A reduction in reactive oxygen species contributes to dihydromyricetin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidant stress are considered inducers of carcinogenesis. However, the association of ROS with cancer is both complex and, at times, paradoxical. We assessed the effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on the induction of ROS accumulation and on the activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The results indicated that DHM could reduce ROS accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, with increasing concentrations of DHM, the expression of proteins that participate in the cell apoptosis program increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that a low dose of H2O2 (10 nM) could reverse DHM-induced cell apoptosis. We observed the following critical issues: first, the cellular redox balance is vital in DHM-induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and second, ROS could function as a redox-active signaling messenger to determine DHM-induced cell apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrated that low levels of ROS are also critical for the function of HCC cells.
Project description:Chemotherapy is an effective weapon in the battle against cancer. Nedaplatin (NDP) is an improved platinum-containing drug with lower cytotoxicity than other similar drugs. However, the repeated use of NDP results in substantial hepatocyte damage as well as drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases. Therefore, the development of effective chemotherapy strategies that enhance tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and reduce the secondary damage to liver cells is urgently needed. Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid compound, has been shown to have antitumor activity with no obvious toxicity to normal cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, DHM and NDP were combined to treat liver cancer cells; we found that DHM functions as a protector of normal cells compared with the use of NDP alone. In addition, the synergy of DHM with NDP enhanced the effect of NDP on the induction of HCC cell apoptosis. We found that the combination caused clear changes in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, we demonstrated that the combination of DHM and NDP activated the p53/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, which resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and induced cell death and growth inhibition in HCC cells.
Project description:Chemotherapy is an effective weapon in the battle against cancer, but numerous cancer patients are either not sensitive to chemotherapy or develop drug resistance to current chemotherapy regimens. Therefore, an effective chemotherapy mechanism that enhances tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. The aim of the present study was to determine the antitumor activity of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and its underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that DHM can markedly induce apoptotic cell death and autophagy in HNSCC cells. Meanwhile, increased autophagy inhibited apoptosis. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy further sensitized the HNSCC cells to DHM-induced apoptosis. Mechanistic analysis showed that the antitumor of DHM may be due to the activation phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), which contributed to autophagy. Importantly, DHM triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the HNSCC cells and the levels of ROS decreased with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Moreover, NAC abrogated the effects of DHM on STAT3-dependent autophagy. Overall, the following critical issues were observed: first, DHM increased the p-STAT3-dependent autophagy by generating ROS-signaling pathways in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Second, inhibiting autophagy could enhance DHM-induced apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Project description:Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity can have a major impact on patients' quality of life and social development problems. Oxidative stress affects normal physiologic functions and has been implicated in aminoglycoside-induced inner ear injury. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages DNA, lipids, and proteins in cells and induces their apoptosis. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a natural flavonol with a wide range of health benefits including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant effects; however, its effects and mechanism of action in auditory hair cells are not well understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant mechanism and anti-ototoxic potential of DHM using House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti (HEI-OC)1 auditory cells and cochlear explant cultures prepared from Kunming mice. We used gentamicin to establish aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity models. Histological and physiological analyses were carried out to determine DHM's pharmacological effects on gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Results showed DHM contributes to protecting cells from apoptotic cell death by inhibiting ROS accumulation. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that DHM exerted its otoprotective effects by up-regulating levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?-coactivator (PGC)-1? and Sirtuin (SIRT)3. And the role of PGC-1? and SIRT3 in the protective effects of DHM was evaluated by pharmacologic inhibition of these factors using SR-18292 and 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) pyridine, respectively, which indicated DHM's protective effect was dependent on activation of the PGC-1?/SIRT3 signaling. Our study is the first report to identify DHM as a potential otoprotective drug and provides a basis for the prevention and treatment of hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced oxidative damage to auditory hair cells.
Project description:The development of antitumor chemotherapy drugs remains a key goal for oncologists, and natural products provide a vast resource for anti-cancer drug discovery. In the current study, we found that the flavonoid dihydromyricetin (DHM) exhibited antitumor activity against liver cancer cells, including primary cells obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In contrast, DHM was not cytotoxic to immortalized normal liver cells. Furthermore, DHM treatment resulted in the growth inhibition and remission of xenotransplanted tumors in nude mice. Our results further demonstrated that this antitumor activity was caused by the activation of the p53-dependent apoptosis pathway via p53 phosphorylation at serine (15Ser). Moreover, our results showed that DHM plays a dual role in the induction of cell death when administered in combination with cisplatin, a common clinical drug that kills primary hepatoma cells but not normal liver cells.
Project description:Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 (GRASP65), which has been involved in cancer progression, is associated with tumor growth and cell apoptosis. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) has demonstrated antitumor activity in different types of human cancers. However, the pharmacological effects of DHM on ovarian cancer (OC) and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are largely unknown. The present study showed that DHM reduced cell migration and invasion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and induced cell apoptosis primarily through upregulation of Cleaved-caspase-3 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in OCs. To further clarify the cancer therapeutic target, we assessed the effect of DHM on the expression of GRASP65, which is overexpressed in human ovarian cancer tissues. DHM activated caspase-3 and decreased GRASP65 expression to promote cell apoptosis, implying that downregulation of GRASP65 was related to DHM-induced cell apoptosis. Additionally, the knockdown of GRASP65 by siRNA resulted in increased apoptosis after DHM treatment, while western blot and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that overexpression of GRASP65 attenuated DHM-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the JNK/ERK pathway may be involved in DHM-mediated caspase-3 activation and GRASP65 downregulation. Taken together, these findings provide novel evidence of the anti-cancer properties of DHM in OCs, indicating that DHM is a potential therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer through the inhibition of GRASP65 expression and the regulation of JNK/ERK pathway.
Project description:Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by defective liver autophagy accompanied by alterations to the endogenous defense system. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a natural flavonoid that demonstrates a wide range of physiological functions, and has been implicated as a regulator of autophagy. This study investigates the protective effects of DHM pretreatment on liver injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and elucidates the potential mechanism of DHM-mediated protection. Mice were subjected to 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 5 hours of reperfusion. DHM (100 mg/kg bw/day) or the vehicle was administered daily by gavage 7 days before ischemia and immediately before reperfusion. In this study, DHM markedly decreased serum aminotransferase activity and inhibited liver I/R -stimulated apoptosis. Moreover, DHM exerted hepatoprotective effects by upregulating mRNA levels of various essential autophagy-related genes including ATG5, ATG12, BECN1, and LC3. Autophagy inhibitor chloroquine or Atg5 knockdown blocked DHM -mediated elevation in liver function. Specifically, DHM significantly increased FOXO3a expression, and enhanced FOXO3a nuclear translocation and Ser588 phosphorylation modification. Importantly, the inhibition of FOXO3a with FOXO3a-siRNA in mice decreased DHM-induced autophagy-related genes and diminished the protective effects of DHM against liver I/R injury. In summary, these findings identify DHM as a novel hepatoprotective small molecule by elevating FOXO3a expression and nuclear translocation, stimulating autophagy-related genes and suppressing liver I/R-induced apoptosis, suggesting FOXO3a may have therapeutic value in liver cell protection in liver I/R injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Excess alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) consumption is a significant cause of chronic liver disease, accounting for nearly half of the cirrhosis-associated deaths in the United States. EtOH-induced liver toxicity is linked to EtOH metabolism and its associated increase in proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and the subsequent activation of Kupffer cells. Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a bioflavonoid isolated from Hovenia dulcis, can reduce EtOH intoxication and potentially protect against chemical-induced liver injuries. But there remains a paucity of information regarding the effects of DHM on EtOH metabolism and liver protection. As such, the current study tests the hypothesis that DHM supplementation enhances EtOH metabolism and reduces EtOH-mediated lipid dysregulation, thus promoting hepatocellular health. METHODS:The hepatoprotective effect of DHM (5 and 10 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) was evaluated using male C57BL/6J mice and a forced drinking ad libitum EtOH feeding model and HepG2/VL-17A hepatoblastoma cell models. EtOH-mediated lipid accumulation and DHM effects against lipid deposits were determined via H&E stains, triglyceride measurements, and intracellular lipid dyes. Protein expression of phosphorylated/total proteins and serum and hepatic cytokines was determined via Western blot and protein array. Total NAD+ /NADH Assay of liver homogenates was used to detect NAD + levels. RESULTS:DHM reduced liver steatosis, liver triglycerides, and liver injury markers in mice chronically fed EtOH. DHM treatment resulted in increased activation of AMPK and downstream targets, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1a, and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)-1. DHM induced expression of EtOH-metabolizing enzymes and reduced EtOH and acetaldehyde concentrations, effects that may be partly explained by changes in NAD+ . Furthermore, DHM reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in sera and cell models. CONCLUSION:In total, these findings support the utility of DHM as a dietary supplement to reduce EtOH-induced liver injury via changes in lipid metabolism, enhancement of EtOH metabolism, and suppressing inflammation responses to promote liver health.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major component of Escherichia coli cell wall can cause inflammation and cell death. Dihydromyricetin (ampelopsin, DHM) is a natural flavonoid compound with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial effects. The preventive effects of DHM against ileum injury remain unclear. Here, we explored the protective role of DHM against LPS-induced ileum injury in chickens. In this study, DHM significantly attenuated LPS-induced alteration in diamine oxidase, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels in chicken plasma and ileum. Histology evaluation showed that the structure of blood vessels in ileum was seriously fragmented and presence of necrotic tissue in the lumen in the LPS group. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the surface of the villi was rough and uneven, the structure was chaotic, and the normal finger shape was lost in the LPS group. In contrast, 0.05% and 0.1% DHM treatment partially alleviated the abnormal morphology. Additionally, DHM maintained the barrier function by restoring the protein expression of occludin, claudin-1 and zonula occludens protein-1. DHM inhibited apoptosis through the reduction of the expression of bax and caspase-3 and restored the expression of bcl-2. Importantly, DHM could reduce ileum NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 expression to protect tissues from pyroptosis and inhibited toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) signalling pathway. In summary, DHM attenuated the ileum mucosal damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis, maintained barrier function, inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome and TLR4/NF-?B signalling pathway activation triggered by Escherichia coli LPS.
Project description:Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the second most common skin cancer. Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a Rattan tea extract, has been shown to have antitumor activity with no obvious toxicity to normal cells in vitro and in vivo. However, its efficacy in the treatment of CSCC and the underlying antitumor mechanism has not been fully elucidated yet. In our study, DHM increased autophagic flux in the A431 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of P62/SQSTM1. Moreover, the pharmacological or genetic blocking autophagy decreased DHM-induced cell death, indicating DHM triggered autophagic cell death in A431 cells. Specifically, DHM induced TFEB<sup>(Ser142)</sup> de-phosphorylation, activated TFEB nuclear translocation and increased of TFEB reporter activity, which contributed to the expression of autophagy-related genes and subsequent initiated autophagic cell death in A431 cells. Importantly, DHM decreased lncRNA MALAT1 expression and MALAT1 overexpression abrogated the effects of DHM on TFEB-dependent autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, DHM induces CSCC cell death via inducing excessive autophagy, which is mediated through the <i>MALAT1</i>-TFEB pathway. Therefore, DHM may be beneficial for the development of chemotherapy for CSCC.
Project description:Background:Progressive accumulation of α-synuclein is a key step in the pathological development of Parkinson's disease. Impaired protein degradation and increased levels of α-synuclein may trigger a pathological aggregation in vitro and in vivo. The chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) pathway is involved in the intracellular degradation processes of α-synuclein. Dysfunction of the CMA pathway impairs α-synuclein degradation and causes cytotoxicity. Results:In the present study, we investigated the effects on the CMA pathway and α-synuclein aggregation using bioactive ingredients (Dihydromyricetin (DHM) and Salvianolic acid B (Sal B)) extracted from natural medicinal plants. In both cell-free and cellular models of α-synuclein aggregation, after administration of DHM and Sal B, we observed significant inhibition of α-synuclein accumulation and aggregation. Cells were co-transfected with a C-terminal modified α-synuclein (SynT) and synphilin-1, and then treated with DHM (10 μM) and Sal B (50 μM) 16 hours after transfection; levels of α-synuclein aggregation decreased significantly (68% for DHM and 75% for Sal B). Concomitantly, we detected increased levels of LAMP-1 (a marker of lysosomal homeostasis) and LAMP-2A (a key marker of CMA). Immunofluorescence analyses showed increased colocalization between LAMP-1 and LAMP-2A with α-synuclein inclusions after treatment with DHM and Sal B. We also found increased levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2A both in vitro and in vivo, along with decreased levels of α-synuclein. Moreover, DHM and Sal B treatments exhibited anti-inflammatory activities, preventing astroglia- and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in BAC-α-syn-GFP transgenic mice. Conclusions:Our data indicate that DHM and Sal B are effective in modulating α-synuclein accumulation and aggregate formation and augmenting activation of CMA, holding potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.