Radiotherapy-related changes in serum proteome patterns of head and neck cancer patients; the effect of low and medium doses of radiation delivered to large volumes of normal tissue.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) involves irradiation of large volume of normal tissue with low and medium doses, biological relevance of which is not clear yet. Serum proteome features were used here to study the dose-volume effects in patients irradiated with IMRT due to head and neck cancer. METHODS: Blood samples were collected before and during RT, and also about one month and one year after the end of RT in a group of 72 patients who received definitive treatment. Serum proteome profiles were analyzed using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry in 800-14,000 Da range. RESULTS: Major changes in serum proteome profiles were observed between pre-treatment samples and samples collected one month after RT. Radiation-related changes in serum proteome features were affected by low-to-medium doses delivered to a large fraction of body mass. Proteome changes were associated with intensity of acute radiation toxicity, indicating collectively that RT-related features of serum proteome reflected general response of patient's organism to irradiation. However, short-term dose-related changes in serum proteome features were not associated significantly with the long-term efficacy of the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of low and medium doses of radiation have been documented at the level of serum proteome, which is a reflection of the patient's whole body response.
Project description:Radiotherapy (RT) is frequently used in the treatment of head and neck cancer, but different side-effects are frequently reported, including a higher frequency of radiation-related caries, what may be consequence of direct radiation to dental tissue. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was developed to improve tumor control and decrease patient's morbidity by delivering radiation beams only to tumor shapes and sparing normal tissue. However, teeth are usually not included in IMRT plannings and the real efficacy of IMRT in the dental context has not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess whether IMRT delivers lower radiation doses to dental structures than conformal 3D radiotherapy (3DRT).Radiation dose delivery to dental structures of 80 patients treated for head and neck cancers (oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx and oropharynx) with IMRT (40 patients) and 3DRT (40 patients) were assessed by individually contouring tooth crowns on patients' treatment plans. Clinicopathological data were retrieved from patients' medical files.The average dose of radiation to teeth delivered by IMRT was significantly lower than with 3DRT (p?=?0.007); however, only patients affected by nasopharynx and oral cavity cancers demonstrated significantly lower doses with IMRT (p?=?0.012 and p?=?0.011, respectively). Molars received more radiation with both 3DRT and IMRT, but the latter delivered significantly lower radiation in this group of teeth (p?<?0.001), whereas no significant difference was found for the other dental groups. Maxillary teeth received lower doses than mandibular teeth, but only IMRT delivered significantly lower doses (p?=?0.011 and p?=?0.003). Ipsilateral teeth received higher doses than contralateral teeth with both techniques and IMRT delivered significantly lower radiation than 3DRT for contralateral dental structures (p?<?0.001).IMRT delivered lower radiation doses to teeth than 3DRT, but only for some groups of patients and teeth, suggesting that this decrease was more likely due to the protection of other high risk organs, and was not enough to remove teeth from the zone of high risk for radiogenic disturbance (>30Gy).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Conformal radiotherapy is a primary treatment in head and neck cancer, which putative adverse effects depend on relatively low doses of radiation delivered to increased volumes of normal tissues. Systemic effects of such treatment include radiation-induced changes in serum lipid profile, yet dose- and volume-dependence of these changes remain to be established.<h4>Methods</h4>Here we analyzed levels of choline-containing phospholipids in serum samples collected consecutively during the radiotherapy used as the only treatment modality. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach applied in the study enabled the detection and quantitation of 151 phospholipids, including (lyso)phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins.<h4>Results</h4>No statistically significant differences were found in the pretreatment samples from patients with different locations and stages of cancer. To compensate for potential differences between schemes of radiotherapy, the biologically effective doses were calculated and used in the search of correlations with specific lipid levels. We found that the levels of several phospholipids depended on the maximum dose delivered to the gross tumor volume and total radiation energy absorbed by the patient's body. Increased doses correlated with increased levels of sphingomyelins and reduced levels of phosphatidylcholines. Furthermore, we observed several phospholipids whose serum levels correlated with the degree of acute radiation toxicity.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Noteworthy, serum phospholipid levels were associated mainly with volumes of normal tissues irradiated with relatively low doses (i.e., total accumulated dose 20 Gy), which indicated the importance of such effects on the systemic response of the patient's organism to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).
Project description:Radiation therapy (RT) is a curative treatment modality for localized prostate cancer. Over the past two decades, advances in technology and imaging have considerably changed RT in prostate cancer treatment. Treatment has evolved from 2-dimensional (2D) planning using X-ray fields based on pelvic bony landmarks to 3-dimensional (3D) conformal RT (CRT) which uses computed tomography (CT) based planning. Despite improvements with 3D-CRT, dose distributions often remained suboptimal with portions of the rectum and bladder receiving unacceptably high doses. In more recent years, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become the standard of care to deliver external beam RT. IMRT uses multiple radiation beams of different shapes and intensities delivered from a wide range of angles to 'paint' the radiation dose onto the tumor. IMRT allows for a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the prostate while reducing dose to surrounding organs. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated improved cancer outcomes with dose escalation, but toxicities using 3D-CRT and escalated doses have been problematic. IMRT is a method to deliver dose escalated RT with more conformal dose distributions than 3D-CRT and has been associated with improved toxicity profiles. IMRT also appears to be the safest method to deliver hypofractionated RT and pelvic lymph node radiation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the technical aspects of IMRT planning and delivery, and to review the literature supporting the use of IMRT for prostate cancer.
Project description:Partial body irradiation during cancer radiotherapy (RT) induces a response of irradiated tissues that could be observed at the level of serum proteome. Here we aimed to characterize the response to RT in group of patients treated because of prostate cancer. Five consecutive blood samples were collected before, during, and after the end of RT in a group of 126 patients who received definitive treatment with a maximum dose of 76 Gy. Serum peptidome, which was profiled in the 2000-16,000 Da range using MALDI-MS. Serum proteins were identified and quantified using the shotgun LC-MS/MS approach. The majority of changes in serum peptidome were detected between pre-treatment samples and samples collected after 3-4 weeks of RT (~25% of registered peptides changed their abundances significantly), yet the intensity of observed changes was not correlated significantly with the degree of acute radiation toxicity or the volume of irradiated tissues. Furthermore, there were a few serum proteins identified, the abundances of which were different in pre-RT and post-RT samples, including immunity and inflammation-related factors. Observed effects were apparently weaker than in comparable groups of head and neck cancer patients in spite of similar radiation doses and volumes of irradiated tissues in both groups. We concluded that changes observed at the level of serum proteome were low for this cohort of prostate cancer patients, although the specific components involved are associated with immunity and inflammation, and reflect the characteristic acute response of the human body to radiation.
Project description:Purpose NRG Oncology/RTOG 1203 was designed to compare patient-reported acute toxicity and health-related quality of life during treatment with standard pelvic radiation or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in women with cervical and endometrial cancer. Methods Patients were randomly assigned to standard four-field radiation therapy (RT) or IMRT radiation treatment. The primary end point was change in patient-reported acute GI toxicity from baseline to the end of RT, measured with the bowel domain of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC). Secondary end points included change in patient-reported urinary toxicity, change in GI toxicity measured with the Patient-Reported Outcome Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and quality of life measured with the Trial Outcome Index. Results From 2012 to 2015, 289 patients were enrolled, of whom 278 were eligible. Between baseline and end of RT, the mean EPIC bowel score declined 23.6 points in the standard RT group and 18.6 points in the IMRT group ( P = .048), the mean EPIC urinary score declined 10.4 points in the standard RT group and 5.6 points in the IMRT group ( P = .03), and the mean Trial Outcome Index score declined 12.8 points in the standard RT group and 8.8 points in the IMRT group ( P = .06). At the end of RT, 51.9% of women who received standard RT and 33.7% who received IMRT reported frequent or almost constant diarrhea ( P = .01), and more patients who received standard RT were taking antidiarrheal medications four or more times daily (20.4% v 7.8%; P = .04). Conclusion Pelvic IMRT was associated with significantly less GI and urinary toxicity than standard RT from the patient's perspective.
Project description:Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a major side-effect of radiation therapy in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients. In this study, we demonstrate that early prediction of ORN is possible by analyzing the temporal evolution of mandibular subvolumes receiving radiation. For our analysis, we use computed tomography (CT) scans from 21 OPC patients treated with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) with subsequent radiographically-proven ≥ grade II ORN, at three different time points: pre-IMRT, 2-months, and 6-months post-IMRT. For each patient, radiomic features were extracted from a mandibular subvolume that developed ORN and a control subvolume that received the same dose but did not develop ORN. We used a Multivariate Functional Principal Component Analysis (MFPCA) approach to characterize the temporal trajectories of these features. The proposed MFPCA model performs the best at classifying ORN vs. Control subvolumes with an area under curve (AUC) = 0.74 [95% confidence interval (C.I.): 0.61-0.90], significantly outperforming existing approaches such as a pre-IMRT features model or a delta model based on changes at intermediate time points, i.e., at 2- and 6-month follow-up. This suggests that temporal trajectories of radiomics features derived from sequential pre- and post-RT CT scans can provide markers that are correlates of RT-induced mandibular injury, and consequently aid in earlier management of ORN.
Project description:PURPOSE:Multibeam intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) enhances the therapeutic index by increasing the dosimetric coverage of the targeted tumor tissues while minimizing volumes of adjacent organs receiving high doses of RT. The tradeoff is that a greater volume of lung is exposed to low doses of RT, raising concern about the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP). METHODS AND MATERIALS:Between July 2010 and January 2013, patients with node-positive breast cancer received inverse-planned, multibeam IMRT to the breast or chest wall and regional nodes, including the internal mammary nodes (IMNs). The primary endpoint was feasibility, predefined by dosimetric treatment planning criteria. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of RP grade 3 or greater and changes in pulmonary function measured with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 scales, pulmonary function tests and community-acquired pneumonia questionnaires, obtained at baseline and 6 months after IMRT. Clinical follow-up was every 6 months for up to 5 years. RESULTS:Median follow-up was 53.4 months (range, 0-82 months). Of 113 patients enrolled, 104 completed follow-up procedures. Coverage of the breast or chest wall and IMN was comprehensive (median 48.1 Gy and 48.9 Gy, respectively). The median volume of lung receiving a high dose (V20Gy) and a low dose (V5) was 29% and 100%, respectively. The overall rate of respiratory toxicities was 10.6% (11/104), including 1 grade 3 RP event (0.96%). No differences were found in pulmonary function test or community-acquired pneumonia scores after IMRT. The 5-year rates of locoregional recurrence-free, disease-free, and overall survival were 93.2%, 63.6%, and 80.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Multibeam IMRT in patients with breast cancer receiving regional nodal irradiation was dosimetrically feasible, based on early treatment planning criteria. Despite the large volume of lung receiving low-dose RT, the incidence of grade 3 RP was remarkably low, justifying inverse-planned IMRT as a treatment modality for patients with high-risk breast cancer in whom conventional RT techniques prove inadequate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We aim to characterize serial (i.e., acute and late) MRI signal intensity (SI) changes in dysphagia-associated structures as a function of radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively extracted data on 72 patients with stage III-IV NPC treated with intensity-modulated RT (IMRT). The mean T1- and T2-weighted MRI SIs were recorded for the superior pharyngeal constrictor (SPC) and soft palate (SP) at baseline, early-after IMRT, and last follow up, with normalization to structures receiving <5 Gy. RESULTS:All structures had a significant increase in T2 SIs early after treatment, irrespective of the mean dose given. At last follow-up, the increase in T2 SI subsided completely for SPC and partially for SP. The T1 SI did not change significantly in early follow-up images of both structures; on late follow-up, patients with mean doses >62.25 Gy had a significant decrease in the corresponding T1 SI for SPC (1.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4, P=0.007) but decreased non-significantly for SP. CONCLUSIONS:Serial MRI acquisitions enable the identification of both early and late radiation-induced changes in swallowing structures after definitive IMRT for NPC. Dose dependent decrease in late T1 SI is associated with higher RT doses to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle; while dose independent increase in SI for both structures in early post-RT T2 images is observed and subsides after therapy. Further efforts will seek to elucidate the relationship between dose-dependent muscle SI changes and functional alteration of swallowing muscles.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Developing a quantitative decision-support strategy estimating the impact of normal tissue complications from definitive radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). We developed this strategy to identify patients with oropharyngeal HNC who may benefit most from receiving proton RT.<h4>Methods and materials</h4>Recent normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for dysphagia, esophagitis, hypothyroidism, xerostomia, and oral mucositis were used to estimate NTCP for 33 patients with oropharyngeal HNC previously treated with photon intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Comparative proton therapy plans were generated using clinical protocols for HNC RT at a collaborating proton center. Organ-at-risk (OAR) doses from photon and proton RT plans were used to calculate NTCPs; Monte Carlo sampling 10,000 times was used for each patient to account for model parameter uncertainty. The latency and duration of each complication were modeled from calculated NTCP, accounting for age-, sex-, smoking- and p16-specific conditional survival probability. Complications were then assigned quality-adjustment factors based on severity to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost from each complication.<h4>Results</h4>Based on our institutional-delivered photon IMRT doses and the achievable proton therapy doses, the average QALY reduction from all HNC RT complications for photon and proton therapy was 1.52 QALYs versus 1.15 QALYs, with proton therapy sparing 0.37 QALYs on average (composite 95% confidence interval, 0.27-2.53 QALYs). Long-term complications (dysphagia and xerostomia) contributed most to the QALY reduction. The QALYs spared with proton RT varied considerably among patients, ranging from 0.06 to 0.84 QALYs. Younger patients with p16-positive tumors who smoked ≤10 pack-years may benefit most from proton therapy, although this finding should be validated using larger patient series. A sensitivity analysis reducing photon IMRT doses to all OARs by 20% resulted in no overall estimated benefit with proton therapy with -0.02 QALYs spared, although some patients still had an estimated benefit in this scenario, ranging from -0.50 to 0.43 QALYs spared.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This quantitative decision-support strategy allowed us to identify patients with oropharyngeal cancer who might benefit the most from proton RT, although the estimated benefit of proton therapy ultimately depends on the OAR doses achievable with modern photon IMRT solutions. These results can help radiation oncologists and proton therapy centers optimize resource allocation and improve quality of life for patients with HNC.
Project description:Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSCRT) is an uncommon pediatric tumor with a poor prognosis. Aggressive multimodality therapy is the current treatment approach; however. treatment toxicity is of concern. We report our results with whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (WAP-IMRT) as a component of multimodality therapy for DSCRT at a single institution.Medical records of all patients with DSCRT who received WAP-IMRT as part of definitive treatment at MD Anderson (2006-2010) were identified and reviewed.Eight patients with DSRCT received WAP-IMRT with a median follow-up of 15.2 months. All patients received multiple courses of chemotherapy followed by surgical debulking of intra-abdominal disease; seven also had intraoperative hyperthermic cisplatin. WAP-IMRT was delivered to a total dose of 30 Gy postoperatively; four patients received a simultaneous boost (6-10 Gy) to sites of gross residual disease. Seven patients received concurrent chemotherapy during WAP-IMRT. No Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 4 nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea occurred during RT. Red-cell transfusions were given to two patients to maintain hemoglobin levels >10 g/dL. Grade 4 cytopenia requiring growth factor support occurred in only one patient; no other significant cytopenias were noted. WAP-IMRT resulted in 25% lower radiation doses to the lumbosacral vertebral bodies and pelvic bones than conventional RT plans. The median time to local or distant failure after WAP-IMRT was 8.73 months in seven patients. One patient who had completed RT 20 months before the last follow-up remains alive without evidence of disease. Five patients (63%) experienced treatment failure in the abdomen. Distant failure occurred in three patients (37.5%).WAP-IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy was well tolerated after aggressive surgery for DSCRT. Enhanced bone sparing with IMRT probably accounts for the low hematologic toxicity (vs. conventional WAP-RT). This modality should be considered as an additional local-regional control option for DSRCT.