Assembly of luminescent ordered multilayer thin-films based on oppositely-charged MMT and magnetic NiFe-LDHs nanosheets with ultra-long lifetimes.
ABSTRACT: In this present report, luminescent ordered multilayer thin films (OMFs) based on oppositely-charged inorganic nanosheets and the different oppositely-charged chromophores were fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly method. Exfoliated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and montmorillonite (MMT) nanosheets with opposite charges can be expected to provide a pseudo electronic microenvironment (PEM) which has not been declared in previous literatures, and transition metal-bearing LDHs nanosheets can offer an additional ferromagnetic effect (FME) for the chromophores at the same time. Surprisingly, the luminescent lifetimes of those OMFs with PEM and FME are significantly prolonged compared with that of the pristine chromophores, even much longer than those of OMFs without oppositely-charged and ferromagnetic architecture. Therefore, it is highly expected that the PEM and FME formed by oppositely-charged and transition metal-bearing inorganic nanosheets have remarkable influence on obtaining better optical property, which suggests a new potential way to manipulate, control and develop the novel light-emitting materials and optical devices.
Project description:The deposition of polyelectrolyte (PEL) multilayers (PEMs) of poly(l-lysine)/cellulose sulfate (PLL/CS) onto germanium (Ge) substrates depending on salt concentration (cS) and deposition step z at constant PEL concentration cPEL = 0.01 M and pH = 7.0 was studied. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used for the quantitative determination of alternate PLL/CS deposition profiles (adsorbed amount versus z) and total deposited PEM amount. By varying cS from 0 M to 1.0 M, a maximum of deposited amount was obtained at 0.1 M, so that both no salinity (0 M) and high salinity (1.0 M) revealed deposited amounts that were far lower than for mean salinity (0.1 M). Furthermore, in situ ATR-FTIR allowed to determine the detailed modulation of the PEL composition during the consecutive PEM deposition, which was interpreted as being due to both diffusion of given PEL from the PEM interior towards the outermost region and release of the PEM upon contact with the bulk oppositely charged PEL solution. Finally, ex situ ATR-FTIR measurements on the PEL solutions after deposition of PEM-20 revealed the distinct release of PEL from the PEM solely for cS = 1.0 M, due to the highest mobility of PEL under high salt conditions. These studies help to prepare functional PEM coatings with defined thicknesses and morphologies for the passivation and activation of material surfaces in the biomedical and food field.
Project description:Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) are formed by mixing the solutions of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, which were hitherto deemed "impossible" to process, since they are infusible and brittle when dry. Here, we describe the process of fabricating free-standing micro-patterned PEC films containing array of hollow or filled microchambers by one-step casting with small applied pressure and a PDMS mould. These structures are compared with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) thin films having array of hollow microchambers produced from a layer-by-layer self-assembly of the same polyelectrolytes on the same PDMS moulds. PEM microchambers "cap" and "wall" thickness depend on the number of PEM bilayers, while the "cap" and "wall" of the PEC microchambers can be tuned by varying the applied pressure and the type of patterned mould. The proposed PEC production process omits layering approaches currently employed for PEMs, reducing the production time from ~2 days down to 2?hours. The error-free structured PEC area was found to be significantly larger compared to the currently-employed microcontact printing for PEMs. The sensitivity of PEC chambers towards aqueous environments was found to be higher compared to those composed of PEM.
Project description:Covalent organic frameworks enable the topological connection of organic chromophores into ? lattices, making them attractive for creating light-emitting polymers that are predesignable for both the primary- and high-order structures. However, owing to linkages, covalent organic frameworks are either unstable or poor luminescent, leaving the practical synthesis of stable light-emitting frameworks challenging. Here, we report the designed synthesis of sp2 carbon-conjugated frameworks that combine stability with light-emitting activity. The C=C linkages topologically connect pyrene knots and arylyenevinylene linkers into two-dimensional all sp2 carbon lattices that are designed to be ? conjugated along both the x and y directions and develop layer structures, creating exceptionally stable frameworks. The resulting frameworks are capable of tuning band gap and emission by the linkers, are highly luminescent under various conditions and can be exfoliated to produce brilliant nanosheets. These results suggest a platform based on sp2 carbon frameworks for designing robust photofunctional materials.
Project description:Here we report a powerful method that facilitates the transport of biologically active materials across the cell wall barrier in plant cells. Positively charged delaminated layered double hydroxide lactate nanosheets (LDH-lactate-NS) with a 0.5?2?nm thickness and 30?60?nm diameter exhibit a high adsorptive capacity for negatively charged biomolecules, including fluorescent dyes such as tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC), fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I(FITC) and DNA molecules, forming neutral LDH-nanosheet conjugates. These neutral conjugates can shuttle the bound fluorescent dye into the cytosol of intact plant cell very efficiently. Furthermore, typical inhibitors of endocytosis and low temperature incubation did not prevent LDH-lactate-NS internalization, suggesting that LDH-lactate-NS penetrated the plasma membrane via non-endocytic pathways, which will widen the applicability to a variety of plant cells. Moreover, the absence of unwanted side effects in our cytological studies, and the nuclear localization of ssDNA-FITC suggest that nano-LDHs have potential application as a novel gene carrier to plants.
Project description:Ferromagnetic two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin nanosheets hold great promise for next generation electronics. Ferromagnetic metal-free materials that usually possess only an s/p electronic configuration with weak spin-orbit coupling and a large spin relaxation time, would play an important role in constructing future spintronic devices. However, the absence of an intrinsic spin ordering structure in most metal-free materials greatly hampers the widening scope of ferromagnetic 2D nanostructures as well as in-depth understanding of their ferromagnetic nature. Herein, the induction of intrinsic ferromagnetism in 2D metal-free g-C3N4 ultrathin nanosheets has been achieved through a new effective strategy whereby hydrogen dangling bonds are introduced. In our case, g-C3N4 ultrathin nanosheets with hydrogen dangling bonds showed obvious room temperature ferromagnetic behavior that could even be tuned by the concentration of hydrogen. This work will pave a new pathway to engineer the properties of 2D nanomaterial systems.
Project description:Here, we report a facile and easily scalable hydrothermal synthetic strategy to synthesize Ni-V layered double hydroxide (NiV LDH) nanosheets toward high-energy and high-power-density supercapacitor applications. NiV LDH nanosheets with varying Ni-to-V ratios were prepared. Three-dimensional curved nanosheets of Ni0.80V0.20 LDH showed better electrochemical performance compared to other synthesized NiV LDHs. The electrode coated with Ni0.80V0.20 LDH nanosheets in a three-electrode cell configuration showed excellent pseudocapacitive behavior, having a high specific capacity of 711 C g-1 (1581 F g-1) at a current density of 1 A g-1 in 2 M KOH. The material showed an excellent rate capability and retained the high specific capacity of 549 C g-1 (1220 F g-1) at a current density of 10 A g-1 and low internal resistances. Owing to its superior performance, Ni0.80V0.20 LDH nanosheets were used as positive electrode and commercial activated carbon was used as negative electrode for constructing a hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) device, having a working voltage of 1.5 V. The HSC device exhibited a high specific capacitance of 98 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. The HSC device showed a higher energy density of 30.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 0.78 kW kg-1 and maintained a high value of 24 Wh kg-1 when the power density was increased to 11.1 kW kg-1. The performance of NiV LDHs nanosheets indicates their great potential as low-cost electrode material for future energy-storage devices.
Project description:The development of non-precious metal electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion and storage is compelling but greatly challenging due to low activity of the existing catalysts. Herein, the ultrathin NiAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheets (NiAl-LDH-NSs) are prepared by simple liquid-exfoliation of bulk NiAl-LDHs and first used as ethanol electrooxidation catalysts. The ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) structure ensures that the LDH nanosheets expose a greater number of active sites. More importantly, much Ni(III) active species (NiOOH) in the ultrathin nanosheets are formed by the exfoliation process, which play an authentic catalytic role in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The presence of NiOOH remarkably improves the reactivity and electrical conductivity of LDH nanosheets. These synergistic effects lead to strikingly more than 30 times enhanced EOR activity of NiAl-LDH-NSs compared to bulk NiAl-LDHs. The obtained electrocatalytic activity is also much better than those of most Ni- and LDH-based EOR catalysts reported to date. In addition, the ultrathin NiAl-LDH-NS electrocatalyst also exhibits good long-term stability (maintain 81.8% of the original value after 10000 s). This study not only provides a highly competitive EOR catalyst, but also opens new avenues toward the design of highly efficient electrode materials that have various potential applications in supercapacitor, Ni-MH battery and other electrocatalytic systems.
Project description:When the dimensionality of layered materials is reduced to the physical limit, an ultimate two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy and/or confinement effect may bring about extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), bearing abundant hydroxyl groups covalently bonded within 2D host layers, have been proposed as inorganic anion conductors. However, typical hydroxyl ion conductivities for bulk or lamellar LDHs, generally up to 10-3 S cm-1, are considered not high enough for practical applications. We show that single-layer LDH nanosheets exhibited exceptionally high in-plane conductivities approaching 10-1 S cm-1, which were the highest among anion conductors and comparable to proton conductivities in commercial proton exchange membranes (for example, Nafion). The in-plane conductivities were four to five orders of magnitude higher than the cross-plane or cross-membrane values of restacked LDH nanosheets. This 2D superionic transport characteristic might have great promises in a variety of applications including alkaline fuel cells and water electrolysis.
Project description:Luminescent layered double hydroxides (LDH) intercalated by isophthalate (ISO) and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) have been synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), elemental analysis (ICP-OES and CHN), and photoluminescence spectroscopy. While PXRD shows the successful formation of ZnAlEu LDHs, EXAFS reveals that the Eu activators are hosted in the hydroxide layers with an eightfold, oxygen-rich coordination, distinct from the sixfold coordination expected for the octahedral sites of metal cations in LDHs. This kind of coordination should locally distort the brucite-like layers. Additionally, the intercalation of ISO and NTA in the LDHs is shown to change the coordination environment around Eu compared to nitrate-intercalated ZnAlEu LDHs, which suggests that these anions directly interact with the Eu centers and/or strongly affect their coordination geometry. Finally, from the photoluminescence results, analyzed based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, it is determined that Eu is most likely in an environment with no inversion symmetry.
Project description:Ion-mediated interactions between like-charged polyelectrolytes have been paid much attention, and the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory has been shown to fail in qualitatively predicting multivalent ion-mediated like-charge attraction. However, inadequate attention has been paid to the ion-mediated interactions between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. In this work, the potentials of mean force (PMF) between oppositely charged nanoparticles in 1:1 and 2:2 salt solutions were investigated by Monte Carlo simulations and the PB theory. Our calculations show that the PMFs between oppositely charged nanoparticles are generally attractive in 1:1 and 2:2 salt solutions and that such attractive PMFs become weaker at higher 1:1 or 2:2 salt concentrations. The comprehensive comparisons show that the PB theory can quantitatively predict the PMFs between oppositely charged nanoparticles in 1:1 salt solutions, except for the slight deviation at very high 1:1 salt concentration. However, for 2:2 salt solutions, the PB theory generally overestimates the attractive PMF between oppositely charged nanoparticles, and this overestimation becomes more pronounced for nanoparticles with higher charge density and for higher 2:2 salt concentration. Our microscopic analyses suggest that the overestimation of the PB theory on the attractive PMFs for 2:2 salt solutions is attributed to the underestimation of divalent ions bound to nanoparticles.