Computed optical interferometric tomography for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging.
ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging methods are important for cellular-level research. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a low-coherence-based interferometry technology for cellular imaging with both high axial and lateral resolution. Using a high-numerical-aperture objective, OCM normally has a shallow depth of field and requires scanning the focus through the entire region of interest to perform volumetric imaging. With a higher-numerical-aperture objective, the image quality of OCM is affected by and more sensitive to aberrations. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) are computed imaging techniques that overcome the depth-of-field limitation and the effect of optical aberrations in optical coherence tomography (OCT), respectively. In this work we combine OCM with ISAM and CAO to achieve high-speed volumetric cellular imaging. Experimental imaging results of ex vivo human breast tissue, ex vivo mouse brain tissue, in vitro fibroblast cells in 3D scaffolds, and in vivo human skin demonstrate the significant potential of this technique for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging.
Project description:The compromise between lateral resolution and usable imaging depth range is a bottleneck for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Existing solutions for optical coherence microscopy (OCM) suffer from either large data size and long acquisition time or a nonideal point spread function. We present volumetric OCM of mouse brain ex vivo with a large depth coverage by leveraging computational adaptive optics (CAO) to significantly reduce the number of OCM volumes that need to be acquired with a Gaussian beam focused at different depths. We demonstrate volumetric reconstruction of ex-vivo mouse brain with lateral resolution of 2.2???m, axial resolution of 4.7???m, and depth range of ?1.2??mm optical path length, using only 11 OCT data volumes acquired on a spectral-domain OCM system. Compared to focus scanning with step size equal to the Rayleigh length of the beam, this is a factor of 4 fewer datasets required for volumetric imaging. Coregistered two-photon microscopy confirmed that CAO-OCM reconstructions can visualize various tissue microstructures in the brain. Our results also highlight the limitations of CAO in highly scattering media, particularly when attempting to reconstruct far from the focal plane or when imaging deep within the sample.
Project description:Cellular traction forces (CTFs) play an integral role in both physiological processes and disease, and are a topic of interest in mechanobiology. Traction force microscopy (TFM) is a family of methods used to quantify CTFs in a variety of settings. State-of-the-art 3D TFM methods typically rely on confocal fluorescence microscopy, which can impose limitations on acquisition speed, volumetric coverage, and temporal sampling or coverage. In this report, we present the first quantitative implementation of a new TFM technique: traction force optical coherence microscopy (TF-OCM). TF-OCM leverages the capabilities of optical coherence microscopy and computational adaptive optics (CAO) to enable the quantitative reconstruction of 3D CTFs in scattering media with minute-scale temporal sampling. We applied TF-OCM to quantify CTFs exerted by isolated NIH-3T3 fibroblasts embedded in Matrigel, with five-minute temporal sampling, using images spanning a 500 × 500 × 500 μm3 field-of-view. Due to the reliance of TF-OCM on computational imaging methods, we have provided extensive discussion of the equations, assumptions, and failure modes of these methods. By providing high-throughput, label-free, volumetric imaging in scattering media, TF-OCM is well-suited to the study of 3D CTF dynamics, and may prove advantageous for the study of large cell collectives, such as the spheroid models prevalent in mechanobiology.
Project description:High-resolution real-time tomography of scattering tissues is important for many areas of medicine and biology1-6. However, the compromise between transverse resolution and depth-of-field in addition to low sensitivity deep in tissue continue to impede progress towards cellular-level volumetric tomography. Computed imaging has the potential to solve these long-standing limitations. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM)7-9 is a computed imaging technique enabling high-resolution volumetric tomography with spatially invariant resolution. However, its potential for clinical diagnostics remains largely untapped since full volume reconstructions required lengthy postprocessing, and the phase-stability requirements have been difficult to satisfy in vivo. Here we demonstrate how 3-D Fourier-domain resampling, in combination with high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT), can achieve high-resolution in vivo tomography. Enhanced depth sensitivity was achieved over a depth-of-field extended in real time by more than an order of magnitude. This work lays the foundation for high-speed volumetric cellular-level tomography.
Project description:Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines coherence gating, high numerical aperture optics, and a fiber-core pinhole to provide high axial and lateral resolution with relatively large depth of imaging. We present a handheld rigid OCM endoscope designed for small animal surgical imaging, with a 6-mm diam tip, 1-mm scan width, and 1-mm imaging depth. X-Y scanning is performed distally with mirrors mounted to micro galvonometer scanners incorporated into the endoscope handle. The endoscope optical design consists of scanning doublets, an afocal Hopkins relay lens system, a 0.4 numerical aperture water immersion objective, and a cover glass. This endoscope can resolve laterally a 1.4-μm line pair feature and has an axial resolution (full width half maximum) of 5.4 μm. Images taken with this endoscope of fresh ex-vivo mouse ovaries show structural features, such as corpus luteum, primary follicles, growing follicles, and fallopian tubes. This rigid handheld OCM endoscope can be useful for a variety of minimally invasive and surgical imaging applications.
Project description:Imaging of living cells based on traditional fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy has delivered an enormous amount of information critical for understanding biological processes in single cells. However, the requirement for a high numerical aperture and fluorescent markers still limits researchers' ability to visualize the cellular architecture without causing short- and long-term photodamage. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising alternative that circumvents the technical limitations of fluorescence imaging techniques and provides unique access to fundamental aspects of early embryonic development, without the requirement for sample pre-processing or labeling. In the present paper, we utilized the internal motion of cytoplasm, as well as custom scanning and signal processing protocols, to effectively reduce the speckle noise typical for standard OCM and enable high-resolution intracellular time-lapse imaging. To test our imaging system we used mouse and pig oocytes and embryos and visualized them through fertilization and the first embryonic division, as well as at selected stages of oogenesis and preimplantation development. Because all morphological and morphokinetic properties recorded by OCM are believed to be biomarkers of oocyte/embryo quality, OCM may represent a new chapter in imaging-based preimplantation embryo diagnostics.
Project description:Fluorescence-guided surgery is a state-of-the-art approach for intraoperative imaging during neurosurgical removal of tumor tissue. While the visualization of high-grade gliomas is reliable, lower grade glioma often lack visible fluorescence signals. Here, we present a hybrid prototype combining visible light optical coherence microscopy (OCM) and high-resolution fluorescence imaging for assessment of brain tumor samples acquired by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided surgery. OCM provides high-resolution information of the inherent tissue scattering and absorption properties of tissue. We here explore quantitative attenuation coefficients derived from volumetric OCM intensity data and quantitative high-resolution 5-ALA fluorescence as potential biomarkers for tissue malignancy including otherwise difficult-to-assess low-grade glioma. We validate our findings against the gold standard histology and use attenuation and fluorescence intensity measures to differentiate between tumor core, infiltrative zone and adjacent brain tissue. Using large field-of-view scans acquired by a near-infrared swept-source optical coherence tomography setup, we provide initial assessments of tumor heterogeneity. Finally, we use cross-sectional OCM images to train a convolutional neural network that discriminates tumor from non-tumor tissue with an accuracy of 97%. Collectively, the present hybrid approach offers potential to translate into an in vivo imaging setup for substantially improved intraoperative guidance of brain tumor surgeries.
Project description:In vivo optical microscopic imaging techniques have recently emerged as important tools for the study of neurobiological development and pathophysiology. In particular, two-photon microscopy has proved to be a robust and highly flexible method for in vivo imaging in highly scattering tissue. However, two-photon imaging typically requires extrinsic dyes or contrast agents, and imaging depths are limited to a few hundred microns. Here we demonstrate Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) for in vivo imaging of neuronal cell bodies and cortical myelination up to depths of ~1.3 mm in the rat neocortex. Imaging does not require the administration of exogenous dyes or contrast agents, and is achieved through intrinsic scattering contrast and image processing alone. Furthermore, using OCM we demonstrate in vivo, quantitative measurements of optical properties (index of refraction and attenuation coefficient) in the cortex, and correlate these properties with laminar cellular architecture determined from the images. Lastly, we show that OCM enables direct visualization of cellular changes during cell depolarization and may therefore provide novel optical markers of cell viability.
Project description:We present volumetric imaging and computational techniques to quantify neuronal and myelin architecture with intrinsic scattering contrast. Using spectral / Fourier domain Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) and software focus-tracking we validate imaging of neuronal cytoarchitecture and demonstrate quantification in the rodent cortex in vivo. Additionally, by ex vivo imaging in conjunction with optical clearing techniques, we demonstrate that intrinsic scattering contrast is preserved in the brain, even after sacrifice and fixation. We volumetrically image cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture ex vivo across the entire depth of the rodent cortex. Cellular-level imaging up to the working distance of our objective (~3 mm) is demonstrated ex vivo. Architectonic features show the expected laminar characteristics; moreover, changes in contrast after the application of acetic acid suggest that entire neuronal cell bodies are responsible for the "negative contrast" present in the images. Clearing and imaging techniques that preserve tissue architectural integrity have the potential to enable non-invasive studies of the brain during development, disease, and remodeling, even in samples where exogenous labeling is impractical.
Project description:Three-dimensional (3D) tissue imaging methods are expected to improve surgical management of cancer. In this study, we examined the feasibility of two 3D imaging technologies, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM), to view human breast specimens based on intrinsic optical contrast. Specifically, we imaged 44 ex vivo breast specimens including 34 benign and 10 malignant lesions with an integrated OCT and OCM system developed in our laboratory. The system enabled 4-?m axial resolution (OCT and OCM) with 14-?m (OCT) and 2-?m (OCM) transverse resolutions, respectively. OCT and OCM images were compared with corresponding histologic sections to identify characteristic features from benign and malignant breast lesions at multiple resolution scales. OCT and OCM provide complimentary information about tissue microstructure, thus showing distinctive patterns for adipose tissue, fibrous stroma, breast lobules and ducts, cysts and microcysts, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas. The 3D imaging capability of OCT and OCM provided complementary information to individual 2D images, thereby allowing tracking features from different levels to identify low-contrast structures that were difficult to appreciate from single images alone. Our results lay the foundation for future in vivo optical evaluation of breast tissues, using OCT and OCM, which has the potential to guide core needle biopsies, assess surgical margins, and evaluate nodal involvement in breast cancer.
Project description:Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising technique for high resolution cellular imaging in human tissues. An OCM system for high-speed en face cellular resolution imaging was developed at 1060 nm wavelength at frame rates up to 5 Hz with resolutions of < 4 microm axial and < 2 microm transverse. The system utilized a novel polarization compensation method to combat wavelength dependent source polarization and achieve broadband electro-optic phase modulation compatible with ultrahigh axial resolution. In addition, the system incorporated an auto-focusing feature that enables precise, near real-time alignment of the confocal and coherence gates in tissue, allowing user-friendly optimization of image quality during the imaging procedure. Ex vivo cellular images of human esophagus, colon, and cervix as well as in vivo results from human skin are presented. Finally, the system design is demonstrated with a miniaturized piezoelectric fiber-scanning probe which can be adapted for laparoscopic and endoscopic imaging applications.