ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of the triclinic form of the milk protein ?-lactoglobulin from sheep (Ovis aries) at 1.1?Å resolution is described together with a comparison of the triclinic structures of the low-pH bovine and high-pH ovine proteins. All three structures are remarkably similar, despite the well known pH-dependent conformational transition described for the bovine and porcine proteins that occurs in solution. The high resolution of the present structure determination has allowed a more accurate description of the protein than has hitherto been possible, but it is still not clear whether flexibility changes in the external loops can compensate for the presence of a significant void in the unliganded interior of the structure.
Project description:The structure of the trigonal crystal form of bovine beta-lactoglobulin variant B at pH 7.1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods at a resolution of 2.22 A and refined to values for R and Rfree of 0.239 and 0.286, respectively. By comparison with the structure of the trigonal crystal form of bovine beta-lactoglobulin variant A at pH 7.1, which was determined previously [Qin BY et al., 1998, Biochemistry 37:14014-14023], the structural consequences of the sequence differences D64G and V118A of variants A and B, respectively, have been investigated. Only minor differences in the core calyx structure occur. In the vicinity of the mutation site D64G on loop CD (residues 61-67), there are small changes in main-chain conformation, whereas the substitution V118A on beta-strand H is unaccompanied by changes in the surrounding structure, thereby creating a void volume and weakened hydrophobic interactions with a consequent loss of thermal stability relative to variant A. A conformational difference is found for the loop EF, implicated in the pH-dependent conformational change known as the Tanford transition, but it is not clear whether this reflects differences intrinsic to the variants in solution or differences in crystallization.
Project description:This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated ovine (O), and the other from Bos taurus, designated bovine (B).
Project description:The transglutaminase-catalysed incorporation of primary amines (putrescine and monodansylcadaverine) into bovine beta-lactoglobulin has been studied. In the presence of 1 mM-dithiothreitol between 1 and 2 mol of amine can be incorporated per mol of beta-lactoglobulin subunit. There is very little incorporation of amines in the absence of reducing agent. By isolating and sequencing the modified peptides, the sites of modification have been identified as Gln-159 (preferred) and Gln-155. C.d. has been used to study the structure of beta-lactoglobulin over a range of pH values and in the presence or absence of dithiothreitol. The results are discussed in terms of the X-ray-crystallographically determined structure of beta-lactoglobulin.
Project description:Bovine beta-lactoglobulin A assumes a dimeric native conformation at neutral pH, while the conformation at pH 2 is monomeric but still native. Beta-lactoglobulin A has a free thiol at Cys121, which is buried between the beta-barrel and the C-terminal major alpha-helix. This thiol group was specifically reacted with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) in the presence of 1.0 M Gdn-HCI at pH 7.5, producing a modified beta-lactoglobulin (TNB-bIg) containing a mixed disulfide bond with 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). The conformation and stability of TNB-bIg were studied by circular dichroism (CD), tryptophan fluorescence, analytical ultracentrifugation, and one-dimensional 1H-NMR. The CD spectra of TNB-bIg indicated disordering of the native secondary structure at pH 7.5, whereas a slight increase in the alpha-helical content was observed at pH 2.0. The tryptophan fluorescence of TNB-bIg was significantly quenched compared with that of the intact protein, probably by the energy transfer to TNB. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis indicated that, at neutral pH, TNB-bIg is monomeric while the intact protein is dimeric. In contrast, at pH 2.0, both the intact beta-lactoglobulin and TNB-bIg were monomeric. The unfolding transition of TNB-bIg induced by Gdn-HCl was cooperative in both pH regions, although the degree of cooperativity was less than that of the intact protein. The 1H-NMR spectrum for TNB-bIg at pH 3.0 was native-like, whereas the spectrum at pH 7.5 was similar to that of the unfolded proteins. These results suggest that modification of the buried thiol group destabilizes the rigid hydrophobic core and the dimer interface, producing a monomeric state that is native-like at pH 2.0 but is molten globule-like at pH 7.5. Upon reducing the mixed disulfide of TNB-bIg with dithiothreitol, the intact beta-lactoglobulin was regenerated. TNB-bIg will become a useful model to analyze the conformation and stability of the intermediate of protein folding.
Project description:Using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, we studied the solution structure and dynamics of bovine beta-lactoglobulin A at pH 2.0 and 45 degrees C, where the protein exists as a monomeric native state. The monomeric NMR structure, comprising an eight-stranded continuous antiparallel beta-barrel and one major alpha-helix, is similar to the X-ray dimeric structure obtained at pH 6.2, including betaI-strand that forms the dimer interface and loop EF that serves as a lid of the interior hydrophobic hole. [1H]-15N NOE revealed that betaF, betaG, and betaH strands buried under the major alpha-helix are rigid on a pico- to nanosecond time scale and also emphasized rapid fluctuations of loops and the N- and C-terminal regions.
Project description:NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies.
Project description:Although bovine beta-lactoglobulin assumes a monomeric native structure at pH 3 in the absence of salt, the addition of salts stabilizes the dimer. Thermodynamics of the monomer-dimer equilibrium dependent on the salt concentration were studied by sedimentation equilibrium. The addition of NaCl, KCl, or guanidine hydrochloride below 1 M stabilized the dimer in a similar manner. On the other hand, NaClO(4) was more effective than other salts by about 20-fold, suggesting that anion binding is responsible for the salt-induced dimer formation, as observed for acid-unfolded proteins. The addition of guanidine hydrochloride at 5 M dissociated the dimer into monomers because of the denaturation of protein structure. In the presence of either NaCl or NaClO(4), the dimerization constant decreased with an increase in temperature, indicating that the enthalpy change (DeltaH(D)) of dimer formation is negative. The heat effect of the dimer formation was directly measured with an isothermal titration calorimeter by titrating the monomeric beta-lactoglobulin at pH 3.0 with NaClO(4). The net heat effects after subtraction of the heat of salt dilution, corresponding to DeltaH(D), were negative, and were consistent with those obtained by the sedimentation equilibrium. From the dependence of dimerization constant on temperature measured by sedimentation equilibrium, we estimated the DeltaH(D) value at 20 degrees C and the heat capacity change (DeltaC(p)) of dimer formation. In both NaCl and NaClO(4), the obtained DeltaC(p) value was negative, indicating the dominant role of burial of the hydrophobic surfaces upon dimer formation. The observed DeltaC(p) values were consistent with the calculated value from the X-ray dimeric structure using a method of accessible surface area. These results indicated that monomer-dimer equilibrium of beta-lactoglobulin at pH 3 is determined by a subtle balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic effects, which are modulated by the addition of salts or by changes in temperature.
Project description:Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in vivo has been found complexed with fatty acids, especially palmitic and oleic acid. To elucidate the still unknown structure-function relationship in this protein, the interactions between 13C enriched palmitic acid (PA) and BLG were investigated by means of one-, two-, and three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy in the pH range 8.4-2.1. The NMR spectra revealed that at neutral pH the ligand is bound within the central cavity of BLG, with the methyl end deeply buried within the protein. The analysis of 13C spectra of the holo protein revealed the presence of conformational variability of bound PA carboxyl end in the pH range 8.4-5.9, related to the Tanford transition. The release of PA starts at pH lower than 6.0, and it is nearly complete at acidic pH. This finding is relevant in relation to the widely reported hypothesis that this protein can act as a transporter through the acidic gastric tract. Ligand binding and release is shown to be completely reversible over the entire pH range examined, differently from other fatty acid binding proteins whose behavior is analyzed throughout the paper. The mode of interaction of BLG is compatible with the proposed function of facilitating the digestion of milk fat during the neonatal period of calves.
Project description:1. The whey proteins from the milk of red deer are compared with those of cattle. Gel chromatography and electrophoresis showed a close similarity between the whey proteins of the two species in the size, mobility and relative amounts of the main constituents and in the changes in their relative amounts with time after parturition. 2. The major constituent of the deer whey was isolated. It appeared to be homologous with bovine beta-lactoglobulin and had the following properties: m=-5.2X10(-9)m2-s-1-V-1 at 4 degrees C and pH 8.6; pI=5.17; S020, w =2.89S; v=0.748 ml/g; E1g/dl 1cm= 9.12 at 278 nm; deltan/c=1.794 X 10(-3)dl/g at 579 nm (all at 20 degrees C except m). Its molecular weight was that of a dimer with a subunit weight of 18 000. 3. Amino acid analyses of this protein, adjusted to lysine = 15 residues showed that it contains one more residue of aspartic acid, alanine and methionine and one less glutamic acid residue and two less leucine residues than bovine beta-lactoglobulin A. 4. On starch-gel electrophoresis at pH 8.2, this protein migrated at the same rate as bovine beta-lactoglobulin B, although its isoelectric point is close to that of the bovine A variant. Milk from three out of 27 hinds examined showed a variant. This migrated in starch gel at the same rate as the bovine A variant but had a more acid pI = 5.02. 5. The two species whose milk whey proteins are compared represent two different families of ruminants. The similarities found support the view that the milk whey proteins of the bovids are probably typical of the suborder as a whole.
Project description:A D1 Fab fragment containing the allergen-binding variable domains of the IgE antibody was characterized by ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry and crystallized with bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. X-ray data suitable for structure determination were collected to 2.8 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 67.0, b = 100.6, c = 168.1 A. The three-dimensional structure of the D1 Fab fragment-BLG complex will provide the first insight into IgE antibody-allergen interactions at the molecular level.