Proteomic profiling of salivary gland after nonviral gene transfer mediated by conventional plasmids and minicircles.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared gene transfer efficiency and host response to ultrasound-assisted, nonviral gene transfer with a conventional plasmid and a minicircle vector in the submandibular salivary glands of mice. Initially, we looked at gene transfer efficiency with equimolar amounts of the plasmid and minicircle vectors, corroborating an earlier report showing that minicircle is more efficient in the context of a physical method of gene transfer. We then sought to characterize the physiological response of the salivary gland to exogenous gene transfer using global proteomic profiling. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that sonoporation alone, without a gene transfer vector present, had virtually no effect on the salivary gland proteome. However, when a plasmid vector was used, we observed profound perturbations of the salivary gland proteome that compared in magnitude to that seen in a previous report after high doses of AAV. Finally, we found that gene transfer with a minicircle induces only minor proteomic alterations that were similar to sonoporation alone. Using mass spectrometry, we assigned protein IDs to 218 gel spots that differed between plasmid and minicircle. Bioinformatic analysis of these proteins demonstrated convergence on 68 known protein interaction pathways, most notably those associated with innate immunity, cellular stress, and morphogenesis.
Project description:This study was designed to improve AAV-mediated gene transfer to the murine submandibular salivary glands. Our first aim was to utilize AAV pseudotype vectors, containing the genetic elements of the canonical AAV2, packaged within capsids of AAV serotypes 5, 8, and 9. Having determined that this pseudotyping increased the efficiency of gene transfer to the glands by several orders of magnitude, we next asked whether we could reduce the gene transfer inoculum of the pseudotype while still achieving gene transfer comparable with that achieved with high-dose AAV2. Having achieved gene transfer comparable with that of AAV2 using a pseudotype vector (AAV2/5) at a 100-fold lower dose, our final objective was to evaluate the implications of this lower dose on two pre-clinical parameters of vector safety. To evaluate systemic toxicity, we measured AAV vector sequestration in the liver using qPCR, and found that the 100-fold lower dose reduced the vector recovered from the liver by 300-fold. To evaluate salivary gland function, we undertook whole-proteome profiling of salivary gland lysates two weeks after vector administration and found that high-dose (5 × 10?) AAV altered the expression level of ~32% of the entire salivary gland proteome, and that the lower dose (5 × 10?) reduced this effect to ~7%.
Project description:The bacterial backbone (BB) sequences contained within a canonical plasmid DNA dampen exogenous transgene expression by tenfold to 1,000-fold over a period of a few weeks following transfection into quiescent tissues such as the liver. Minicircle DNA vectors devoid of bacterial plasmid backbone sequences overcome transgene silencing providing persistent transgene expression. Because, we recently established that the length rather than sequence of the DNA flanking the transgene expression cassette is the major parameter affecting transgene silencing, we developed an alternative plasmid propagation process in which the essential bacterial elements for plasmid replication and selection are placed within an engineered intron contained within the eukaryotic expression cassette. As with the minicircle vector, the mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) vector system overcomes transgene silencing observed with plasmids but in addition provides between 2 and often 10 times or higher levels of transgene expression compared with minicircle vectors containing the same expression cassette in vivo and in vitro. These improved plasmids will benefit all studies involving gene transfer/therapy approaches.
Project description:An ideal novel treatment for bone defects should provide regeneration without autologous or allogenous grafting, exogenous cells, growth factors, or biomaterials while ensuring spatial and temporal control as well as safety. Therefore, a novel osteoinductive nonviral in vivo gene therapy approach using sonoporation was investigated in ectopic and orthotopic models. Constitutive or regulated, doxycycline-inducible, bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7 coexpression plasmids were repeatedly applied for 5 days. Ectopic and orthotopic gene transfer efficacy was monitored by coapplication of a luciferase plasmid and bioluminescence imaging. Orthotopic plasmid DNA distribution was investigated using a novel plasmid-labeling method. Luciferase imaging demonstrated an increased trend (61% vs. 100%) of gene transfer efficacy, and micro-computed tomography evaluation showed significantly enhanced frequency of ectopic bone formation for sonoporation compared with passive gene delivery (46% vs. 100%) dependent on applied ultrasound power. Bone formation by the inducible system (83%) was stringently controlled by doxycycline in vivo, and no ectopic bone formation was observed without induction or with passive gene transfer without sonoporation. Orthotopic evaluation in a rat femur segmental defect model demonstrated an increased trend of gene transfer efficacy using sonoporation. Investigation of DNA distribution demonstrated extensive binding of plasmid DNA to bone tissue. Sonoporated animals displayed a potentially increased union rate (33%) without extensive callus formation or heterotopic ossification. We conclude that sonoporation of BMP2/7 coexpression plasmids is a feasible, minimally invasive method for osteoinduction and that improvement of bone regeneration by sonoporative gene delivery is superior to passive gene delivery.
Project description:Salivary glands are an attractive target for gene transfer. Salivary epithelial cells are considered to be highly differentiated and have low rates of cell division (~6 months), affording the opportunity to obtain relatively long-term transgene expression in the absence of genomic integration. Here, we report a novel modified hybrid adenoretroviral vector, which provides stable transgene expression in salivary epithelial cells in vivo for up to 6 months in the absence of genomic integration. This modified hybrid vector, Ad(ΔE1/3)LTR(2)EF1α-hEPO, encodes human erythropoietin (hEPO) and differs from a previously developed hybrid vector, AdLTR(2)EF1α-hEPO, by having more extensive E3 gene deletion. Following direct salivary gland gene transfer by retroductal cannulation, rats transduced with Ad(ΔE1/3)LTR(2)EF1α-hEPO had sustained, elevated serum hEPO levels and hematocrits for 6 months (length of experiment), as compared with ~2 months for animals administered the AdLTR(2)EF1α-hEPO vector. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that this novel vector could transduce both acinar and ductal cells. Interestingly, the Ad(ΔE1/3)LTR(2)EF1α-hEPO vector evoked much weaker local (salivary gland) immune responses than seen after AdLTR(2)EF1α-hEPO vector delivery, which likely permits its significantly lengthened transgene expression in this tissue.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anaplasma ovis is a gram-negative, tick-borne obligate intraerythrocytic pathogen, which causes ovine anaplasmosis in small ruminants worldwide. VirB10 of A. ovis is an integral component of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS). The T4SS is used by bacteria to transfer DNA and/or proteins undeviatingly into the host cell to increase their virulence. To more thoroughly understand the interaction between A. ovis and Dermacentor silvarum, a vector containing the virb10 gene of A. ovis was used as a bait plasmid to screen interacting proteins from the cDNA library of the D. silvarum salivary gland using the yeast two-hybrid system. METHODS:The cDNA of the D. silvarum salivary gland was cloned into the pGADT7-SmaI vector (prey plasmid) to construct the yeast two-hybrid cDNA library. The virb10 gene was cloned into the pGBKT7 vector to generate a bait plasmid. Any gene auto-activation or toxicity effects in the yeast strain Y2HGold were excluded. The screening was performed by combining the bait and prey plasmids in yeast strains to identify positive preys. The positive preys were then sequenced, and the obtained sequences were subjected to further analyses using Gene Ontology, UniProt, SMART, and STRING. Additionally, the interaction between the bait and the prey was evaluated using the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. RESULTS:A total of two clones were obtained from the cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid system, and the sequence analysis showed that both clones encoded the same large tegument protein, UL36. Furthermore, the proteins GST-UL36 and His-VirB10 were successfully expressed in vitro and the interaction between the two proteins was successfully demonstrated by the GST pull-down assay. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this study is the first to screen for D. silvarum salivary gland proteins that interact with A. ovis VirB10. The resulting candidate, UL36, is a multi-functional protein. Further investigations into the functionality of UL36 should be carried out, which might help in identifying novel prevention and treatment strategies for A. ovis infection. The present study provides a base for exploring and further understanding the interactions between A. ovis and D. silvarum.
Project description:Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a differentially expressed major surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi. ospC is swiftly upregulated when spirochetes leave the Ixodes scapularis tick gut, migrate to the salivary gland, and exit the arthropod vector. Here we show that OspC strongly binds to the tick salivary gland, suggesting a role for OspC in spirochete adherence to this tissue. In vivo studies using a murine model of Lyme borreliosis showed that while OspC F(ab)(2) fragments did not influence either the viability of spirochetes or ospC gene expression, they did interfere with B. burgdorferi invasion of tick salivary glands. We then generated ospC knockout spirochetes in an infectious clone of B. burgdorferi and examined them within the vector. OspC-deficient or wild-type spirochetes persisted equally within the gut of unfed ticks and multiplied during the tick engorgement; however, unlike wild-type B. burgdorferi, the mutants were unable to invade salivary glands. Salivary gland colonization of OspC-deficient spirochetes was completely restored when this mutant was complemented in trans with a plasmid harboring the wild-type ospC gene. These studies conclusively demonstrate the importance of OspC in the invasion of tick salivary glands by B. burgdorferi, a critical step in the transmission of spirochetes from the arthropod vector to the mammalian host.
Project description:Minicircle DNA is the non-replicating product of intramolecular site-specific recombination within a bacterial minicircle producer plasmid. Minicircle DNA can be engineered to contain predominantly human sequences which have a low content of CpG dinucleotides and thus reduced immunotoxicity for humans, whilst the immunogenic bacterial origin and antibiotic resistance marker gene sequences are entirely removed by site-specific recombination. This property makes minicircle DNA an excellent vector for non-viral gene therapy. Large-scale production of minicircle DNA requires a bacterial strain expressing tightly controlled site-specific recombinase, such as Cre recombinase. As recombinant plasmids tend to be more stable in RecA-deficient strains, we aimed to construct a recA- bacterial strain for generation of minicircle vector DNA with less chance of unwanted deletions.We describe here the construction of the RecA-deficient minicircle DNA producer Escherichia coli HB101Cre with a chromosomally located Cre recombinase gene under the tight control of the araC regulon. The Cre gene expression cassette was inserted into the chromosomal lacZ gene by creating transient homologous recombination proficiency in the recA- strain HB101 using plasmid-born recET genes and homology-mediated chromosomal "pop-in, pop-out" of the plasmid pBAD75Cre containing the Cre gene and a temperature sensitive replication origin. Favourably for the Cre gene placement, at the "pop-out" step, the observed frequency of RecET-led recombination between the proximal regions of homology was 10 times higher than between the distal regions. Using the minicircle producing plasmid pFIXluc containing mutant loxP66 and loxP71 sites, we isolated pure minicircle DNA from the obtained recA- producer strain HB101Cre. The minicircle DNA preparation consisted of monomeric and, unexpectedly, also multimeric minicircle DNA forms, all containing the hybrid loxP66/71 site 5'-TACCGTTCGT ATAATGTATG CTATACGAAC GGTA-3', which was previously shown to be an inefficient partner in Cre-mediated recombination.Using transient RecET-driven recombination we inserted a single copy of the araC controlled Cre gene into the lacZ gene on the chromosome of E. coli recA- strain HB101. The resultant recA- minicircle DNA producer strain HB101Cre was used to obtain pure minicircle DNA, consisting of monomeric and multimeric minicircle forms. The obtained recA- minicircle DNA producer strain is expected to decrease the risk of undesired deletions within minicircle producer plasmids and, therefore, to improve production of the therapeutic minicircle vectors.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is transmitted throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The primary mosquito vector of DENV in urban locations is Aedes aegypti. Key to understanding the transmission of DENV is the relationship between pathogen and vector. Accordingly, we report our preliminary characterization of the differentially expressed proteins from Ae. aegypti mosquitoes after DENV infection. We investigated the virus-vector interaction through changes in the proteome of the salivary glands of mosquitoes with disseminated DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) infections using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by mass spectrometry. Our findings indicate that DENV-2 infection in the Ae. aegypti salivary gland alters the expression of structural, secreted, and metabolic proteins. These changes in the salivary gland proteome highlight the virally influenced environment caused by a DENV-2 infection and warrant additional investigation to determine if these differences extend to the expectorated saliva.
Project description:The loss of salivary gland function caused by radiation therapy of the head and neck or autoimmune disease such as Sjögren's syndrome is a serious condition that affects a patient's quality of life. Due to the combined exocrine and endocrine functions of the salivary gland, gene transfer to the salivary glands holds the potential for developing therapies for disorders of the salivary gland and the expression of therapeutic proteins via the exocrine pathway to the mouth, upper gastrointestinal tract, or endocrine pathway, systemically, into the blood. Recent clinical success with viral vector-mediated gene transfer for the treatment of irradiation-induced damage to the salivary glands has highlighted the need for the development of novel vectors with acinar cell tropism able to result in stable long-term transduction. Previous studies with adeno-associated virus (AAV) focused on the submandibular gland and reported mostly ductal cell transduction. In this study, we have screened AAV vectors for acinar cell tropism in the parotid gland utilizing membrane-tomato floxed membrane-GFP transgenic mice to screen CRE recombinase encoding AAV vectors of different clades to rapidly identify capsid isolates able to transduce salivary gland acinar cells. We determined that AAVRh10 and a novel isolate found as a contaminant of a laboratory stock of simian adenovirus SV15, AAV44.9, are both able to transduce parotid and sublingual acinar cells. Persistence and localization of transduction of these AAVs were tested using vectors encoding firefly luciferase, which was detected 6 months after vector administration. Most luciferase expression was localized to the salivary gland compared to that of distal organs. Transduction resulted in robust secretion of recombinant protein in both blood and saliva. Transduction was species specific, with AAVRh10 having stronger transduction activity in rats compared with AAV44.9 or AAV2 but weaker in human primary salivary gland cells. This work demonstrates efficient transduction of parotid acinar cells by AAV that resulted in secretion of recombinant protein in both serum and saliva.
Project description:A significant long-term side effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancers is xerostomia, a dry mouth, due to salivary gland damage. Despite continuing efforts to eliminate this problem, many patients continue to suffer. This brief review describes our efforts to develop a gene transfer approach, employing the aquaporin-1 cDNA, to treat patients with existing radiation-induced salivary hypofunction. A Phase I/II clinical trial, using a recombinant adenoviral vector to mediate gene transfer, is currently underway.