Dentin sialophosphoprotein: a regulatory protein for dental pulp stem cell identity and fate.
ABSTRACT: The dentin sialophosphoprotein (dspp) transcript is expressed during tooth development as a DSPP precursor protein, which then undergoes cleavage to form mature dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP) proteins. Previous studies using DSPP-knockout (KO) mice have reported that these animals have hypomineralized teeth, thin dentin, and a large dental pulp chamber, similar to those from patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta III. However, there is no information about factors that regulate dental pulp stem cell lineage fate, a critical early event in the odontoblast-dentin mineralization scheme. To reveal the role of DSPP in odontoblast lineage differentiation during tooth development, we systematically examined teeth from wild-type (wt) and DSPP-KO C57BL/6 mice between the ages of postnatal day 1 and 3 months. We found developmental abnormalities not previously reported, such as circular dentin formation within dental pulp cells and altered odontoblast differentiation in DSPP-KO mice, even as early as 1 day after birth. Surprisingly, we also identified chondrocyte-like cells in the dental pulp from KO-mice teeth. Thus, these studies that compare wt and DSPP-KO mice suggest that the expression of DSPP precursor protein is required for normal odontoblast lineage differentiation and that the absence of DSPP allows dental pulp cells to differentiate into chondrocyte-like cells, which could negatively impact pulpal wound healing and tissue regeneration.
Project description:Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a member of the SIBLING family with essential roles in skeletogenesis. In the developing teeth, although the expression and function of BSP in the formation of acellular cementum and periodontal attachment are well documented, there are uncertainties regarding the expression and function of BSP by odontoblasts and dentin. Reporter mice are valuable animal models for biological research, providing a gene expression readout that can contribute to cellular characterization within the context of a developmental process. In the present study, we examined the expression of a BSP-GFPtpz reporter mouse line during odontoblast differentiation, reparative dentinogenesis, and bone. In the developing teeth, BSP-GFPtpz was expressed at high levels in cementoblasts but not in odontoblasts or dentin. In bones, the transgene was highly expressed in osteoblasts at an early stage of differentiation. Interestingly, despite its lack of expression in odontoblasts and dental pulp during tooth development, the BSP-GFPtpz transgene was detected during in vitro mineralization of primary pulp cultures and during reparative dentinogenesis following pulp exposures. Importantly, under these experimental contexts, the expression of BSP-GFPtpz was still exclusive to DSPP-Cerulean, an odontoblast-specific reporter gene. This suggests that the combinatorial use of BSP-GFPtpz and DSPP-Cerulean can be a valuable experimental tool to distinguish osteogenic from dentinogenic cells, thereby providing an avenue to investigate mechanisms that distinctly regulate the lineage progression of progenitors into odontoblasts versus osteoblasts.
Project description:Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is an extracellular matrix protein highly expressed by odontoblasts in teeth. DSPP mutations in humans may cause dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI), an autosomal dominant dentin disorder. We recently generated a mouse model (named "DsppP19L/+ mice") that expressed a mutant DSPP in which the proline residue at position 19 was replaced by a leucine residue. We found that the DsppP19L/+ and DsppP19L/P19L mice at a younger age displayed a tooth phenotype resembling human DGI type III characterized by enlarged dental pulp chambers, while the teeth of older DsppP19L/+ and DsppP19L/P19L mice had smaller dental pulp chambers mimicking DGI type II. The teeth of DsppP19L/+ and DsppP19L/P19L mice had a narrower pulp chamber roof predentin layer, thinner pulp chamber roof dentin, and thicker pulp chamber floor dentin. In addition, these mice also had increased enamel attrition, accompanied by excessive deposition of peritubular dentin. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the odontoblasts in both DsppP19L/+ and DsppP19L/P19L mice had reduced DSPP expression, compared to the wild-type mice. We also observed that the levels of DSPP expression were much higher in the roof-forming odontoblasts than in the floor-forming odontoblasts in the wild-type mice and mutant mice. Moreover, immunohistochemistry showed that while the immunostaining signals of dentin sialoprotein (N-terminal fragment of DSPP) were decreased in the dentin matrix, they were remarkably increased in the odontoblasts of the DsppP19L/+ and DsppP19L/P19L mice. Consistently, our in vitro studies showed that the secretion of the mutant DSPP was impaired and accumulated within endoplasmic reticulum. These findings suggest that the dental phenotypes of the mutant mice were associated with the intracellular retention of the mutant DSPP in the odontoblasts of the DSPP-mutant mice.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in dental pulp. Here, we show the dynamic mechanisms of TGF-? in porcine dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin. The mRNA of latent TGF-?1 and TGF-?3 is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, whereas the mRNA expression level of latent TGF-?2 is high in dental pulp. TGF-?1 is a major isoform of TGF-?, and latent TGF-?1, synthesized in dental pulp, is primarily activated by matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11). Activated TGF-?1 enhances the mRNA expression levels of MMP20 and full-length dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in dental pulp cells, coinciding with the induction of odontoblast differentiation. Latent TGF-?1 synthesized in odontoblasts is primarily activated by MMP2 and MMP20 in both odontoblasts and dentin. The activity level of TGF-?1 was reduced in the dentin of MMP20 null mice, although the amount of latent TGF-?1 expression did not change between wild-type and MMP20 null mice. TGF-?1 activity was reduced with the degradation of DSPP-derived proteins that occurs with ageing. We propose that to exert its multiple biological functions, TGF-?1 is involved in a complicated dynamic interaction with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and/or DSPP-derived proteins present in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.
Project description:Aging, defined by a decrease in the physical and functional integrity of the tissues, leads to age-associated degenerative diseases. There is a relation between aged dental pulp and the senescence of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Therefore, it is important to investigate the molecular processes underlying the senescence of DPSCs to elucidate the dental pulp aging mechanisms. p-Cresol (PC), a uremic toxin, is strongly related to cellular senescence. Here, age-related phenotypic changes including senescence, apoptosis, inflammation, and declining odontoblast differentiation in PC-treated canine DPSCs were investigated. Under the PC condition, cellular senescence was induced by decreased proliferation capacity and increased cell size, senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) activity, and senescence markers p21, IL-1?, IL-8, and p53. Exposure to PC could stimulate inflammation by the increased expression of IL-6 and cause the distraction of the cell cycle by the increased level of Bax protein and decreased Bcl-2. The levels of odontoblast differentiation markers, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1, and osterix, were decreased. Consistent with those findings, the alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase, and DSPP protein level were decreased during the odontoblast differentiation process. Taken together, these findings indicate that PC could induce cellular senescence in DPSCs, which may demonstrate the changes in aging dental pulp.
Project description:During development, Dlx3 is expressed in ectodermal appendages such as hair and teeth. Thus far, the evidence that Dlx3 plays a crucial role in tooth development comes from reports showing that autosomal dominant mutations in DLX3 result in severe enamel and dentin defects leading to abscesses and infections. However, the normal function of DLX3 in odontogenesis remains unknown. Here, we use a mouse model to demonstrate that the absence of Dlx3 in the neural crest results in major impairment of odontoblast differentiation and dentin production. Mutant mice develop brittle teeth with hypoplastic dentin and molars with an enlarged pulp chamber and underdeveloped roots. Using this mouse model, we found that dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), a major component of the dentin matrix, is strongly down-regulated in odontoblasts lacking Dlx3. Using ChIP-seq, we further demonstrate the direct binding of Dlx3 to the Dspp promoter in vivo. Luciferase reporter assays determined that Dlx3 positively regulates Dspp expression. This establishes a regulatory pathway where the transcription factor Dlx3 is essential in dentin formation by directly regulating a crucial matrix protein.
Project description:The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early and limited exposure of perivascular cells expressing ? (?SMA) to fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in vivo. We performed in vivo fate mapping by inducible Cre-loxP and experimental pulp injury in molars to induce reparative dentinogenesis. Our results demonstrate that early delivery of exogenous FGF2 to exposed pulp led to proliferative expansion of ?SMA-tdTomato<sup>+</sup> cells and their accelerated differentiation into odontoblasts. In vivo lineage-tracing experiments showed that the calcified bridge/reparative dentin in FGF2-treated pulps were lined with an increased number of Dspp<sup>+</sup> odontoblasts and devoid of BSP<sup>+</sup> osteoblasts. The increased number of odontoblasts derived from ?SMA-tdTomato<sup>+</sup> cells and the formation of reparative dentin devoid of osteoblasts provide in vivo evidence for the stimulatory effects of FGF signaling on odontoblast differentiation from early progenitors in dental pulp.
Project description:Dentin tissue is derived from mesenchymal cells induced into the odontoblast lineage. The differentiation of odontoblasts is a complex process regulated by several transcriptional factor signaling transduction pathways. However, post-translational regulation of these factors during dentinogenesis remains unclear. To further explore the mechanisms, we investigated the role of microRNA (miRNA) during odontoblast differentiation. We profiled the miRNA expression pattern during mouse odontoblast differentiation using a microarray assay and identified that miR-145 and miR-143 were down-regulated during this process. In situ hybridization verified that the two miRNAs were gradually decreased during mouse odontoblast differentiation. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments revealed that down-regulation of miR-145 and miR-143 could promote odontoblast differentiation and increased Dspp and Dmp1 expression in mouse primary dental pulp cells and vice versa. We found that miR-145 and miR-143 controlled odontoblast differentiation through several mechanisms. First, KLF4 and OSX bind to their motifs in Dspp and Dmp1 gene promoters and up-regulate their transcription thereby inducing odontoblast differentiation. The miR-145 binds to the 3'-UTRs of Klf4 and Osx genes, inhibiting their expression. Second, KLF4 repressed miR-143 transcription by binding to its motifs in miR-143 regulatory regions as detected by ChIP assay and dual luciferase reporter assay. Third, miR-143 regulates odontoblast differentiation in part through miR-145 pathway. Taken together, we for the first time showed that the miR-143 and miR-145 controlled odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation through KLF4 and OSX transcriptional factor signaling pathways.
Project description:To gain a better understanding of the progression of progenitor cells in the odontoblast lineage, we have examined and characterized the expression of a series of GFP reporters during odontoblast differentiation. However, previously reported GFP reporters (pOBCol2.3-GFP, pOBCol3.6-GFP, and DMP1-GFP), similar to the endogenous proteins, are also expressed by bone-forming cells, which made it difficult to delineate the two cell types in various in vivo and in vitro studies. To overcome these difficulties we generated DSPP-Cerulean/DMP1-Cherry transgenic mice using a bacterial recombination strategy with the mouse BAC clone RP24-258g7. We have analyzed the temporal and spatial expression of both transgenes in tooth and bone in vivo and in vitro. This transgenic animal enabled us to visualize the interactions between odontoblasts and surrounding tissues including dental pulp, ameloblasts and cementoblasts. Our studies showed that DMP1-Cherry, similar to Dmp1, was expressed in functional and fully differentiated odontoblasts as well as osteoblasts, osteocytes and cementoblasts. Expression of DSPP-Cerulean transgene was limited to functional and fully differentiated odontoblasts and correlated with the expression of Dspp. This transgenic animal can help in the identification and isolation of odontoblasts at later stages of differentiation and help in better understanding of developmental disorders in dentin and odontoblasts.
Project description:Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain a better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that the continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth, FGF2 increased the expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of dentin matrix protein 1/green fluorescent protein (DMP1-GFP)-positive functional odontoblasts and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)-Cerulean-positive odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization and the expression of markers of dentinogenesis and of the DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of the differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed the stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells, and they provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration.
Project description:Objectives:Dental pulp regeneration is considered an ideal approach for treating dental pulp disease. Because pulp is composed of various cells, determining the proper seed cells is critical. We explored the potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) as seed cells for dental pulp regeneration. Methods:Liquid extract of human treated dentin matrix (LE-TDM) was acquired to culture hUCMSCs. Odontoblast-specific markers were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence assays. Endothelial differentiation of hUCMSCs was examined according to VEGF induction by western blot, qRT-PCR, and Matrigel assays. hUCMSCs and VEGF-induced hUCMSCs (V-hUCMSCs) were also cocultured in vivo for the Matrigel plug assay and in vitro for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Finally, encapsulated mono-cultured hUCMSCs or cocultured hUCMSCs and V-hUCMSCs in scaffolds were injected into the root segments and transplanted into immunodeficient mice for dental pulp regeneration. Results:Under LE-TDM induction, hUCMSCs expressed specific odontoblast markers (DSPP, DMP-1, DSP). Under VEGF induction, hUCMSCs expressed functional endothelial markers (CD31, eNOs, vWF). In vivo, the Matrigel plug assay indicated that cocultured hUCMSCs and V-hUCMSCs formed extensive vessel-like structures. RNA-seq results indicated that cocultured V-hUCMSCs exhibited high Hif-1 signaling pathway activity. Both the hUCMSCs mono-culture and coculture groups showed pulp-like tissue regeneration. The cocultured group showed more extracellular matrix and vascularization than the mono-cultured group in vivo. Conclusion:hUCMSCs can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and functional endothelial cells. Cocultured hUCMSCs and V-hUCMSCs formed vessel-like structures and regenerated dental pulp-like tissue. Therefore, hUCMSCs can be used as an alternative seed cell source for angiogenesis and dental pulp regeneration.