Concurrent and lagged effects of registered nurse turnover and staffing on unit-acquired pressure ulcers.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We examined the concurrent and lagged effects of registered nurse (RN) turnover on unit-acquired pressure ulcer rates and whether RN staffing mediated the effects. DATA SOURCES/SETTING: Quarterly unit-level data were obtained from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators for 2008 to 2010. A total of 10,935 unit-quarter observations (2,294 units, 465 hospitals) were analyzed. METHODS: This longitudinal study used multilevel regressions and tested time-lagged effects of study variables on outcomes. FINDINGS: The lagged effect of RN turnover on unit-acquired pressure ulcers was significant, while there was no concurrent effect. For every 10 percentage-point increase in RN turnover in a quarter, the odds of a patient having a pressure ulcer increased by 4 percent in the next quarter. Higher RN turnover in a quarter was associated with lower RN staffing in the current and subsequent quarters. Higher RN staffing was associated with lower pressure ulcer rates, but it did not mediate the relationship between turnover and pressure ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that RN turnover is an important factor that affects pressure ulcer rates and RN staffing needed for high-quality patient care. Given the high RN turnover rates, hospital and nursing administrators should prepare for its negative effect on patient outcomes.
Project description:Use of supplemental RNs (SRNs) is common practice among US hospitals to fill gaps in nurse staffing. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between use of SRNs and patient outcomes. Multilevel modeling was performed to analyze hospital administrative data from 19 hospital units in a large tertiary medical center for the years 2003 to 2006. Patient outcomes included in-hospital mortality, medication errors, falls, pressure ulcers, and patient satisfaction with nurses. Use of SRNs ranged from 0% to 30.4% of total RN hours per unit quarter. Among 188 of the 304 unit quarters in which SRNs were used, the average SRN use was 9.8% in non-ICUs and 6.4% in ICUs. All observed effects of SRN use on patient outcomes were nonsignificant. Use of SRNs was substantial and varied widely by unit. No evidence was found that links SRN use to either adverse or positive patient outcomes.
Project description:AIM:To compare the patient acuity, nurse staffing and workforce, missed nursing care and patient outcomes among hospital unit-clusters. BACKGROUND:Relationships among acuity, nurse staffing and workforce, missed nursing care and patient outcomes are not completely understood. METHOD:Descriptive design with data from four unit-clusters: medical, surgical, combined and step-down units. Descriptive statistics were used to compare acuity, nurse staffing coverage, education and expertise, missed nursing care and selected nurse-sensitive outcomes. RESULTS:Patient acuity in general (medical, surgical and combined) floors is similar to step-down units, with an average of 5.6 required RN hours per patient day. In general wards, available RN hours per patient day reach only 50% of required RN hours to meet patient needs. Workforce measures are comparable among unit-clusters, and average missed nursing care is 21%. Patient outcomes vary among unit-clusters. CONCLUSION:Patient acuity is similar among unit-clusters, while nurse staffing coverage is halved in general wards. While RN education, expertise and missed care are comparable among unit-clusters, mortality, skin injuries and risk of family compassion fatigue rates are higher in general wards. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT:Nurse managers play a pivotal role in hustling policymakers to address structural understaffing in general wards, to maximize patient safety outcomes.
Project description:This study modeled the predictive power of unit/patient characteristics, nurse workload, nurse expertise, and hospital-acquired pressure ulcer (HAPU) preventive clinical processes of care on unit-level prevalence of HAPUs.Seven hundred and eighty-nine medical-surgical units (215 hospitals) in 2009.Using unit-level data, HAPUs were modeled with Poisson regression with zero-inflation (due to low prevalence of HAPUs) with significant covariates as predictors.Hospitals submitted data on NQF endorsed ongoing performance measures to CALNOC registry.Fewer HAPUs were predicted by a combination of unit/patient characteristics (shorter length of stay, fewer patients at-risk, fewer male patients), RN workload (more hours of care, greater patient [bed] turnover), RN expertise (more years of experience, fewer contract staff hours), and processes of care (more risk assessment completed).Unit/patient characteristics were potent HAPU predictors yet generally are not modifiable. RN workload, nurse expertise, and processes of care (risk assessment/interventions) are significant predictors that can be addressed to reduce HAPU. Support strategies may be needed for units where experienced full-time nurses are not available for HAPU prevention. Further research is warranted to test these finding in the context of higher HAPU prevalence.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the impact of unit-level nurse staffing on quality of discharge teaching, patient perception of discharge readiness, and postdischarge readmission and emergency department (ED) visits, and cost-benefit of adjustments to unit nurse staffing.<h4>Data sources</h4>Patient questionnaires, electronic medical records, and administrative data for 1,892 medical-surgical patients from 16 nursing units within four acute care hospitals between January and July 2008.<h4>Design</h4>Nested panel data with hospital and unit-level fixed effects and patient and unit-level control variables.<h4>Data collection/extraction</h4>Registered nurse (RN) staffing was recorded monthly in hours-per-patient-day. Patient questionnaires were completed before discharge. Thirty-day readmission and ED use with reimbursement data were obtained by cross-hospital electronic searches.<h4>Principal findings</h4>Higher RN nonovertime staffing decreased odds of readmission (OR=0.56); higher RN overtime staffing increased odds of ED visit (OR=1.70). RN nonovertime staffing reduced ED visits indirectly, via a sequential path through discharge teaching quality and discharge readiness. Cost analysis projected total savings from 1 SD increase in RN nonovertime staffing and decrease in RN overtime of U.S.$11.64 million and U.S.$544,000 annually for the 16 study units.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Postdischarge utilization costs could potentially be reduced by investment in nursing care hours to better prepare patients before hospital discharge.
Project description:To assess the financial effect of the 2008 Hospital-Acquired Conditions Initiative (HACI) pressure ulcer payment changes on Medicare, other payers, and hospitals.Retrospective before-and-after study of all-payer statewide administrative data for more than 2.4 million annual adult discharges in 2007 and 2009 using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Datasets for California. How often and by how much the 2008 payment changes for pressure ulcers affected hospital payment was assessed.Nonfederal acute care California hospitals (N = 311).Adults discharged from acute-care hospitals.Pressure ulcer rates and hospital payment changes.Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer rates were low in 2007 (0.28%) and 2009 (0.27%); present-on-admission pressure ulcer rates increased from 2.3% in 2007 to 3.0% in 2009. According to clinical stage of pressure ulcer (available in 2009), hospital-acquired Stage III and IV ulcers occurred in 603 discharges (0.02%); 60,244 discharges (2.42%) contained other pressure ulcer diagnoses. Payment removal for Stage III and IV hospital-acquired ulcers reduced payment in 75 (0.003%) discharges, for a statewide payment decrease of $310,444 (0.001%) for all payers and $199,238 (0.001%) for Medicare. For all other pressure ulcers, the Hospital-Acquired Conditions Initiative reduced hospital payment in 20,246 (0.81%) cases (including 18,953 cases with present-on-admission ulcers), reducing statewide payment by $62,538,586 (0.21%) for all payers and $47,237,984 (0.32%) for Medicare.The total financial effect of the 2008 payment changes for pressure ulcers was negligible. Most payment decreases occurred by removal of comorbidity payments for present-on-admission pressure ulcers other than Stages III and IV. The removal of payment for hospital-acquired Stage III and IV ulcers by implementation of the HACI policy was 1/200th that of the removal of payment for other types of pressure ulcers that occurred in implementation of the Hospital-Acquired Conditions Initiative.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinally whether a change in registered nurse (RN) staffing and skill mix leads to a change in nursing home resident outcomes while controlling for the potential endogeneity of staffing. DATA SOURCES: Minimum Data Set (MDS) nursing home resident assessment data from five states merged with Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data from 1996 through 2000. STUDY DESIGN: Resident-level longitudinal analysis with facility fixed effects and instrumental variables. Outcomes studied are incidence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections. RN staffing was measured as the care hours per resident-day and skill mix was measured as RN staffing hours as a proportion of total staffing hours. DATA EXTRACTION METHOD: We use all quarterly MDS assessments that fall within 120 days of an annual OSCAR data point, resulting in 399,206 resident-level observations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Controlling for endogeneity of staffing increases the estimated impact of staffing on outcomes in nursing homes. Greater RN staffing significantly decreases the likelihood of both adverse outcomes. Increasing skill mix only reduces the incidence of urinary tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: Research that fails to account for endogeneity of the staffing-outcomes relationship may underestimate the benefit from increased RN staffing. Increases in RN staffing are likely to reduce adverse outcomes in some nursing homes. More research using a broader array of instruments and a national sample would be beneficial.
Project description:Pressure ulcers are a definite problem in our health care system and are growing in numbers. Unfortunately, it is usually the most weak and vulnerable of our culture that faces these complications, causing the patient and their families discomfort, anguish, and economic hardship due to their expensive treatment. Data collected by the tissue viability department showed high incidence of hospital acquire pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit in March 2013. An action plan was initiated and implemented by the tissue viability team, senior nursing management, pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) team and respiratory therapists (RT's) within the ICU. Our objective was to reduce hospital acquired pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit using the plan, do, check, act quality improvement process.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Pressure ulcer development is a quality of care indicator, as pressure ulcers are potentially preventable. Yet pressure ulcer is a leading cause of morbidity, discomfort and additional healthcare costs for inpatients. Methods are lacking for accurate surveillance of pressure ulcer in hospitals to track occurrences and evaluate care improvement strategies. The main study aim was to validate hospital discharge abstract database (DAD) in recording pressure ulcers against nursing consult reports, and to calculate prevalence of pressure ulcers in Alberta, Canada in DAD. We hypothesised that a more inclusive case definition for pressure ulcers would enhance validity of cases identified in administrative data for research and quality improvement purposes. SETTING:A cohort of patients with pressure ulcers were identified from enterostomal (ET) nursing consult documents at a large university hospital in 2011. PARTICIPANTS:There were 1217 patients with pressure ulcers in ET nursing documentation that were linked to a corresponding record in DAD to validate DAD for correct and accurate identification of pressure ulcer occurrence, using two case definitions for pressure ulcer. RESULTS:Using pressure ulcer definition 1 (7 codes), prevalence was 1.4%, and using definition 2 (29 codes), prevalence was 4.2% after adjusting for misclassifications. The results were lower than expected. Definition 1 sensitivity was 27.7% and specificity was 98.8%, while definition 2 sensitivity was 32.8% and specificity was 95.9%. Pressure ulcer in both DAD and ET consultation increased with age, number of comorbidities and length of stay. CONCLUSION:DAD underestimate pressure ulcer prevalence. Since various codes are used to record pressure ulcers in DAD, the case definition with more codes captures more pressure ulcer cases, and may be useful for monitoring facility trends. However, low sensitivity suggests that this data source may not be accurate for determining overall prevalence, and should be cautiously compared with other prevalence studies.
Project description:A variety of nursing home quality improvement programs have been implemented during the last decade but their implications for racial disparities on quality are unknown.To determine the longitudinal trend of racial disparities in pressure ulcer prevalence among high-risk, long-term nursing home residents and to assess whether persistent disparities are related to where residents received care.Observational cohort study of pressure ulcer rates in 2.1 million white and 346,808 black residents of 12,473 certified nursing homes in the United States that used the nursing home resident assessment; Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting files; and Area Resource Files for 2003 through 2008. Nursing homes were categorized according to their proportions of black residents.Risk-adjusted racial disparities between and within sites of care and risk-adjusted odds of pressure ulcers in stages 2 through 4 for black and white residents receiving care in different nursing home facilities.Pressure ulcer rates decreased overall from 2003 through 2008 but black residents of nursing homes showed persistently higher pressure ulcer rates than white residents. In 2003, the pressure ulcer rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.6%-17.0%) for black nursing home residents compared with 11.4% (95% CI, 11.3%-11.5%) for white residents; in 2008, the rate was 14.6% (95% CI, 14.4%-14.8%) compared with 9.6% (95% CI, 9.5%-9.7%), respectively (P >.05 for trend of disparities). In nursing homes with the highest percentages of black residents (?35%), both black residents (unadjusted rate of 15.5% [95% CI, 15.2%-15.8%] in 2008; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.59 [95% CI, 1.52-1.67]) and white residents (unadjusted rate of 12.1% [95% CI, 11.8%-12.4%]; AOR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.26-1.40]) had higher rates of pressure ulcers than nursing homes serving primarily white residents (concentration of black residents <5%), in which white residents had an unadjusted rate of 8.8% (95% CI, 8.7%-8.9%).From 2003 through 2008, the prevalence of pressure ulcers among high-risk nursing home residents was higher among black residents than among white residents. This disparity was in part related to the site of nursing home care.
Project description:Diabetic foot ulcers are frequently related to elevated pressure under a bony prominence. Conservative treatment includes offloading with orthopaedic shoes and custom made orthotics or plaster casts. While casting in plaster is usually effective in achieving primary closure of foot ulcers, recurrence rates are high. Minimally invasive surgical offloading that includes correction of foot deformities has good short and long term results. The surgery alleviates the pressure under the bony prominence, thus enabling prompt ulcer healing, negating the patient's dependence on expensive shoes and orthotics, with a lower chance of recurrence. The purpose of this protocol is to compare offloading surgery (percutaneous flexor tenotomy, mini-invasive floating metatarsal osteotomy or Keller arthroplasty) to non-surgical treatment for patients with diabetic foot ulcers in a semi-crossover designed RCT.One hundred patients with diabetic neuropathy related foot ulcers (tip of toe ulcers, ulcers under metatarsal heads and ulcers under the hallux interphalangeal joint) will be randomized (2:3) to a surgical offloading procedure or best available non-surgical treatment. Group 1 (surgery) will have surgery within 1 week. Group 2 (controls) will be prescribed an offloading cast applied for up to 12 weeks (based on clinical considerations). Following successful offloading treatment (ulcer closure with complete epithelization) patients will be prescribed orthopaedic shoes and custom made orthotics. If offloading by cast for at least 6 weeks fails, or the ulcer recurs, patients will be offered surgical offloading. Follow-up will take place till 2 years following randomization. Outcome criteria will be time to healing of the primary ulcer (complete epithelization), time to healing of surgical wound, recurrence of ulcer, time to recurrence and complications.The high recurrence rate of foot ulcers and their dire consequences justify attempts to find better solutions than the non-surgical options available at present. To promote surgery, RCT level evidence of efficacy is necessary.Israel MOH_2017-08-10_000719. NIH: NCT03414216.