Signing below the dotted line: signature position as a marker of vulnerability for visuospatial processing difficulties.
ABSTRACT: Almost one-third of the participants in a neuropsychological study signed the consent form below the given line. The relationship between a signature position on or below the line and participants' cognitive function was investigated. Fifty drug-dependent individuals, 50 of their siblings, and 50 unrelated control participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Individuals signing below, rather than on, the line performed more poorly on tests of visuospatial memory, but no differently on other cognitive tests. Signature positioning may be a soft sign for impairment of the mechanisms involved in visuospatial memory.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Few studies have captured the neuropsychological profile of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) with neuropsychological testing, and little is known about cognitive predictors of survival. We characterized baseline neuropsychological performance in sCJD and investigated associations with survival.<h4>Methods</h4>sCJD participants who completed the MMSE (n = 118), 61 sCJD of whom also completed a neuropsychological battery at baseline, and 135 age-matched healthy controls, were included. Composite scores of global cognition, memory, executive functions, visuospatial, and language were derived. Cox proportional hazard models estimated survival time, controlling for age and education. Additional models adjusted for Barthel Index and PRNP codon 129 polymorphism.<h4>Results</h4>sCJD participants performed significantly worse than controls on all cognitive tasks and composites with most showing very large effect sizes. The three tests showing the largest group differences were delayed verbal recall (Hedges'g = 4.08, P < 0.0001), Stroop Inhibition (Hedges'g = 3.14, P < 0.0001), and Modified Trails (Hedges'g = 2.94, P < 0.0001). Memory (95%) and executive functioning (87%) composites were most commonly impaired. Poorer global (HR = 0.65, P < 0.0001), visuospatial (HR = 0.82, P < 0.0001), and memory (HR = 0.82, P = 0.01) composites predicted shorter survival. Visuospatial cognition remained a significant predictor even after adjusting for all other cognitive composites; each standard deviation decrease in visuospatial cognition was associated with an 18% higher chance of death (HR = 0.82, P < 0.003). Global (HR = 0.68, P = 0.03) and visuospatial (HR = 0.82, P = 0.001) composites remained significant predictors after controlling for Barthel Index and codon 129.<h4>Interpretation</h4>sCJD participants exhibit a broad range of cognitive impairments, with memory and executive functioning deficits in the vast majority. Neuropsychological assessment, particularly of visuospatial abilities, informs prognostication in sCJD.
Project description:Cognitive impairment, including dementia, is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been recommended as a screening tool for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), with values below 26 indicative of possible dementia. Using a detailed neuropsychological battery, we examined the range of cognitive impairment in PD patients with an MMSE score of 26 or higher. In this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study, we performed neuropsychological testing in a sample of 788 PD patients with MMSE scores of 26 or higher. Evaluation included tests of global cognition, executive function, language, memory, and visuospatial skills. A consensus panel reviewed results for 342 subjects and assigned a diagnosis of no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or dementia. Sixty-seven percent of the 788 subjects performed 1.5 standard deviations below the normative mean on at least one test. On eight of the 15 tests, more than 20% of subjects scored 1.5 standard deviations or more below the normative mean. Greatest impairments were found on Hopkins Verbal Learning and Digit Symbol Coding tests. The sensitivity of the MMSE to detect dementia was 45% in a subset of participants who underwent clinical diagnostic procedures. A remarkably wide range of cognitive impairment can be found in PD patients with a relatively high score on the MMSE, including a level of cognitive impairment consistent with dementia. Given these findings, clinicians must be aware of the limitations of the MMSE in detecting cognitive impairment, including dementia, in PD.
Project description:The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a large multi-center study designed to develop optimized methods for acquiring longitudinal neuroimaging, cognitive, and biomarker measures of AD progression in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and healthy controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing was conducted on all participants. We examined the factor structure of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery across older adults with differing levels of clinical AD severity based on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of 23 variables from 10 neuropsychological tests resulted in five factors (memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive function/processing speed) that were invariant across levels of cognitive impairment. Thus, these five factors can be used as indicators of cognitive function in older adults who are participants in ADNI.
Project description:High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a biomarker of cardiovascular risk that is suggested to be a biomarker for cognitive impairment.To explore the association between hsCRP and cognitive impairment.Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based community aging study.Northern Manhattan, New York, New York.One thousand three hundred thirty-one participants from a longitudinal study of aging without dementia and with available hsCRP and neuropsychological testing data at baseline.Four cognitive scores (memory, visuospatial, executive, and language impairment) derived from a neuropsychological battery. Cognitive impairment was defined by scores below 1.5 SDs of demographically corrected means.Participants in the highest hsCRP tertile had higher adjusted odds of impaired memory (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.1; P = .03) than participants in the lowest tertile. Subjects in the highest hsCRP tertile also had greater odds of visuospatial impairment (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3; P = .03). Higher hsCRP was not associated with executive or language impairment. Persons with at least 1 APOE epsilon4 allele and hsCRP in the highest tertile had the greatest odds of impaired memory (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.4).High hsCRP may be a marker of memory and visuospatial impairment in the elderly. The role of APOE epsilon4 requires further exploration.
Project description:Damage to the cerebellum may lead to motor dysfunctions, but also to the neuropsychological deficits that comprise the Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome (CCAS). It can affect executive functions, attention, memory, visuospatial functions, language, and emotions. Our goal was to determine which neuropsychological tests could be effectively used to identify this syndrome during a short examination.Twenty-five patients with an isolated cerebellar lesion and 25 matched healthy controls were examined using an extensive neuropsychological battery.Logistic regression models and sub-models were computed for individual tests, as well as for the full battery. The best results were produced by a model combining patient education level, the number of errors on the California Verbal Learning Test, and time on Prague Stroop Test (Dots).Based on the results, we suggest that a condensed battery of neuropsychological tests can be used to detect CCAS. The tests are easy to administer and could be helpful in both research and clinical settings.
Project description:Introduction: The cognitive impact of opioid dependence is rarely measured systematically in everyday clinical practice even though both patients and clinicians accept that cognitive symptoms often occur in the opioid-dependent population. There are only a few publications which utilized computerized neuropsychological tests to assess possible impairments of visuospatial memory in opioid-dependent individuals either receiving opioid replacement therapy (ORT) or during subsequent short-term abstinence and the effects of anxiety and depression. Methods: We assessed a cohort of 102 participants, comprising i) a stable opioid-dependent group receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) (n = 22), ii) a stable opioid-dependent group receiving buprenorphine (BMT) (n = 20), iii) a current abstinent but previously opioid-dependent group (ABS) (n = 8), and iv) a control group who have never been dependent on opioids. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery (CANTAB) neuropsychological tasks undertaken by participants included: Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS), Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM), Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM), and Paired Associate Learning (PAL) tasks. Three clinical measures were used to assess the severity of anxiety and depressive illness: Hospital Anxiety Scale-Hospital Anxiety Depression (HADA)-(HADD), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (self-report) (ISD-SR). Results: The methadone- and buprenorphine-treated groups showed significant impairments (p < 0.001) in visuospatial memory tasks but not the abstinent group. Impairments in visuospatial memory strongly correlated with higher mood and anxiety symptom severity scores (p < 0.001). Discussion: These results are broadly consistent with previous studies. Uniquely, though, here we report a strong relationship between visuospatial memory and depression and anxiety scores, which might suggest common illness mechanisms.
Project description:To assess the cognitive phenotype of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation carriers with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD).We administered a neuropsychological battery and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to participants in the CORE-PD study who were tested for mutations in PARKIN, LRRK2, and GBA. Participants included 33 GBA mutation carriers and 60 noncarriers of any genetic mutation. Primary analyses were performed on 26 GBA heterozygous mutation carriers without additional mutations and 39 age- and PD duration-matched noncarriers. Five cognitive domains, psychomotor speed, attention, memory, visuospatial function, and executive function, were created from transformed z scores of individual neuropsychological tests. Clinical diagnoses (normal, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], dementia) were assigned blind to genotype based on neuropsychological performance and functional impairment as assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score. The association between GBA mutation status and neuropsychological performance, CDR, and clinical diagnoses was assessed.Demographics, UPSIT, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III performance did not differ between GBA carriers and noncarriers. GBA mutation carriers performed more poorly than noncarriers on the Mini-Mental State Examination (p = 0.035), and on the memory (p = 0.017) and visuospatial (p = 0.028) domains. The most prominent differences were observed in nonverbal memory performance (p < 0.001). Carriers were more likely to receive scores of 0.5 or higher on the CDR (p < 0.001), and a clinical diagnosis of either MCI or dementia (p = 0.004).GBA mutation status may be an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with PD.
Project description:Late-life depression (LLD, major depression occurring in an adult 60 years or older) is a common condition that frequently presents with cognitive impairment. Up to half of individuals with LLD are estimated to have cognitive impairment greater than that of age- and education-matched comparators, with impairments of episodic memory, speed of information processing, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability being most common. To inform our understanding of the state- versus trait-effects of depression on neuropsychological functioning, and to overcome limitations of previous studies, we utilized baseline data from the longitudinal Pathways study to compare differences in single time point performance on a broad-based neuropsychological battery across three diagnostic groups of older adults, each comprised of unique participants (n = 438): currently depressed (n = 120), previously depressed but currently euthymic (n = 190), and never-depressed (n = 128). Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that participants with a history of depression (currently or previously depressed) performed significantly worse than never-depressed participants on most tests of global cognition, as well as on tests of episodic memory, attention and processing speed, verbal ability, and visuospatial ability; in general, differences were most pronounced within the domain of attention and processing speed. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe differences in executive performance between the two depression groups, suggesting that certain aspects of executive functioning are "trait deficits" associated with LLD. These findings are in general agreement with the existing literature, and represent an enhancement in methodological rigor over previous studies given the cross-sectional approach that avoids practice effects on test performance.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Spatial neglect (SN) constitutes a substantial barrier to functional recovery after acquired brain injury. However, because of its multimodal nature, no single test can capture all the signs of SN. To provide a clinically feasible solution, we used conventional neuropsychological tests as well as the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) via the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP). The goal was to add evidence that a global approach should detect better even subtle signs of SN. METHOD:Fourteen individuals with lesions located in the right cerebral hemisphere participated in the study. Participants were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, comprising a set of visuospatial tests to evaluate several spatial domains. In addition, patients underwent functional assessment with the Barthel Index, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the CBS via KF-NAP. RESULTS:The CBS via KF-NAP was associated with the visuospatial paper-based tests (p = .004) as well as the Motor FIM (p = .003), and was more sensitive than the Behavioral Inattention Test-Conventional in detecting SN (p = .014). CONCLUSIONS:We showed that the CBS via KF-NAP was able: (a) to detect functional impairment, especially motor, related to SN; (b) to selectively measures spatial rather than nonspatial dysfunctions; and (c) to be highly sensitive in detecting SN signs especially in those patients with mild severity, covering several aspects of SN manifestations. The patient's SN diagnosis based on the CBS via KF-NAP is clinically important and directly relevant to care planning and goal setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction, test anxiety, and performance using computer-based cognitive batteries versus a paper-and-pencil neuropsychological battery among older Blacks. METHOD:Self-identified Black adults (n = 87, age range: 55-86; mean education = 14) completed two computer-based tests (CogState and Joggle) and a paper-and-pencil neuropsychological battery. After each battery, participants reported their testing anxiety and satisfaction using the batteries. Descriptive, correlational, and regression analyses compared satisfaction, anxiety, and performance across the batteries. RESULTS:Majority of the participants reported more satisfaction with the computer-based (Joggle: 66%; CogState: 77%) than the neuropsychological (52%) battery. Participants also reported less testing anxiety after completing the computer-based batteries than the neuropsychological battery, F(2, 172) = 22.96, p < .001. Older adults' familiarity and comfort level with the computer were not associated with their performance on the computer-based tests (p > .05). Although testing anxiety was not associated with performance across the batteries, age and education quality were uniquely associated with performance on the CogState and neuropsychological batteries. CONCLUSIONS:Computer-based cognitive batteries appear to be less intimidating than the commonly used paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests for Black adults. Thus, these cognitive batteries may be useful tools for monitoring older Blacks' cognitive status.