambda-cyhalothrin (80% and 85%) in one of 17 sites, using one or both assay methods. Pre-exposure to PBO restored full susceptibility to all pyrethroids tested except in one site where only partial restoration to permethrin was observed. DEF fully suppressed resistance to deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin, while it partially restored susceptibility to permethrin in two of the three sites. Molecular analysis data suggest absence of kdr and ace-1 <sup>R</sup> gene mutations.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study suggests involvement of detoxifying enzymes in the phenotypic resistance of An. gambiae (s.l.) to pyrethroids. The absence of resistance in An. funestus and An. mascarensis to pirimiphos-methyl and pyrethroids and in An. gambiae (s.l.) to carbamates and organophosphates presents greater opportunity for managing resistance in Madagascar.