Depression in context of low neuroticism is a risk factor for stroke: a 9-year cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Depression predicts stroke; however, meta-analyses show significant heterogeneity. We hypothesize that the risk of depression on incident stroke is conditional upon the relative contribution of vascular disease and of neuroticism in the underlying pathways to depression in a specific patient. We examined whether depression increases stroke in persons with low neuroticism and without preexisting cardiac disease.This was a population-based cohort study with 9-year follow-up (n = 2,050; ?55 years, 52% female). The incidence of stroke was determined by self-report data as well as data from general practitioners and death certificates. Neuroticism was measured using the Dutch Personality Questionnaire and depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. All data were analysed by Cox proportional hazards regression.A total of 117 incident cases of stroke occurred during follow-up. Among persons with a history of cardiac disease (n = 401), depression predicted incident stroke independent of neuroticism level with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.10) (p = 0.02). In persons without cardiac disease (n = 1,649), depression and neuroticism interacted significantly in predicting incident stroke (p = 0.028). Stratified analyses showed that depression predicted incident stroke in those with low neuroticism, HR 1.05 (95% CI 1.00-1.09) (p = 0.033), but not in those with high neuroticism, HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.96-1.05) (p = 0.82).In persons without preexistent cardiac disease, depression is only predictive for future stroke in absence of high neuroticism. This might be explained by the hypothesis that late-life depression in context of low neuroticism is a marker of subclinical vascular disease.
Project description:Kidney stone risk factors are understudied among Asians. Our study objective was to investigate associations of obesity and other chronic diseases with incident kidney stones among the urban Chinese.Included in this study are two prospective cohorts: the Shanghai Women's Health Study (N?=?69,166) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (N?=?58,054). Incident kidney stones were determined by self-report in 2004 and 2008. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the associations of study variables with stone risk with adjustment of demographics, medical history, and dietary intakes.There were 2653 incident stones over 1,007,958 person-years of follow-up. Overall incidence rates (per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI]) were 2.10 (1.99, 2.21) among women and 3.80 (3.59, 4.02) among men. Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with risk (BMI ?25 vs 18.5-24.9?kg/m2, women: hazard ratio [HR]?=?1.14 [95% CI 1.01, 1.28]; men: HR?=?1.17 [1.03, 1.32]). High waist-hip ratio (?0.80 and ?0.90 for women and men, respectively) was associated with risk (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27 for women; HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05, 1.35 for men). Coronary heart disease or stroke history was associated with risk in women only (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10, 1.56). Hypertension history was associated with risk in men only (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11, 1.45). No significant association with diabetes mellitus was observed.Among the Chinese, kidney stone incidence in men is almost twice that of women. Obesity is a shared risk factor. Hypertension history is associated with risk in men, whereas history of coronary heart disease or stroke is associated with risk in women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We sought to determine whether post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, beyond the expected effects from recognized cardiovascular risk factors and depression. METHODS AND RESULTS:World Trade Center-Heart is an observational prospective cohort study of 6481 blue-collar first responders nested within the World Trade Center Health Program in New York City. Baseline measures in 2012 and 2013 included blood pressure, weight and height, and blood lipids. PTSD, depression, smoking, and dust exposure during the 2001 cleanup were self-reported. During the 4-year follow-up, outcomes were assessed through (1) interview-based incident, nonfatal MI, and stroke, validated in medical charts (n=118); and (2) hospitalizations for MI and stroke for New York city and state residents (n=180). Prevalence of PTSD was 19.9% in men and 25.9% in women, that is, at least twice that of the general population. Cumulative incidence of MI or stroke was consistently larger for men or women with PTSD across follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-3.82) for MI and 2.51 (95% CI, 1.39-4.57) for stroke. For pooled MI and stroke, adjusted HRs were 2.35 (95% CI, 1.57-3.52) in all and 1.88 (95% CI, 1.01-3.49) in men free of depression. Using hospitalization registry data, adjusted HRs were 2.17 (95% CI, 1.41-3.32) for MI; 3.01 (95% CI, 1.84-4.93) for stroke; and for pooled MI and stroke, the adjusted HR was 2.40 (95% CI, 1.73-3.34) in all, HR was 2.44 (95% CI, 1.05-5.55) in women, and adjusted HR was 2.27 (95% CI, 1.41-3.67) in men free of depression. World Trade Center dust exposure had no effect. CONCLUSIONS:This cohort study confirms that PTSD is a risk factor for MI and stroke of similar magnitude in men and women, independent of depression.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The prognostic impact of QT interval prolongation has not been well studied in healthy Asians. We investigated the association between the QT interval with mortality and cardiovascular events in a healthy Southeast Asian population. METHODS:The QT interval corrected for heart rate using the Bazett's formula (QTc) was measured in 2536 (825 men, mean age 65.7±7.5 years) Singaporean adults free of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study. Outcomes were all-cause mortality and incident cardiovascular events (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and/or stroke). RESULTS:Over a mean 7.78 years (19695 person-years) of follow-up, there were 202 deaths (45 from cardiovascular causes), 62 cases of myocardial infarction and 64 cases of stroke. Adjusting for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors, QTcB prolongation remained independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR(per standard deviation) 1.27 (1.10-1.48), p = 0.0015), as well as increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR 1.20 (1.01-1.43), p = 0.0415) and MI/stroke (HR 1.22 (1.01-1.47), p = 0.0455), but not cardiovascular mortality alone (HR 1.05 (0.77-1.44), p = 0.7562). CONCLUSIONS:We provide the first community-based estimates of the independent association of QT prolongation with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in Southeast Asians.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Although the associations between processed meat intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality have been established, the associations of unprocessed red meat, poultry, or fish consumption with CVD and all-cause mortality are still uncertain.<h4>Objective</h4>To identify the associations of processed meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, or fish intake with incident CVD and all-cause mortality.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This cohort study analyzed individual-level data of adult participants in 6 prospective cohort studies in the United States. Baseline diet data from 1985 to 2002 were collected. Participants were followed up until August 31, 2016. Data analyses were performed from March 25, 2019, to November 17, 2019.<h4>Exposures</h4>Processed meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, or fish intake as continuous variables.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Hazard ratio (HR) and 30-year absolute risk difference (ARD) for incident CVD (composite end point of coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and CVD deaths) and all-cause mortality, based on each additional intake of 2 servings per week for monotonic associations or 2 vs 0 servings per week for nonmonotonic associations.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 29 682 participants (mean [SD] age at baseline, 53.7 [15.7] years; 13 168 [44.4%] men; and 9101 [30.7%] self-identified as non-white), 6963 incident CVD events and 8875 all-cause deaths were adjudicated during a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 19.0 (14.1-23.7) years. The associations of processed meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, or fish intake with incident CVD and all-cause mortality were monotonic (P for nonlinearity???.25), except for the nonmonotonic association between processed meat intake and incident CVD (P for nonlinearity?=?.006). Intake of processed meat (adjusted HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.04-1.11]; adjusted ARD, 1.74% [95% CI, 0.85%-2.63%]), unprocessed red meat (adjusted HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01-1.06]; adjusted ARD, 0.62% [95% CI, 0.07%-1.16%]), or poultry (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.06]; adjusted ARD, 1.03% [95% CI, 0.36%-1.70%]) was significantly associated with incident CVD. Fish intake was not significantly associated with incident CVD (adjusted HR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.98-1.02]; adjusted ARD, 0.12% [95% CI, -0.40% to 0.65%]). Intake of processed meat (adjusted HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.02-1.05]; adjusted ARD, 0.90% [95% CI, 0.43%-1.38%]) or unprocessed red meat (adjusted HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01-1.05]; adjusted ARD, 0.76% [95% CI, 0.19%-1.33%]) was significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Intake of poultry (adjusted HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.97-1.02]; adjusted ARD, -0.28% [95% CI, -1.00% to 0.44%]) or fish (adjusted HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.97-1.01]; adjusted ARD, -0.34% [95% CI, -0.88% to 0.20%]) was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>These findings suggest that, among US adults, higher intake of processed meat, unprocessed red meat, or poultry, but not fish, was significantly associated with a small increased risk of incident CVD, whereas higher intake of processed meat or unprocessed red meat, but not poultry or fish, was significantly associated with a small increased risk of all-cause mortality. These findings have important public health implications and should warrant further investigations.
Project description:To evaluate the association of late-life depression with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in a multiethnic community cohort.A cohort study was conducted in Northern Manhattan, New York, New York.A total of 2160 community-dwelling Medicare recipients aged 65 years or older were included in the study.Depression was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and defined by a CES-D score of 4 or more. We used logistic regression for cross-sectional association analyses and proportional hazards regression for longitudinal analyses.Mild cognitive impairment dementia, and progression from MCI to dementia were the main outcome measures. We also used subcategories of MCI (amnestic and nonamnestic), and dementia (probable Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, including possible Alzheimer disease with stroke).Baseline depression was associated with prevalent MCI (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and dementia (2.2; 1.6-3.1). Baseline depression was associated with an increased risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3) but not with incident MCI (0.9; 0.7-1.2). Persons with MCI and coexisting depression at baseline had a higher risk of progression to dementia (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4), especially vascular dementia (4.3; 1.1-17.0), but not Alzheimer disease (1.9; 1.0-3.6).The association of depression with prevalent MCI and with progression from MCI to dementia, but not with incident MCI, suggests that depression accompanies cognitive impairment but does not precede it.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>to investigate whether psychosocial pathways mediate the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and stroke.<h4>Methods</h4>prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 11.5 years.<h4>Setting</h4>the Cardiovascular Health Study, a longitudinal population-based cohort study of older adults ?65 years.<h4>Measurements</h4>the primary outcome was adjudicated incident ischaemic stroke. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status (NSES) was measured using a composite of six census-tract variables. Psychosocial factors were assessed with standard measures for depression, social support and social networks.<h4>Results</h4>of the 3,834 white participants with no prior stroke, 548 had an incident ischaemic stroke over the 11.5-year follow-up. Among whites, the incident stroke hazard ratio (HR) associated with living in the lowest relative to highest NSES quartile was 1.32 (95% CI = 1.01-1.73), in models adjusted for individual SES. Additional adjustment for psychosocial factors had a minimal effect on hazard of incident stroke (HR = 1.31, CI = 1.00-1.71). Associations between NSES and stroke incidence were not found among African-Americans (n = 785) in either partially or fully adjusted models.<h4>Conclusions</h4>psychosocial factors played a minimal role in mediating the effect of NSES on stroke incidence among white older adults.
Project description:<b>Background/objectives: </b>Several longitudinal studies in high-income countries suggest that depression increases stroke risk. However, few prior studies have evaluated this association in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where rapidly aging populations may have markedly different vascular risk profiles.<br><br><b>Design: </b>Prospective cohort study.<br><br><b>Setting: </b>The Mexican Health and Aging Study is a national population-based study of older adults in Mexico.<br><br><b>Participants: </b>A total of 10,693 Mexican adults aged 50 and older enrolled in 2001 with no history of prior stroke.<br><br><b>Measurements: </b>Depressive symptoms were assessed with a modified 9-item Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (elevated depressive symptom cutoff ?5) in 2001 and 2003. We evaluated associations between baseline and short-term (2-year) changes in elevated depressive symptoms (categorized as stable low, recently remitted, recent-onset, or stable high symptoms) with incident self-reported or next-of-kin reported doctor-diagnosed stroke through 2015 using Cox proportional hazards models and sensitivity analyses applying inverse probability weights.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Over an average follow-up of 11.4?years (standard deviation = 4.2), 10,693 respondents reported 546 incident strokes. Individuals with elevated baseline depressive symptoms experienced a moderately higher hazard of incident stroke (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .95-1.36) compared with those without elevated baseline depressive symptoms. In analyses of short-term changes in elevated depressive symptoms (n = 8,808; 414 incident stokes), participants with recent-onset (HR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.06-1.81) or stable high (HR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.10-1.84) elevated depressive symptoms had a greater hazard of incident stroke compared to those with stable low/no depressive symptoms, whereas recently remitted (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = .74-1.37) symptoms was not associated with stroke hazard.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>Strategies to reduce depressive symptoms merit evaluation as approaches to prevent stroke in middle-income countries. Findings are similar to those in high-income countries but should be replicated in other LMICs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We studied the associations between personality traits and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke in women with diabetes. METHODS:From the Women's Health Initiative, 15,029 women aged 50 to 79 years at enrollment and with self-reported treated diabetes at baseline or follow-up, were followed for a mean of 10 years. Personality traits measured from validated scales included hostility, optimism, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness, and negative emotional expressiveness. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine associations between personality traits and the risk of adjudicated CHD (nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death) or stroke outcomes. Progressively adjusted regression approach was used in the multivariable models to adjust for demographics, depression, anthropometric variables, and lifestyle factors. RESULTS:A total of 1,118 incident CHD and 710 incident stroke cases were observed. Women in the highest quartile of hostility had 22% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.48) increased risk for CHD compared with women in the lowest quartile of hostility. P values for trend were greater than 0.05. Stratified analysis by prevalent or incident diabetes showed that the highest quartile of hostility had 34% increased risk for CHD (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.74) among women with incident diabetes. Other personality traits were not significantly associated with stroke or CHD. CONCLUSIONS:Hostility was associated with incidence of CHD among postmenopausal women with diabetes, especially among incident diabetes. These results provide a basis for targeted prevention programs for women with a high level of hostility and diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The genes underlying the risk of stroke in the general population remain undetermined. METHODS:We carried out an analysis of genomewide association data generated from four large cohorts composing the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, including 19,602 white persons (mean [+/-SD] age, 63+/-8 years) in whom 1544 incident strokes (1164 ischemic strokes) developed over an average follow-up of 11 years. We tested the markers most strongly associated with stroke in a replication cohort of 2430 black persons with 215 incident strokes (191 ischemic strokes), another cohort of 574 black persons with 85 incident strokes (68 ischemic strokes), and 652 Dutch persons with ischemic stroke and 3613 unaffected persons. RESULTS:Two intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 12p13 and within 11 kb of the gene NINJ2 were associated with stroke (P<5x10(-8)). NINJ2 encodes an adhesion molecule expressed in glia and shows increased expression after nerve injury. Direct genotyping showed that rs12425791 was associated with an increased risk of total (i.e., all types) and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 1.42) and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.47), respectively, yielding population attributable risks of 11% and 12% in the discovery cohorts. Corresponding hazard ratios were 1.35 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.79; P=0.04) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.91; P=0.02) in the large cohort of black persons and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.37; P=0.03) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41; P=0.04) in the Dutch sample; the results of an underpowered analysis of the smaller black cohort were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS:A genetic locus on chromosome 12p13 is associated with an increased risk of stroke.
Project description:Background:The aim of this study was to determine if there is an increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) resulting from workplace mobbing measured with two mobbing instruments in the Gutenberg Health Study. Methods:In this prospective study, we examined working persons younger than 65?years for the presence of mobbing at baseline and at a 5-year follow-up using a single-item and a 5-item instrument. We used multivariate models to investigate the association between mobbing and incident CVD, hypertension, and change in arterial stiffness and further stratified the models by sex. Results:After adjustment for confounders, mobbed workers appeared to have a higher risk of incident CVD than those not mobbed (single-item HR?=?1.28, 95% CI 0.73-2.24; 5-item HR?=?1.57, 95% CI 0.96-2.54). With the 5-item instrument, men who reported mobbing had a higher risk of incident CVD (HR?=?1.77, 95% CI 1.01-3.09), while no association was observed for women (HR?=?1.05, 95% CI 0.38-2.91). There was no difference in risks between men and women with the single-item instrument. No association between mobbing and incident hypertension and arterial stiffness was seen. Conclusions:Our results show an indication of an increased risk of incident CVD for those mobbed at baseline when using the whole study population. Differences in risks between men and women when using the five-item instrument may be due to the instrument itself. Still, it is essential to detect or prevent workplace mobbing, and if present, to apply an intervention to halt it in order to minimize its adverse effects on CVD.