MicroRNA-30d regulates cardiomyocyte pyroptosis by directly targeting foxo3a in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common cardiac condition in patients with diabetes mellitus, which can result in cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure, associated with pyroptosis, the pro-inflammatory programmed cell death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small endogenous non-coding RNAs, have been shown to be involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, whether miRNAs regulate pyroptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unknown. Our study revealed that mir-30d expression was substantially increased in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and in high-glucose-treated cardiomyocytes as well. Upregulation of mir-30d promoted cardiomyocyte pyroptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy; conversely, knockdown of mir-30d attenuated it. In an effort to understand the signaling mechanisms underlying the pro-pyroptotic property of mir-30d, we found that forced expression of mir-30d upregulated caspase-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. Moreover, mir-30d directly repressed foxo3a expression and its downstream protein, apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC). Furthermore, silencing ARC by siRNA mimicked the action of mir-30d: upregulating caspase-1 and inducing pyroptosis. These findings promoted us to propose a new signaling pathway leading to cardiomyocyte pyroptosis under hyperglycemic conditions: mir-30d??foxo3a?? ARC??caspase-1??IL-1?, IL-18??pyroptosis?. Therefore, mir-30d may be a promising therapeutic target for the management of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common complication in patients with diabetes and is associated with underlying chronic inflammation and cardiac cell death, subsequently leading to heart failure (HF). ELAV-like protein 1 (ELAVL1) plays a critical role in the progression of inflammation and HF. However the role of ELAVL-1 in inflammation induced cardiac cell death (pyroptosis) under hyperglycemic condition remains elusive. Our data demonstrates that ELAVL1 expression augmented with a concomitant increase in caspase-1 and IL-1 beta expression in human hearts and human ventricular cardiomyocytes under hyperglycemic condition. Furthermore, ELAVL1 knockdown abrogates TNF-? induced canonical pyroptosis via NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1beta suppression. Bioinformatics analysis and target validation assays showed that miR-9 directly targets ELAVL1. Interestingly, miRNA-9 expression significantly reduced in high glucose treated cardiomyocytes and in human diabetic hearts. Inhibition of miR-9 upregulates ELAVL1 expression and activates caspase-1. Alternatively, treatment with miR-9 mimics attenuates hyperglycemia-induced ELAVL1 and inhibits cardiomyocyte pyroptosis. Taken together our study highlights the potential therapeutic implications of targeting miR-9/ELAVL1 in preventing cardiomyocyte cell loss during HF in diabetics.
Project description:Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a vital cause of fatalities in diabetic patients. The programmed death of cardiomyocytes and inflammation critically contribute to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DCM. Furthermore, circular RNA (circRNA) is a key regulator of various diseases. However, the role of circRNAs in DCM remains to be elucidated. Our previous study found that pyroptosis was markedly activated in the cardiomyocytes subjected to high-glucose conditions, and miR-214-3p regulated the expression of caspase-1. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether circRNA is involved in DCM pyroptosis via the miR-214-3p/caspase-1 pathway. Herein, we identified that hsa_circ_0076631, named caspase-1-associated circRNA (CACR), was increased both in high-glucose-treated cardiomyocytes and in the serum of diabetic patients. CACR also sponged an endogenous miR-214-3p to sequester and inhibit its expression. CACR knockdown in cardiomyocytes counteracted high-glucose-induced caspase-1 activation. Conversely, miR-214-3p knockdown partially abolished the beneficial effects of CACR silencing on pyroptosis in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, this study elucidated that CACR might be a novel therapeutic target via the CACR/miR-214-3p/caspase-1 pathway in DCM.
Project description:Rational: Ischemic injury of the skeletal muscle remains a serious clinical problem and currently there is no effective therapy. The aim of the present study is to determine whether human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells- derived exosomes (UMSC-Exo) could repair ischemic injury by releasing circular RNA. Methods and Results: To create hindlimb ischemia, we surgically ligated the left femoral artery in C57BL/6 mice. Using circRNA-seq analyses of total RNA from ischemic and control muscles, we found reduced expression of circHIPK3 in the ischemic muscle. To explore the role of circHIPK3 in ischemic injury, the mice were randomly assigned into three groups after surgery: 1) vehicle; 2) UMSC-Exo; 3) UMSC-Exo and siRNA targeting circHIPK3 (UMSC-Exo /si-circHIPK3). UMSC-Exo treatment significantly increased expression of circHIPK3 and improved blood perfusion, running distance and muscle force, which were reversed by injection of UMSC-Exo /si-circHIPK3, suggesting that UMSC-Exo improve muscle function by releasing circHIPK3. UMSC-Exo treatment also inhibited ischemia induced pyroptosis - cell death caused by inflammasome as evidenced by activation of NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, and subsequent increase of IL-1? and IL-18, and the effects were reversed by injection UMSC-Exo /si-circHIPK3. Bioinformatic analysis identified miR-421/FOXO3a as a potential target for circHIPK3, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of circHIPK3 in C2C12 cells resulted in increased expression of miR-421. We established an in vitro model of pyroptosis by stimulating C2C12 cells with LPS and ATP. LPS and ATP treatment resulted in reduced expression of circHIPK3 and increased expression of miR-421, which was prevented by UMSC-Exo. Western blot analysis showed reduced levels of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 when cells were treated by UMSC-Exo. The expression of FOXO3a in C2C12 cells was increased in the presence of miR-421 inhibitor, and the expression was reduced when cells were treated by LPS and ATP. Importantly, the expression of FOXO3a was upregulated by UMSC-Exo but was reduced when si-circHIPK3 was present. Conclusions: Using loss/gain-of function method, we demonstrated that miR-421/FOXO3a is the direct target of circHIPK3, and UMSC-Exo prevent ischemic injury by releasing circHIPK3, which in turn down regulate miR-421, resulting in increased expression of FOXO3a, leading to inhibition of pyroptosis and release of IL-1? and IL-18.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is associated with metabolic disorder and cell death, which are important triggers in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We aimed to explore whether NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to DCM and the mechanism involved.<h4>Methods</h4>Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. The characteristics of type 2 DCM were evaluated by metabolic tests, echocardiography and histopathology. Gene silencing therapy was used to investigate the role of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of DCM. High glucose treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes were used to determine the mechanism by which NLRP3 modulated the DCM. The cell death in vitro was detected by TUNEL and EthD-III staining. TXNIP-siRNA and pharmacological inhibitors of ROS and NF-kB were used to explore the mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.<h4>Results</h4>Diabetic rats showed severe metabolic disorder, cardiac inflammation, cell death, disorganized ultrastructure, fibrosis and excessive activation of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), pro-caspase-1, activated caspase-1 and mature interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Evidence for pyroptosis was found in vivo, and the caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis was found in vitro. Silencing of NLRP3 in vivo did not attenuate systemic metabolic disturbances. However, NLRP3 gene silencing therapy ameliorated cardiac inflammation, pyroptosis, fibrosis and cardiac function. Silencing of NLRP3 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes suppressed pyroptosis under high glucose. ROS inhibition markedly decreased nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) phosphorylation, thioredoxin interacting/inhibiting protein (TXNIP), NLRP3 inflammasome, and mature IL-1? in high glucose treated H9c2 cells. Inhibition of NF-kB reduced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. TXNIP-siRNA decreased the activation of caspase-1 and IL-1?.<h4>Conclusion</h4>NLRP3 inflammasome contributed to the development of DCM. NF-?B and TXNIP mediated the ROS-induced caspase-1 and IL-1? activation, which are the effectors of NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 gene silencing may exert a protective effect on DCM.
Project description:Diabetes cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a critical complication of long-term chronic diabetes mellitus and is characterized by myocardial fibrosis and myocardial hypertrophy. It has been suggested that DCM is related to pyroptosis, a programmed cell death associated with inflammation. The long non-coding RNA Kcnq1ot1 is involved in different pathophysiological mechanisms of multiple diseases, including acute myocardial damage and arrhythmia. Our previous study found that Kcnq1ot1 was elevated in left ventricular tissue of diabetic mice. However, whether Kcnq1ot1 is capable of regulating pyroptosis and fibrosis in high glucose-treated cardiac fibroblasts remains unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanisms of Kcnq1ot1 in DCM. Our study revealed that silencing Kcnq1ot1 by a lentivirus-shRNA improved cardiac function and fibrosis, ameliorated pyroptosis, and inhibited TGF-?1/smads pathway in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro, experiments revealed that Kcnq1ot1 and pyroptosis were activated in cardiac fibroblasts treated with 30?mmol/l glucose. Furthermore, Kcnq1ot1 knockdown by a small interfering RNA decreased caspase-1 expression. Bioinformatic prediction and luciferase assays showed that Kcnq1ot1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate the expression of caspase-1 by sponging miR-214-3p. In addition, silencing Kcnq1ot1 promoted gasdermin D cleavage and the secretion of IL-1?, thus repressing the TGF-?1/smads pathway in high glucose-treated cardiac fibroblasts through miR-214-3p and caspase-1. Therefore, Kcnq1ot1/miR-214-3p/caspase-1/TGF-?1 signal pathway presents a new mechanism of DCM progression and could potentially be a novel therapeutic target.
Project description:miR-155 was synthesized and loaded into exosomes in increased infiltration of macrophages in a uremic heart. The released exosomal fusion with the plasma membrane leads to the release of miR-155 into the cytosol and translational repression of forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO3a) in cardiomyocytes. Finally, macrophage-derived miR-155-containing exosomes promoted cardiomyocyte pyroptosis and uremic cardiomyopathy changes (cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis) by directly targeting FoxO3a in uremic mice.
Project description:Inflammatory cell death, or pyroptosis, is triggered by pathogenic infections or events. It is executed by caspase-1 (in the canonical pyroptosis pathway) or caspase-11 (noncanonical pathway), each via production of a cell-lytic domain from the pyroptosis effector protein gasdermin D through specific and limited proteolysis. Pyroptosis is accompanied by the release of inflammatory mediators, including the proteolytically processed forms of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18. Given the similar inflammatory outcomes of the canonical and noncanonical pyroptosis pathways, we hypothesized that caspase-1 and -11 should have very similar activities and substrate specificities. To test this hypothesis, we purified recombinant murine caspases and analyzed their primary specificities by massive hybrid combinatorial substrate library (HyCoSuL) screens. We correlated the substrate preferences of each caspase with their activities on the recombinant natural substrates IL-1?, IL-18, and gasdermin D. Although we identified highly selective and robust peptidyl substrates for caspase-1, we were unable to do so for caspase-11, because caspase-1 cleaved even the best caspase-11 substrates equally well. Caspase-1 rapidly processed pro-IL-1? and -18, but caspase-11 processed these two pro-ILs extremely poorly. However, both caspase-1 and -11 efficiently produced the cell-lytic domain from the gasdermin D precursor. We hypothesize that caspase-11 may have evolved a specific exosite to selectively engage pyroptosis without directly activating pro-IL-1? or -18. In summary, comparing the activities of caspase-1 and -11 in HyCoSuL screens and with three endogenous protein substrates, we conclude that caspase-11 has highly restricted substrate specificity, preferring gasdermin D over all other substrates examined.
Project description:Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been shown to be an important regulator of cardiac interstitial fibrosis. In this study, we explored the role of interleukin-6 in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the underlying mechanisms. Cardiac function of IL-6 knockout mice was significantly improved and interstitial fibrosis was apparently alleviated in comparison with wildtype (WT) diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Treatment with IL-6 significantly promoted the proliferation and collagen production of cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). High glucose treatment increased collagen production, which were mitigated in CFs from IL-6 KO mice. Moreover, IL-6 knockout alleviated the up-regulation of TGFβ1 in diabetic hearts of mice and cultured CFs treated with high glucose or IL-6. Furthermore, the expression of miR-29 reduced upon IL-6 treatment, while increased in IL-6 KO hearts. Overexpression of miR-29 blocked the pro-fibrotic effects of IL-6 on cultured CFs. In summary, deletion of IL-6 is able to mitigate myocardial fibrosis and improve cardiac function of diabetic mice. The mechanism involves the regulation of IL-6 on TGFβ1 and miR-29 pathway. This study indicates the therapeutic potential of IL-6 suppression on diabetic cardiomyopathy disease associated with fibrosis.
Project description:Acute pancreatitis (AP), especially severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), is an extremely dangerous illness with a high mortality rate. Pyroptotic cells release their cellular contents and inflammatory factors, aggravating the inflammatory response. Pyroptosis may be the main mode of acinar cell death during AP. The circular RNA circHIPK3 is expressed in pancreatic tissue and is associated with inflammatory response. In this study, we focused on the role and underlying mechanism of circHIPK3 in AP. We found that the expression of circHIPK3 was significantly elevated in serum of patients with AP and in caerulein-stimulated AR42J cells and was associated with caspase-1 and caspase-11 activation. circHIPK3 silencing ameliorated caerulein-induced cell damage and reduced the release of inflammatory factors IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? and inhibited the activation of caspase-1 and caspase-11. In addition, circHIPK3 bound to miR-193a-5p and negatively regulated its expression. Inhibition of miR-193a-5p increased the release of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? and activated caspase-1 and caspase-11, thereby counteracting the effect of circHIPK3 silencing on caerulein-induced cell damage. Furthermore, we identified GSDMD as a target gene of miR-193a-5p, which is the key gene for pyroptosis. Interfering with the expression of GSDMD can increase cell viability, reduce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and suppress the activation of cleaved caspase-1 and caspase-11. Silencing GSDMD reversed the effects of miR-193a-5p inhibitors on caerulein-induced damage. In conclusion, circHIPK3 promotes pyroptosis in acinar cells through regulation of the miR-193a-5p/GSDMD axis, which eventually aggravates AP disease.
Project description:Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is involved in sepsis progression, while its underlying mechanisms on sepsis-induced lung injury remain obscure. Oxidative stress, pyroptosis, and inhibition of autophagy can result in organ injury. MiR-34a has been reported to regulate oxidative stress and autophagy via inhibiting silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) and autophagy gene 4B (ATG4B) signaling. This study aimed at identifying the function of miR-34a in oxidative stress, inflammation, pyroptosis, and autophagy in sepsis-induced lung injury. Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and treated with miR-34a antagomir/agomir. Survival (n = 10), histopathological changes (n = 6), and lung wet-to-dry ratio (n = 6) were recorded and assayed. Other detection (n = 6) was performed to investigate the level of oxidative stress, inflammation, pyroptosis, and autophagy in lung tissues. Results showed that miR-34a down-regulation ameliorated lung injury in septic mice as reflected by decreased lung injury scores (decrease from 3.00 ± 0.32 to 2.00 ± 0.32) and wet-to-dry ratio (0.36-fold decrease). MiR-34a down-regulation also decreased reactive oxygen species accumulation (0.36-fold decrease), and promoted superoxide dismutase activity and the expression of SIRT1 (1.24-fold increase), heme oxygenase-1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 to inhibit oxidative stress in septic mice. Moreover, miR-34a down-regulation suppressed inflammatory response and pyroptosis in septic mice, as evidenced by decreased level of pro-inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and IL-18, activity of caspase-1 (0.51-fold decrease) and expression of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (0.48-fold decrease), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD, cleaved-caspase-1, and cleaved-gasdermin D (0.36-fold decrease), and increased level of anti-inflammatory factors IL-10. MiR-34a down-regulation also enhanced autophagy in septic mice as evidenced by more autolysosomes and elevated expressions of ATG4B (0.90-fold increase), beclin1, ATG9, and LC3 II/I. Among these experiments, miR-34a up-regulation showed opposite effects on oxidative stress, inflammatory response, pyroptosis, and autophagy in septic mice. Additionally, miR-34a could bind to the 3'-untranslated region of SIRT1 and ATG4B. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that miR-34a was implicated in oxidative stress, inflammation, pyroptosis, and autophagy in the development of sepsis. MiR-34a inhibition had a potential to alleviate sepsis-induced lung injury.