The C-type lectin OCILRP2 costimulates EL4 T cell activation via the DAP12-Raf-MAP kinase pathway.
ABSTRACT: OCILRP2 is a typical Type-II transmembrane protein that is selectively expressed in activated T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and B cells and functions as a novel co-stimulator of T cell activation. However, the signaling pathways underlying OCILRP2 in T cell activation are still not completely understood. In this study, we found that the knockdown of OCILRP2 expression with shRNA or the blockage of its activity by an anti-OCILRP2 antagonist antibody reduced CD3/CD28-costimulated EL4 T cell viability and IL-2 production, inhibit Raf1, MAPK3, and MAPK8 activation, and impair NFAT and NF-?B transcriptional activities. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation results indicated that OCILRP2 could interact with the DAP12 protein, an adaptor containing an intracellular ITAM motif that can transduce signals to induce MAP kinase activation for T cell activation. Our data reveal that after binding with DAP12, OCILRP2 activates the Raf-MAP kinase pathways, resulting in T cell activation.
Project description:The murine EL4 lymphoma cell line exists in variants that are either sensitive or resistant to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In sensitive cells, PMA causes Erk MAPK activation and Erk-mediated growth arrest. In resistant cells, PMA induces a low level of Erk activation, without growth arrest. A relatively unexplored aspect of the phenotypes is that resistant cells are more adherent to culture substrate than are sensitive cells. In this study, the roles of the protein tyrosine kinases FAK and Pyk2 in EL4 phenotype were examined, with a particular emphasis on the role of these proteins in metastasis. FAK is expressed only in PMA-resistant (or intermediate phenotype) EL4 cells, correlating with enhanced cell-substrate adherence, while Pyk2 is more highly expressed in non-adherent PMA-sensitive cells. PMA treatment causes modulation of mRNA for FAK (up-regulation) and Pyk2 (down-regulation) in PMA-sensitive but not PMA-resistant EL4 cells. The increase in Pyk2 mRNA is correlated with an increase in Pyk2 protein expression. The roles of FAK in cell phenotype were further explored using transfection and knockdown experiments. The results showed that FAK does not play a major role in modulating PMA-induced Erk activation in EL4 cells. However, the knockdown studies demonstrated that FAK expression is required for proliferation and migration of PMA-resistant cells. In an experimental metastasis model using syngeneic mice, only FAK-expressing (PMA-resistant) EL4 cells form liver tumors. Taken together, these studies suggest that FAK expression promotes metastasis of EL4 lymphoma cells.
Project description:Both inhibitory and activating forms of natural killer (NK) cell receptors are found in mammals. The activating receptors play a direct role in the recognition of virally infected or transformed cells and transduce activating signals into the cell by partnering with an adaptor protein, which contains a cytoplasmic activation motif. Activating NK receptors encoded by the mammalian leukocyte receptor complex (e.g., killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors) and the natural killer complex (e.g., Ly49s) partner with the adaptor protein DAP12, whereas NK receptors encoded in the CD94/NKG2 complex partner with the adaptor protein DAP10. Novel immune-type receptors (NITRs) found in bony fish share several common features with immunoglobulin-type NK receptors. Nitr9 is a putative activating receptor in zebrafish that induces cytotoxicity within the context of human NK cells. One isoform of Nitr9, Nitr9L, is shown here to preferentially partner with a zebrafish ortholog of Dap12. Cross-linking the Nitr9L-Dap12 complex results in activation of the phosphytidylinositol 3-kinase-->AKT-->extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway suggesting that the DAP12-based activating pathway is conserved between bony fish and mammals.
Project description:Despite evidence that DAP12 regulates osteoclasts, mice lacking the ITAM-bearing protein exhibit only mild osteopetrosis. Alternatively, Dap12(-/-) mice, also lacking FcRgamma, are severely osteopetrotic, suggesting that FcRgamma compensates for DAP12 deficiency in the bone-resorbing polykaryons. Controversy exists, however, as to whether these co-stimulatory molecules regulate differentiation of osteoclasts or the capacity of the mature cell to degrade bone. We find that Dap12(-/-) osteoclasts differentiate normally when generated on osteoblasts but have a dysfunctional cytoskeleton, impairing their ability to transmigrate through the osteoblast layer and resorb bone. To determine whether the FcRgamma co-receptor, OSCAR mediates osteoclast function in the absence of DAP12, we overexpressed OSCAR fused to FLAG (OSCAR-FLAG), in Dap12(-/-) osteoclasts. OSCAR-FLAG partially rescues the abnormal cytoskeleton of Dap12(-/-) osteoclasts grown on bone, but not those grown on osteoblasts. Thus, cytoskeletal dysfunction, and not arrested differentiation, is the dominant consequence of DAP12 deficiency in osteoclasts. The failure of osteoblasts to normalize Dap12(-/-) osteoclasts indicates that functionally relevant quantities of OSCAR ligand do not reside in bone-forming cells.
Project description:Crosslinking of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing receptor complexes on a variety of cells leads to their activation through the sequential triggering of protein tyrosine kinases. Recently, DAP12 has been identified as an ITAM-bearing signaling molecule that is noncovalently associated with activating isoforms of MHC class I receptors on natural killer cells. In addition to natural killer cells, DAP12 is expressed in peripheral blood monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, suggesting association with other receptors present in these cell types. In the present study, we report the molecular cloning of the myeloid DAP12-associating lectin-1 (MDL-1), a DAP12-associating membrane receptor expressed exclusively in monocytes and macrophages. MDL-1 is a type II transmembrane protein belonging to the C type lectin superfamily and contains a charged residue in the transmembrane region that enables it to pair with DAP12. Crosslinking of MDL-1/DAP12 complexes in J774 mouse macrophage cells resulted in calcium mobilization. These findings suggest that signaling via MDL-1/DAP12 complexes may constitute a significant activation pathway in myeloid cells.
Project description:In vitro, ligand occupancy of ?v?3 integrin induces phosphorylation of Dap12, which is essential for osteoclast function. Like mice deleted of only ?v?3, Dap12(-/-) mice exhibited a slight increase in bone mass, but Dap12(-/-) mice, lacking another ITAM protein, FcR?, were severely osteopetrotic. The mechanism by which FcR? compensates for Dap12 deficiency is unknown. We find that co-deletion of FcR? did not exacerbate the skeletal phenotype of ?3(-/-) mice. In contrast, ?3/Dap12 double-deficient (DAP/?3(-/-)) mice (but not ?1/Dap12 double-deficient mice) were profoundly osteopetrotic, reflecting severe osteoclast dysfunction relative to those lacking ?v?3 or Dap12 alone. Activation of OSCAR, the FcR? co-receptor, rescued Dap12(-/-) but not DAP/?3(-/-)osteoclasts. Thus, the absence of ?v?3 precluded compensation for Dap12 deficiency by FcR?. In keeping with this, Syk phosphorylation did not occur in OSCAR-activated DAP/?3(-/-) osteoclasts. Thus, FcR? requires the osteoclast ?v?3 integrin to normalize the Dap12-deficient skeleton.
Project description:We examined the mechanism by which M-CSF regulates the cytoskeleton and function of the osteoclast, the exclusive bone resorptive cell. We show that binding of M-CSF to its receptor c-Fms generates a signaling complex comprising phosphorylated DAP12, an adaptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk. c-Fms tyrosine 559, the exclusive binding site of c-Src, is necessary for regulation of DAP12/Syk signaling. Deletion of either of these molecules yields osteoclasts that fail to reorganize their cytoskeleton. Retroviral transduction of null precursors with wild-type or mutant DAP12 or Syk reveals that the SH2 domain of Syk and the ITAM tyrosine residues and transmembrane domain of DAP12 mediate M-CSF signaling. Our data provide genetic and biochemical evidence that uncovers an epistatic signaling pathway linking the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Fms to the immune adaptor DAP12 and the cytoskeleton.
Project description:The activation and fusion of macrophages and of osteoclasts require the adaptor molecule DNAX-activating protein of 12 kD (DAP12), which contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs). TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2) is the main DAP12-associated receptor in osteoclasts and, similar to DAP12 deficiency, loss of TREM2 in humans leads to Nasu-Hakola disease, which is characterized by bone cysts and dementia. Furthermore, in vitro experiments have shown that deficiency in DAP12 or TREM2 leads to impaired osteoclast development and the formation of mononuclear osteoclasts. Here, we demonstrate that the ligation of TREM2 activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2, and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3; induced the mobilization of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and the reorganization of actin; and prevented apoptosis. The signaling adaptor molecule DAP10 played a key role in the TREM2- and DAP12-dependent recruitment of PI3K to the signaling complex. Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP1) inhibited TREM2- and DAP12-induced signaling by binding to DAP12 in an SH2 domain-dependent manner and preventing the recruitment of PI3K to DAP12. These results demonstrate a previously uncharacterized interaction of SHIP1 with DAP12 that functionally limits TREM2- and DAP12-dependent signaling and identify a mechanism through which SHIP1 regulates key ITAM-containing receptors by directly blocking the binding and activation of PI3K.
Project description:DAP12 is a signaling adaptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) that pairs with receptors on myeloid cells and natural killer cells. We examine here the responses of mice lacking DAP12 to stimulation through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Unexpectedly, DAP12-deficient macrophages produced higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in response to a variety of pathogenic stimuli. Additionally, macrophages deficient in spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), which signals downstream of DAP12, showed a phenotype identical to that of DAP12-deficient macrophages. DAP12-deficient mice were more susceptible to endotoxic shock and had enhanced resistance to infection by the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that one or more DAP12-pairing receptors negatively regulate signaling through TLRs.
Project description:Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that is inhaled into the lungs and can lead to life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Currently, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the mammalian immune response to respiratory cryptococcal challenge remain poorly defined. DAP12, a signaling adapter for multiple pattern recognition receptors in myeloid and natural killer (NK) cells, has been shown to play both activating and inhibitory roles during lung infections by different bacteria and fungi. In this study, we demonstrate that DAP12 plays an important inhibitory role in the immune response to C. neoformans Infectious outcomes in DAP12(-/-) mice, including survival and lung fungal burden, are significantly improved compared to those in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice. We find that eosinophils and macrophages are decreased while NK cells are increased in the lungs of infected DAP12(-/-) mice. In contrast to WT NK cells, DAP12(-/-) NK cells are able to repress C. neoformans growth in vitro Additionally, DAP12(-/-) macrophages are more highly activated than WT macrophages, with increased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and CCL5/RANTES and more efficient uptake and killing of C. neoformans These findings suggest that DAP12 acts as a brake on the pulmonary immune response to C. neoformans by promoting pulmonary eosinophilia and by inhibiting the activation and antifungal activities of effector cells, including NK cells and macrophages.
Project description:DNAX adaptor protein 12 (DAP12) is a trans-membrane adaptor molecule that transduces activating signals in NK and myeloid cells. Absence of functional Dap12 results in osteoclast defects and bone abnormalities. Because DAP12 has no extracelluar binding domains, it must pair with cell surface receptors for signal transduction. There are at least 15 known DAP12-associating cell surface receptors with distinct temporal and cell type-specific expression patterns. Our aim was to determine which receptors may be important in DAP12-associated bone pathologies. Here, we identify myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 receptor (also known as CLEC5A) as a key regulator of synovial injury and bone erosion during autoimmune joint inflammation. Activation of MDL-1 leads to enhanced recruitment of inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils to the joint and promotes bone erosion. Functional blockade of MDL-1 receptor via Mdl1 deletion or treatment with MDL-1-Ig fusion protein reduces the clinical signs of autoimmune joint inflammation. These findings suggest that MDL-1 receptor may be a therapeutic target for treatment of immune-mediated skeletal disorders.