A single-component multidrug transporter of the major facilitator superfamily is part of a network that protects Escherichia coli from bile salt stress.
ABSTRACT: Resistance to high concentrations of bile salts in the human intestinal tract is vital for the survival of enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Although the tripartite AcrAB-TolC efflux system plays a significant role in this resistance, it is purported that other efflux pumps must also be involved. We provide evidence from a comprehensive suite of experiments performed at two different pH values (7.2 and 6.0) that reflect pH conditions that E.?coli may encounter in human gut that MdtM, a single-component multidrug resistance transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, functions in bile salt resistance in E.?coli by catalysing secondary active transport of bile salts out of the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, assays performed on a chromosomal ?acrB mutant transformed with multicopy plasmid encoding MdtM suggested a functional synergism between the single-component MdtM transporter and the tripartite AcrAB-TolC system that results in a multiplicative effect on resistance. Substrate binding experiments performed on purified MdtM demonstrated that the transporter binds to cholate and deoxycholate with micromolar affinity, and transport assays performed on inverted vesicles confirmed the capacity of MdtM to catalyse electrogenic bile salt/H(+) antiport.
Project description:AcrAB-TolC is a constitutively expressed, tripartite efflux transporter complex that functions as the primary resistance mechanism to lipophilic drugs, dyes, detergents, and bile acids in Escherichia coli. TolC is an outer membrane channel, and AcrA is an elongated lipoprotein that is hypothesized to span the periplasm and coordinate efflux of such substrates by AcrB and TolC. AcrD is an efflux transporter of E. coli that provides resistance to aminoglycosides as well as to a limited range of amphiphilic agents, such as bile acids, novobiocin, and fusidic acid. AcrB and AcrD belong to the resistance nodulation division superfamily and share a similar topology, which includes a pair of large periplasmic loops containing more than 300 amino acid residues each. We used this knowledge to test several plasmid-encoded chimeric constructs of acrD and acrB for substrate specificity in a marR1 DeltaacrB DeltaacrD host. AcrD chimeras were constructed in which the large, periplasmic loops between transmembrane domains 1 and 2 and 7 and 8 were replaced with the corresponding loops of AcrB. Such constructs provided resistance to AcrB substrates at levels similar to native AcrB. Conversely, AcrB chimeras containing both loops of AcrD conferred resistance only to the typical substrates of AcrD. These results cannot be explained by simply assuming that AcrD, not hitherto known to interact with AcrA, acquired this ability by the introduction of the loop regions of AcrB, because (i) both AcrD and AcrA were found, in this study, to be required for the efflux of amphiphilic substrates, and (ii) chemical cross-linking in intact cells efficiently produced complexes between AcrD and AcrA. Since AcrD can already interact with AcrA, the alterations in substrate range accompanying the exchange of loop regions can only mean that substrate recognition (and presumably binding) is determined largely by the two periplasmic loops.
Project description:Engineering of efflux pumps is a promising way to improve host's tolerance to biofuels such as medium-chain alcohols (CmOHs); however, this strategy is restricted by poor understanding of the efflux pumps engaged in extrusion of solvents. In this study, several Escherichia coli mutants of multidrug transporters were evaluated for isoprenol tolerance. Susceptible phenotypes were observed in the mutants with individual deletion of six transporters, AcrD, EmrAB, MacAB, MdtBC, MdtJI and YdiM, whereas inactivation of AcrAB transporter resulted in an improved tolerance to isoprenol and other CmOHs. AcrAB is the major transporter forming tripartite transperiplasmic complex with outer membrane channel TolC for direct extrusion of toxic molecules in E. coli. The AcrAB inactivation enables to enhance TolC availability for the multidrug transporters associated with extrusion of CmOHs and increase the tolerance to CmOHs including isoprenol. It is assumed that outer membrane channel TolC plays an important role in extrusion of isoprenol and other CmOHs.
Project description:Tripartite multidrug efflux systems of Gram-negative bacteria are composed of an inner membrane transporter, an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic adaptor protein. They are assumed to form ducts inside the periplasm facilitating drug exit across the outer membrane. Here we present the reconstitution of native Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM and Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC tripartite Resistance Nodulation and cell Division (RND) efflux systems in a lipid nanodisc system. Single-particle analysis by electron microscopy reveals the inner and outer membrane protein components linked together via the periplasmic adaptor protein. This intrinsic ability of the native components to self-assemble also leads to the formation of a stable interspecies AcrA-MexB-TolC complex suggesting a common mechanism of tripartite assembly. Projection structures of all three complexes emphasize the role of the periplasmic adaptor protein as part of the exit duct with no physical interaction between the inner and outer membrane components.
Project description:Multidrug efflux pumps actively expel a wide range of toxic substrates from the cell and play a major role in intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. In Gram-negative bacteria, these pumps form tripartite assemblies that span the cell envelope. However, the in situ structure and assembly mechanism of multidrug efflux pumps remain unknown. Here we report the in situ structure of the Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump obtained by electron cryo-tomography and subtomogram averaging. The fully assembled efflux pump is observed in a closed state under conditions of antibiotic challenge and in an open state in the presence of AcrB inhibitor. We also observe intermediate AcrAB complexes without TolC and discover that AcrA contacts the peptidoglycan layer of the periplasm. Our data point to a sequential assembly process in living bacteria, beginning with formation of the AcrAB subcomplex and suggest domains to target with efflux pump inhibitors.
Project description:TolC and the other members of the outer membrane factor (OMF) family are outer membrane proteins forming trimeric channels that serve as a conduit for most actively effluxed substrates in Gram-negative bacteria by providing a key component in a multitude of tripartite efflux-pumps. Current models of tripartite pump assembly ascribe substrate selection to the inner-membrane transporter and periplasmic-adapter protein (PAP) assembly, suggesting that TolC is a passive, non-selective channel. While the membrane-embedded portion of the protein adopts a porin-like fold, the periplasmic domain of TolC presents a unique "alpha-barrel" architecture. This alpha-barrel consists of pseudo-continuous α-helices forming curved coiled-coils, whose tips form α-helical hairpins, relaxation of which results in a transition of TolC from a closed to an open-aperture state allowing effective efflux of substrates through its channel. Here, we analyzed the effects of site-directed mutations targeting the alpha-barrel of TolC, of the principal tripartite efflux-pump <i>Escherichia coli</i> AcrAB-TolC, on the activity and specificity of efflux. Live-cell functional assays with these TolC mutants revealed that positions both at the periplasmic tip of, and partway up the TolC coiled-coil alpha-barrel domain are involved in determining the functionality of the complex. We report that mutations affecting the electrostatic properties of the channel, particularly the D371V mutation, significantly impact growth even in the absence of antibiotics, causing hyper-susceptibility to all tested efflux-substrates. These results suggest that inhibition of TolC functionality is less well-tolerated than deletion of <i>tolC</i>, and such inhibition may have an antibacterial effect. Significantly and unexpectedly, we identified antibiotic-specific phenotypes associated with novel TolC mutations, suggesting that substrate specificity may not be determined solely by the transporter protein or the PAP, but may reside at least partially with the TolC-channel. Furthermore, some of the effects of mutations are difficult to reconcile with the currently prevalent tip-to-tip model of PAP-TolC interaction due to their location higher-up on the TolC alpha-barrel relative to the proposed PAP-docking sites. Taken together our results suggest a possible new role for TolC in vetting of efflux substrates, alongside its established role in tripartite complex assembly.
Project description:In view of increasing health threats from multiresistant pathogens, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and, specifically, proline-rich AMPs (PrAMPs) have been investigated in animal models. PrAMPs enter bacteria via the ABC transporter SbmA and inhibit intracellular targets. We used phage transduction (Tn10 insertion) to screen by random mutagenesis for alternative uptake mechanisms for analogs of apidaecin 1b, a honeybee-derived PrAMP. All 24 apidaecin-resistant mutants had the Tn10 insertion in the sbmA gene. These sbmA::Tn10 insertion mutants and the Escherichia coli BW25113 ?sbmA (JW0368) strain were still susceptible to the bactenecin PrAMP Bac7(1-35) and oncocin PrAMPs Onc18 and Onc112, as well as to Chex1-Arg20, despite significantly reduced internalizations. In a second round of random mutagenesis, the remaining susceptibility was linked to the yjiL-mdtM gene cluster. E. coli BW25113 and its ?yjiL null mutant (JW5785) were equally susceptible to all PrAMPs tested, whereas the BW25113 ?mdtM mutant was less susceptible to oncocins. The JW0368 yjiL::Tn10 transposon mutant (BS2) was resistant to all short PrAMPs and susceptible only to full-length Bac7 and A3-APO. Interestingly, PrAMPs appear to enter bacteria via MdtM, a multidrug resistance transporter (drug/H(+) antiporter) of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) that can efflux antibiotics, biocides, and bile salts. In conclusion, PrAMPs enter bacteria via ABC and MFS transporters that efflux antibiotics and cytotoxic compounds from the cytoplasm to the periplasm.
Project description:Tripartite efflux pumps found in Gram-negative bacteria are involved in antibiotic resistance and toxic-protein secretion. In this study, we show, using site-directed mutational analyses, that the conserved residues located in the tip region of the alpha-hairpin of the membrane fusion protein (MFP) AcrA play an essential role in the action of the tripartite efflux pump AcrAB-TolC. In addition, we provide in vivo functional data showing that both the length and the amino acid sequence of the alpha-hairpin of AcrA can be flexible for the formation of a functional AcrAB-TolC pump. Genetic-complementation experiments further indicated functional interrelationships between the AcrA hairpin tip region and the TolC aperture tip region. Our findings may offer a molecular basis for understanding the multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:The AcrAB-TolC system in Escherichia coli is an intrinsic RND-type multidrug efflux transporter that functions as a tripartite complex of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the outer membrane channel TolC, and the adaptor protein AcrA. Although the crystal structures of each component of this system have been elucidated, the crystal structure of the whole complex has not been solved. The available crystal structures have shown that AcrB and TolC function as trimers, but the number of AcrA molecules in the complex is now under debate. Disulfide chemical cross-linking experiments have indicated that the stoichiometry of AcrB-AcrA-TolC is 1:1:1; on the other hand, recent cryo-electron microscopy images of AcrAB-TolC suggested a 1:2:1 stoichiometry. In this study, we constructed 1:1-fixed AcrB-AcrA fusion proteins using various linkers. Surprisingly, all the 1:1-fixed linker proteins showed drug export activity under both acrAB-deficient conditions and acrAB acrEF double-pump-knockout conditions regardless of the lengths of the linkers. Finally, we optimized a shorter linker lacking the conformational freedom imparted by the AcrB C terminus. These results suggest that a complex with equal amounts of AcrA and AcrB is sufficient for drug export function.The structure and stoichiometry of the RND-type multidrug exporter AcrB-AcrA-TolC complex are still under debate. Recently, electron microscopic images of the AcrB-AcrA-TolC complex have been reported, suggesting a 1:2:1 stoichiometry. However, we report here that the AcrB-AcrA 1:1 fusion protein is active for drug export under acrAB-deficient conditions and also under acrAB acrEF double-deficient conditions, which eliminate the aid of free AcrA and its close homolog AcrE, indicating that the AcrB-AcrA 1:1 stoichiometry is enough for drug export function. In addition, the AcrB-AcrA fusion protein can function without the aid of free AcrA. We believe that these results are very important for considering the structure and mechanism of AcrAB-TolC-mediated multidrug export.
Project description:Multidrug efflux is a major contributor to antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Inhibition of multidrug efflux pumps is a promising approach for reviving the efficacy of existing antibiotics. Previously, inhibitors targeting both the efflux transporter AcrB and the membrane fusion protein AcrA in the Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC efflux pump were identified. Here we use existing physicochemical property guidelines to generate a filtered library of compounds for computational docking. We then experimentally test the top candidate coumpounds using in vitro binding assays and in vivo potentiation assays in bacterial strains with controllable permeability barriers. We thus identify a new class of inhibitors of E. coli AcrAB-TolC. Six molecules with a shared scaffold were found to potentiate the antimicrobial activity of erythromycin and novobiocin in hyperporinated E. coli cells. Importantly, these six molecules were also active in wild-type strains of both Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, potentiating the activity of erythromycin and novobiocin up to 8-fold.
Project description:Many enteric bacteria use bile as an environmental cue to signal resistance and virulence gene expression. Microarray analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) treated with bile salts revealed upregulation of genes for an efflux system (acrAB), a two-component signal transduction system (basRS/pmrAB), and lipid A modification (arnBCADTEF and ugd). Bile salt treatment of EHEC produced a basS- and arnT-dependent resistance to polymyxin.