Cortical bone mineral density in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Prior studies reveal that bone mineral density (BMD) in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is mostly in the osteopaenic range and is associated with lifetime glucocorticoid dose. The forearm, a measure of cortical bone density, has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate BMD at various sites, including the forearm, and the factors associated with low BMD in CAH patients. METHODS:Eighty CAH adults (47 classic, 33 nonclassic) underwent dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry and laboratory and clinical evaluation. BMD Z-scores at the AP spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearm and whole body were examined in relation to phenotype, body mass index, current glucocorticoid dose, average 5-year glucocorticoid dose, vitamin D, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS). RESULTS:Reduced BMD (T-score <-1 at hip, spine, or forearm) was present in 52% and was more common in classic than nonclassic patients (P = 0·005), with the greatest difference observed at the forearm (P = 0·01). Patients with classic compared to nonclassic CAH, had higher 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P = 0·005), lower DHEAS (P = 0·0002) and higher non-traumatic fracture rate (P = 0·0005). In a multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, gender, height standard deviation, phenotype and cumulative glucocorticoid exposure, higher DHEAS was independently associated with higher BMD at the spine, radius and whole body. CONCLUSION:Classic CAH patients have lower BMD than nonclassic patients, with the most affected area being the forearm. This first study of forearm BMD in CAH patients suggests that low DHEAS may be associated with weak cortical bone independent of glucocorticoid exposure.
Project description:We present a family with 2 members who received long-term steroid treatment for presumed classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, until molecular testing revealed nonclassic CAH, not necessarily requiring treatment. A 17-year-old male presented to our clinic on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment for classic CAH. He was diagnosed at 4 years of age based on mild-moderate elevations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but without evidence of precocious adrenarche/puberty. Due to his diagnosis, his clinically asymptomatic 3-year-old sister was tested and also found to have elevated ACTH and 17-OHP levels and was started on glucocorticoids for classic CAH. Family history revealed a healthy sibling who had no biochemical evidence of CAH and consanguineous healthy parents. We questioned the diagnosis of classic CAH and performed an ACTH1-24 stimulation test, which showed a level of 17-OHP in the borderline range between classic and nonclassic CAH. Molecular testing, using sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of CYP21A2, revealed that both affected siblings were compound heterozygotes for a whole-gene deletion and a, likely pathogenic (nonclassical), sequence variant, p.R124C. The asymptomatic father had the same genotype, while the mother showed one deleted copy and 2 active copies, making her an asymptomatic carrier. Our report demonstrates the importance of molecular testing in atypical cases of CAH, as well as the importance of both sequencing and deletion analysis. The results of molecular testing should be interpreted in clinical context, and treatment should be prescribed according to guidelines when available.
Project description:Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a concern in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to lifelong glucocorticoid replacement. Studies till date have yielded conflicting results. We wanted to systematically evaluate the available evidence regarding BMD in adult patients with CAH. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify eligible studies. Studies comparing BMD in CAH patients with age- and sex-matched controls were included. Age <16 years and absence of controls were exclusion criteria. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts, read full-text articles, extracted data, assessed risk of bias using Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and determined level of evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Results: Nine case-control studies with a total sample of 598 (cases n = 254, controls n = 344) met eligibility criteria. Median age was 31 years (IQR 23.9-37) and 65.7% were female. Total body BMD (Mean Difference [MD]-0.06; 95%CI -0.07, -0.04), lumbar spine BMD (MD -0.05; 95%CI -0.07, -0.03) and femoral neck BMD (MD -0.07; 95%CI -0.10, -0.05) was lower in cases compared to controls. Lumbar spine T-scores (MD -0.86; 95%CI -1.16, -0.56) and Z-scores (MD -0.66; 95%CI -0.99, -0.32) and femoral neck T-scores (MD -0.75 95%CI -0.95, -0.56) and Z-scores (MD -0.27 95%CI -0.58, 0.04) were lower in cases. Conclusion: BMD in adult patients with CAH was lower compared to controls. Although insufficient data precludes a dose-response relationship between glucocorticoid dose and BMD, it would be prudent to avoid overtreatment with glucocorticoids.
Project description:We present the functional and structural effects of seven novel (p.Leu12Met, p.Arg16Cys, p.Ser101Asn, p.Ser202Gly, p.Pro267Leu, p.Gln389_Ala391del, and p.Thr450Met) and two previously reported but not studied (p.Ser113Phe and p.Thr450Pro) CYP21A2 mutations. Functional analyses were complemented with in silico prediction of mutation pathogenicity based on the recently crystallized human CYP21A2 structure. Mutated proteins were transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and enzyme activities towards 17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone were determined. Residual enzyme activities between 43% and 97% were obtained for p.Arg16Cys, p.Ser101Asn, p.Ser202Gly, p.Pro267Leu, and p.Thr450Met, similar to the activities of the well-known nonclassic mutations p.Pro453Ser and p.Pro482Ser, whereas the p.Leu12Met variant showed an activity of 100%. Conversely, the novel p.Ser113Phe, p.Gln389_Ala391del, and p.Thr450Pro mutations drastically reduced the enzyme function below 4%. The Km values for all novel variants were in the same order of magnitude as for the wild-type protein except for p.The450Met. The maximum velocity was decreased for all mutants except for p.Leu12Met. We conclude that p.Leu12Met is a normal variant; the mutations p.Arg16Cys, p.Ser101Asn, p.Ser202Gly, p.Pro267Leu, and p.Thr450Met could be associated with very mild nonclassic CAH, and the mutations p.Ser113Phe, p.Gln389_Ala391del, and p.Thr450Pro are associated with classic CAH. The obtained residual activities indicated a good genotype-phenotype correlation.
Project description:CONTEXT:Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) often require supraphysiologic glucocorticoid doses to suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and control androgen excess. Nevanimibe hydrochloride (ATR-101), which selectively inhibits adrenal cortex function, might reduce androgen excess independent of ACTH and thus allow for lower glucocorticoid dosing in CAH. 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione are CAH biomarkers used to monitor androgen excess. OBJECTIVE:Evaluate the efficacy and safety of nevanimibe in subjects with uncontrolled classic CAH. DESIGN:This was a multicenter, single-blind, dose-titration study. CAH subjects with baseline 17-OHP??4× the upper limit of normal (ULN) received the lowest dose of nevanimibe for 2 weeks followed by a single-blind 2-week placebo washout. Nevanimibe was gradually titrated up if the primary outcome measure (17-OHP??2× ULN) was not met. A total of 5 nevanimibe dose levels were possible (125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg twice daily). RESULTS:The study enrolled 10 adults: 9 completed the study, and 1 discontinued early due to a related serious adverse event. At baseline, the mean age was 30.3?±?13.8 years, and the maintenance glucocorticoid dose, expressed as hydrocortisone equivalents, was 24.7?±?10.4 mg/day. Two subjects met the primary endpoint, and 5 others experienced 17-OHP decreases ranging from 27% to 72% during nevanimibe treatment. The most common side effects were gastrointestinal (30%). There were no dose-related trends in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Nevanimibe decreased 17-OHP levels within 2 weeks of treatment. Larger studies of longer duration are needed to further evaluate its efficacy as add-on therapy for CAH.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To comprehensively phenotype parents identified with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) by family genetic studies, termed here as cryptic NCCAH and to define the incidence of cryptic NCCAH in the parents of a large cohort of patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. DESIGN:Genotyping was performed on 249 parents of 145 unrelated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. Parents with two CYP21A2 mutations underwent extensive evaluation. RESULTS:Of the 249 parents, ten (4%; seven females and three males) were identified as having cryptic NCCAH. The majority was of ethnicities previously reported to have a higher incidence of NCCAH. Cosyntropin stimulation performed in eight parents provided biochemical confirmation (17-hydroxyprogesterone range 56-364?nmol/l) and cortisol response was ?500?nmol/l in three parents (38%). Of the seven women (27-54 years) with cryptic NCCAH, four had prior infertility, two reported irregular menses, two had treatment for hirsutism, one had androgenic alopecia. Men were asymptomatic. All cryptic NCCAH parents reported normal puberty and had normal height. Adrenal hypertrophy and a small adrenal myelolipoma were observed in two parents; testicular adrenal rest tissue was not found. CONCLUSIONS:Parents diagnosed with NCCAH by genetic testing are mostly asymptomatic. Temporary female infertility and suboptimal cortisol response were commonly observed. Ongoing glucocorticoid therapy is not indicated in adults with CAH identified by family genotype studies unless symptomatic, but glucocorticoid stress coverage should be considered in select cases. Parents of a child with CAH have a 1:25 risk of having NCCAH; if the mother of a child with CAH has infertility, evaluation for NCCAH is indicated.
Project description:Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) often suffer from long-term complications secondary to chronic glucocorticoid therapy and suboptimal treatment regimens.The aim of the study was to describe clinical characteristics of a large cohort of pediatric and adult CAH patients.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 244 CAH patients [183 classic, 61 nonclassic (NC)] included in a Natural History Study at the National Institutes of Health.Outcome variables of interest were height sd score, obesity, hypertensive blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, bone mineral density, hirsutism (females), and testicular adrenal rest (TART).The majority had elevated or suppressed androgens, with varied treatment regimens. Mean adult height SD score was -1.0 ± 1.1 for classic vs. -0.4 ± 0.9 for NC patients (P = 0.015). Obesity was present in approximately one third of patients, across phenotypes. Elevated BP was more common in classic than NC patients (P ? 0.01); pediatric hypertensive BP was associated with suppressed plasma renin activity (P = 0.001). Insulin resistance was common in classic children (27%) and adults (38% classic, 20% NC); 18% of adults had metabolic syndrome. The majority (61%) had low vitamin D; 37% of adults had low bone mineral density. Hirsutism was common (32% classic; 59% NC women). TART was found in classic males (33% boys; 44% men).Poor hormonal control and adverse outcomes are common in CAH, necessitating new treatments. Routine monitoring of classic children should include measuring BP and plasma renin activity. Osteoporosis prophylaxis and TART screening should begin during childhood. A longitudinal study is under way.
Project description:Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) management remains challenging, given that supraphysiologic glucocorticoid doses are often needed to optimally suppress the ACTH-driven adrenal androgen overproduction.This study sought to approximate physiologic cortisol secretion via continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI) and evaluate the safety and efficacy of CSHI in patients with difficult-to-treat CAH.Eight adult patients with classic CAH participated in a single-center open-label phase I-II study comparing CSHI to conventional oral glucocorticoid treatment. All patients had elevated adrenal steroids and one or more comorbidities at study entry. Assessment while receiving conventional therapy at baseline and 6 months following CSHI included: 24-hour hormonal sampling, metabolic and radiologic evaluation, health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), and fatigue questionnaires.The ability of CSHI to approximate physiologic cortisol secretion and the percent of patients with 0700-hour 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) ?1200 ng/dL was measured.CSHI approximated physiologic cortisol secretion. Compared with baseline, 6 months of CSHI resulted in decreased 0700-hour and 24-hour area under the curve 17-OHP, androstenedione, ACTH, and progesterone, increased osteocalcin, c-telopeptide and lean mass, and improved HRQoL (and SF-36 Vitality Score), and fatigue. One of three amenorrheic women resumed menses. One man had reduction of testicular adrenal rest tissue.CSHI is a safe and well-tolerated modality of cortisol replacement that effectively approximates physiologic cortisol secretion in patients with classic CAH poorly controlled on conventional therapy. Improved adrenal steroid control and positive effects on HRQoL suggest that CSHI should be considered a treatment option for classic CAH. The long-term effect on established comorbidities requires further study.
Project description:The classic androgen synthesis pathway proceeds via dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, and testosterone to 5?-dihydrotestosterone. However, 5?-dihydrotestosterone synthesis can also be achieved by an alternative pathway originating from 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), which accumulates in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Similarly, recent work has highlighted androstenedione-derived 11-oxygenated 19-carbon steroids as active androgens, and in CAH, androstenedione is generated directly from 17OHP. The exact contribution of alternative pathway activity to androgen excess in CAH and its response to glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is unknown.We sought to quantify classic and alternative pathway-mediated androgen synthesis in CAH, their diurnal variation, and their response to conventional GC therapy and modified-release hydrocortisone.We used urinary steroid metabolome profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 24-hour steroid excretion analysis, studying the impact of conventional GCs (hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone) in 55 adults with CAH and 60 controls. We studied diurnal variation in steroid excretion by comparing 8-hourly collections (23:00-7:00, 7:00-15:00, and 15:00-23:00) in 16 patients with CAH taking conventional GCs and during 6 months of treatment with modified-release hydrocortisone, Chronocort.Patients with CAH taking conventional GCs showed low excretion of classic pathway androgen metabolites but excess excretion of the alternative pathway signature metabolites 3?,5?-17-hydroxypregnanolone and 11?-hydroxyandrosterone. Chronocort reduced 17OHP and alternative pathway metabolite excretion to near-normal levels more consistently than other GC preparations.Alternative pathway-mediated androgen synthesis significantly contributes to androgen excess in CAH. Chronocort therapy appears superior to conventional GC therapy in controlling androgen synthesis via alternative pathways through attenuation of their major substrate, 17OHP.
Project description:In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a strong genotype-phenotype correlation exists in childhood. However, similar data in adults are lacking.The objective of the study was to test whether the severity of disease-causing CYP21A2 mutations influences the treatment and health status in adults with CAH.We analyzed the genotype in correlation with treatment and health status in 153 adults with CAH from the United Kingdom Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive cohort.CYP21A2 mutations were distributed similarly to previously reported case series. In 7 patients a mutation was identified on only 1 allele. Novel mutations were detected on 1.7% of alleles (5 of 306). Rare mutations were found on 2.3% of alleles (7 of 306). For further analysis, patients were categorized into CYP21A2 mutation groups according to predicted residual enzyme function: null (n = 34), A (n = 42), B (n = 36), C (n = 34), and D (n = 7). Daily glucocorticoid dose was highest in group null and lowest in group C. Fludrocortisone was used more frequently in patients with more severe genotypes. Except for lower female height in group B, no statistically significant associations between genotype and clinical parameters were found. Androgens, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not different between groups. Subjective health status was similarly impaired across groups.In adults with classic CAH and women with nonclassic CAH, there was a weak association between genotype and treatment, but health outcomes were not associated with genotype. The underrepresentation of males with nonclassic CAH may reflect that milder genotypes result in a milder condition that is neither diagnosed nor followed up in adulthood. Overall, our results suggest that the impaired health status of adults with CAH coming to medical attention is acquired rather than genetically determined and therefore could potentially be improved through modification of treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes required for cortisol biosynthesis. The disease is classified as either classic (severe phenotype), subdivided into simple virilizing (SV) and salt-wasting (SW), or non-classic (NC) CAH. The treatment regime involves life-long glucocorticoid replacement, especially in classic phenotype.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to assess medication adherence, endocrine knowledge and self-management in patients with CAH and to compare patients' and physicians' assessments of medication adherence.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective cross-sectional study of 108 patients with CAH (52 children and 56 adults) and 45 parents/caregivers. Two adherence measures were used, a self-reported questionnaire named Adherence Starts with Knowledge (ASK-12) with a cut-off level > 22 defined as poor adherence rate, and an assessment by a physician based on growth rate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone profile, and medical history, ranked using a five-point Likert scale. Measurements of the patients'/parents' knowledge and self-management were performed using Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines.<h4>Results</h4>Self-reported medication adherence was good with 74% of the participants reported good adherence with higher adherence in patients with the SW form. The highest endocrine knowledge and self-management were found in parents compared with children and adults with classic CAH. There was 30% discordance between the assessments by a physician and the self-reported ASK-12 scores independent of the severity of CAH.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Patients and endocrinologists reported high medication adherence, however, discordance was found in 30% of the studied patients. Patients with the more severe form of CAH had higher adherence rates and demonstrated good endocrine knowledge/self-management.