P62/SQSTM1 plays a protective role in oxidative injury of steatotic liver in a mouse hepatectomy model.
ABSTRACT: Liver injury and regeneration involve complicated processes and are affected by various physio-pathological factors. We investigated the mechanisms of steatosis-associated liver injury and delayed regeneration in a mouse model of partial hepatectomy.Initial regeneration of the steatotic liver was significantly delayed after hepatectomy. Although hepatocyte proliferation was not significantly suppressed, severe liver injury with oxidative stress (OS) occurred immediately after hepatectomy in the steatotic liver. Fas-ligand (FasL)/Fas expression was upregulated in the steatotic liver, whereas the expression of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic molecules (catalase/MnSOD/Ref-1 and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/FLIP, respectively) and p62/SQSTM1, a steatosis-associated protein, was downregulated. Interestingly, pro-survival Akt was not activated in response to hepatectomy, although it was sufficiently expressed even before hepatectomy. Suppression of p62/SQSTM1 increased FasL/Fas expression and reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2)-dependent antioxidant response elements activity and antioxidant responses in steatotic and nonsteatotic hepatocytes. Exogenously added FasL induced severe cellular OS and necrosis/apoptosis in steatotic hepatocytes, with only the necrosis being inhibited by pretreatment with antioxidants, suggesting that FasL/Fas-induced OS mainly leads to necrosis. Furthermore, p62/SQSTM1 re-expression in the steatotic liver markedly reduced liver injury and improved liver regeneration.This study is the first which demonstrates that reduced expression of p62/SQSTM1 plays a crucial role in posthepatectomy acute injury and delayed regeneration of steatotic liver, mainly via redox-dependent mechanisms.In the steatotic liver, reduced expression of p62/SQSTM1 induced FasL/Fas overexpression and suppressed antioxidant genes, mainly through Nrf-2 inactivation, which, along with the hypo-responsiveness of Akt, caused posthepatectomy necrotic/apoptotic liver injury and delayed regeneration, both mainly via a redox-dependent mechanism.
Project description:TNF and Fas/FasL are vital components, not only in hepatocyte injury, but are also required for hepatocyte regeneration. Liver F4/80+Kupffer cells are classified into two subsets; resident radio-resistant CD68+cells with phagocytic and bactericidal activity, and recruited radio-sensitive CD11b+cells with cytokine-producing capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these Kupffer cells in the liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) in mice. The proportion of Kupffer cell subsets in the remnant liver was examined in C57BL/6 mice by flow cytometry after PHx. To examine the role of CD11b+Kupffer cells/M?, mice were depleted of these cells before PHx by non-lethal 5 Gy irradiation with or without bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or the injection of a CCR2 (MCP-1 receptor) antagonist, and liver regeneration was evaluated. Although the proportion of CD68+Kupffer cells did not significantly change after PHx, the proportion of CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? and their FasL expression was greatly increased at three days after PHx, when the hepatocytes vigorously proliferate. Serum TNF and MCP-1 levels peaked one day after PHx. Irradiation eliminated the CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? for approximately two weeks in the liver, while CD68+Kupffer cells, NK cells and NKT cells remained, and hepatocyte regeneration was retarded. However, BMT partially restored CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? and recovered the liver regeneration. Furthermore, CCR2 antagonist treatment decreased the CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? and significantly inhibited liver regeneration. The CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? recruited from bone marrow by the MCP-1 produced by CD68+Kupffer cells play a pivotal role in liver regeneration via the TNF/FasL/Fas pathway after PHx.
Project description:During partial hepatectomy, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is commonly applied in clinical practice to reduce blood flow. Steatotic livers show impaired regenerative response and reduced tolerance to hepatic injury. We examined the effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) in steatotic and non-steatotic livers during partial hepatectomy under I/R (PH+I/R). Their effects on the induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were also evaluated. We report that PBA, and especially TUDCA, reduced inflammation, apoptosis and necrosis, and improved liver regeneration in both liver types. Both compounds, especially TUDCA, protected both liver types against ER damage, as they reduced the activation of two of the three pathways of UPR (namely inositol-requiring enzyme and PKR-like ER kinase) and their target molecules caspase 12, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and C/EBP homologous protein-10. Only TUDCA, possibly mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase upregulation, inactivated glycogen synthase kinase-3β. This is turn, inactivated mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel, reduced cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase 9 activation and protected both liver types against mitochondrial damage. These findings indicate that chemical chaperones, especially TUDCA, could protect steatotic and non-steatotic livers against injury and regeneration failure after PH+I/R.
Project description:Acute liver failure (ALF) is a catastrophic condition that can occur after major liver resection. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the spheroid reservoir bio-artificial liver (SRBAL) on survival, serum chemistry, and liver regeneration in posthepatectomy ALF pigs. Wild-type large white swine (20 kg-30 kg) underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) probe placement followed by 85% hepatectomy. Computed tomography (CT) volumetrics were performed to measure the extent of resection, and at 48 hours following hepatectomy to assess regeneration of the remnant liver. Animals were randomized into three groups based on treatment delivered 24-48 hours after hepatectomy: Group1-standard medical therapy (SMT, n = 6); Group2-SMT plus bio-artificial liver treatment using no hepatocytes (0 g, n = 6); and Group3-SMT plus SRBAL treatment using 200 g of primary porcine hepatocyte spheroids (200 g, n = 6). The primary endpoint was survival to 90 hours following hepatectomy. Death equivalent was defined as unresponsive grade 4 hepatic encephalopathy or ICP greater than 20 mmHg with clinical evidence of brain herniation. All animals in both (SMT and 0 g) control groups met the death equivalent before 51 hours following hepatectomy. Five of 6 animals in the 200-g group survived to 90 hours (P < 0.01). The mean ammonia, ICP, and international normalized ratio values were significantly lower in the 200-g group. CT volumetrics demonstrated increased volume regeneration at 48 hours following hepatectomy in the 200-g group compared with the SMT (P < 0.01) and 0-g (P < 0.01) groups. Ki-67 staining showed increased positive staining at 48 hours following hepatectomy (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The SRBAL improved survival, reduced ammonia, and accelerated liver regeneration in posthepatectomy ALF. Improved survival was associated with a neuroprotective benefit of SRBAL therapy. These favorable results warrant further clinical testing of the SRBAL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with fatty liver have delayed regenerative responses, increased hepatocellular injury, and increased risk for perioperative mortality. Currently, no clinical therapy exists to prevent liver failure or improve regeneration in patients with fatty liver. Previously we demonstrated that obese mice have markedly reduced levels of epidermal growth factor receptor in liver. We sought to identify pharmacologic agents to increase epidermal growth factor receptor expression to improve hepatic regeneration in the setting of fatty liver resection. METHODS:Lean (20% calories from fat) and diet-induced obese mice (60% calories from fat) were subjected to 70% or 80% hepatectomy. RESULTS:Using the BaseSpace Correlation Engine of deposited gene arrays we identified agents that increased hepatic epidermal growth factor receptor. Meloxicam was identified as inducing epidermal growth factor receptor expression across species. Meloxicam improved hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice both grossly and histologically. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis demonstrated that meloxicam pretreatment of diet-induced obese mice dramatically increased epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression in hepatocytes. After 70% hepatectomy, meloxicam pretreatment ameliorated liver injury and significantly accelerated mitotic rates of hepatocytes in obese mice. Recovery of liver mass was accelerated in obese mice pretreated with meloxicam (by 26% at 24 hours and 38% at 48 hours, respectively). After 80% hepatectomy, survival was dramatically increased with meloxicam treatment. CONCLUSION:Low epidermal growth factor receptor expression is a common feature of fatty liver disease. Meloxicam restores epidermal growth factor receptor expression in steatotic hepatocytes. Meloxicam pretreatment may be applied to improve outcome after fatty liver resection or transplantation with steatotic graft.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is inevitable during hepatectomy and may cause both postoperative morbidity and mortality. Regenerative medicine suggested adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as an attractive tool for the treatment of liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADSCs in an I/R model combined with laparoscopic hepatectomy in swine. Eighteen Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into Sham, IRI, and ADSCs groups. ADSCs (1?×?106/kg) were injected through liver parenchyma immediately after hemihepatectomy. The apoptosis-related role of ADSCs was studied. The results showed that ADSCs transplantation reduced both pathological and ultrastructural changes and decreased the number of apoptotic-positive cells. In the ADSCs group, Fas, Fas ligand (FasL) protein, and mRNA were downregulated and the enzyme activities of Caspase3, Caspase8, and Caspase9 were significantly decreased. In addition, ADSC therapy significantly increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein and mRNA compared to the IRI group. In conclusion, ADSCs attenuated both I/R and hepatectomy-induced liver apoptosis in a porcine model, and offers a potential therapeutic option for hepatic I/R and hepatectomy.
Project description:Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) is a time-dependent process, which is tightly regulated by multiple signaling cascades. Failure of this complex process leads to posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), which is associated with a high rate of mortality. Thus, it is extremely important to establish a useful biomarker of liver regeneration to help prevent PHLF. Here, we hypothesized that alterations in the plasma peptide profile may predict liver regeneration following PHx and hence we set up a diagnostic platform for monitoring posthepatectomy outcome. We chronologically analyzed plasma peptidomic profiles of 5 partially hepatectomized microminipigs using the ClinProtTM system, which consists of magnetic beads and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. We identified endogenous circulating peptides specific to each phase of the postoperative course after PHx in pigs. Notably, peptide fragments of histones were detected immediately after PHx; the presence of these fragments may trigger liver regeneration in the very acute phase after PHx. An N-terminal fragment of hemoglobin subunit ? (3627 m/z) was detected as an acute-phase-specific peptide. In the recovery phase, the short N-terminal fragments of albumin (3028, 3042 m/z) were decreased, whereas the long N-terminal fragment of the protein (8926 m/z) was increased. To further validate and extract phase-specific biomarkers using plasma peptidome after PHx, plasma specimens of 4 patients who underwent PHx were analyzed using the same method as we applied to pigs. It revealed that there was also phase-specificity in peptide profiles, one of which was represented by a fragment of complement C4b (2378 m/z). The strategy described herein is highly efficient for the identification and characterization of peptide biomarkers of liver regeneration in a swine PHx model. This strategy is feasible for application to human biomarker studies and will yield clues for understanding liver regeneration in human clinical trials.
Project description:There is growing evidence that cell therapy constitutes a promising strategy for liver regenerative medicine. In the setting of hepatic cancer treatments, cell therapy could prove a useful therapeutic approach for managing the acute liver failure that occurs following extended hepatectomy. In this study, we examined the influence of delivering adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) at two different early time points in an immunodeficient mouse model (Rag2-/-IL2R?-/-) that had undergone a 70% hepatectomy procedure. The hepatic mesenchymal cells were intrasplenically infused either immediately after surgery (n?=?26) or following a critical 3-day period (n?=?26). We evaluated the cells' capacity to engraft at day 1 and day 7 following transplantation by means of human Alu qPCR quantification, along with histological assessment of human albumin and ?-smooth muscle actin. In addition, cell proliferation (anti-mouse and human Ki-67 staining) and murine liver weight were measured in order to evaluate liver regeneration. At day 1 posttransplantation, the ratio of human to mouse cells was similar in both groups, whereas 1 week posttransplantation this ratio was significantly improved (p?<?0.016) in mice receiving ADHLSC injection at day 3 posthepatectomy (1.7%), compared to those injected at the time of surgery (1%). On the basis of liver weight, mouse liver regeneration was more extensive 1 week posttransplantation in mice transplanted with ADHLSCs (+65.3%) compared to that of mice from the sham vehicle group (+42.7%). In conclusion, infusing ADHLSCs 3 days after extensive hepatectomy improves the cell engraftment and murine hepatic tissue regeneration, thereby confirming that ADHLSCs could be a promising cell source for liver cell therapy and hepatic tissue repair.
Project description:Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis occurs in the context of acute liver injury that can be accompanied by intravascular coagulation (IC). We tested the hypothesis that analysis of selected protein fractions from livers undergoing apoptosis will shed light on mechanisms that are involved in liver injury that might be amenable to intervention. Proteomic analysis of the major insoluble liver proteins after FasL exposure for 4-5 hours identified fibrinogen-? (FIB-?) dimers and FIB-?-containing high molecular mass complexes among the major insoluble proteins visible via Coomassie blue staining. Presence of the FIB-?-containing products was confirmed using FIB-?-specific antibodies. The FIB-?-containing products partition selectively and quantitatively into the liver parenchyma after inducing apoptosis. Similar formation of FIB-? products occurs after acetaminophen administration. The observed intrahepatic IC raised the possibility that heparin therapy may ameliorate FasL-mediated liver injury. Notably, heparin administration in mice 4 hours before or up to 2 hours after FasL injection resulted in a dramatic reduction of liver injury-including liver hemorrhage, serum alanine aminotransferase, caspase activation, and liver apoptosis-compared with heparin-untreated mice. Heparin did not directly interfere with FasL-induced apoptosis in isolated hepatocytes, and heparin-treated mice survived the FasL-induced liver injury longer compared with heparin-untreated animals. There was a sharp, near-simultaneous rise in FasL-induced intrahepatic apoptosis and coagulation, with IC remaining stable while apoptosis continued to increase.Formation of FIB-? dimers and their high molecular mass products are readily detectable within the liver during mouse apoptotic liver injury. Heparin provides a potential therapeutic modality, because it not only prevents extensive FasL-related liver injury but also limits the extent of injury if given at early stages of injury exposure.
Project description:Our previous in vitro studies have demonstrated dose-dependent effects of CXCR2 ligands on hepatocyte cell death and proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine if CXCR2 ligand concentration is responsible for the divergent effects of these mediators on liver regeneration after ischemia/reperfusion injury and partial hepatectomy.Murine models of partial ischemia/reperfusion injury and hepatectomy were used to study the effect of CXCR2 ligands on liver regeneration.We found that hepatic expression of the CXCR2 ligands, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), was significantly increased after both I/R injury and partial hepatectomy. However, expression of these ligands after I/R injury was 30-100-fold greater than after hepatectomy. Interestingly, the same pattern of expression was found in ischemic versus non-ischemic liver lobes following I/R injury with expression significantly greater in the ischemic liver lobes. In both systems, lower ligand expression was associated with increased hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in a CXCR2-dependent fashion. To confirm that these effects were related to ligand concentration, we administered exogenous MIP-2 and KC to mice undergoing partial hepatectomy. Mice received a "high" dose that replicated serum levels found after I/R injury and a "low" dose that was similar to that found after hepatectomy. Mice receiving the "high" dose had reduced levels of hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration whereas the "low" dose promoted hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration.Together, these data demonstrate that concentrations of CXC chemokines regulate the hepatic proliferative response and subsequent liver regeneration.
Project description:Objectives:Our previous study showed that aldose reductase (AR) played key roles in fatty liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury by regulating inflammatory response and energy metabolism. Here, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of AR in the regeneration of normal and fatty livers after liver surgery. Methods:The association of AR expression with liver regeneration was studied in the rat small-for-size liver transplantation model and the mice major hepatectomy and hepatic IR injury model with or without fatty change. The direct role and mechanism of AR in liver regeneration was explored in the AR knockout mouse model. Results:Delayed regeneration was detected in fatty liver after liver surgery in both rat and mouse models. Furthermore, the expression of AR was increased in liver after liver surgery, especially in fatty liver. In a functional study, the knockout of AR promoted liver regeneration at day 2 after major hepatectomy and IR injury. Compared to wild-type groups, the expressions of cyclins were increased in normal and fatty livers of AR knockout mice. AR inhibition increased the expressions of PPAR-? and PPAR-? in both normal liver and fatty liver groups after major hepatectomy and IR injury. In addition, the knockout of AR promoted the expressions of SDHB, AMPK, SIRT1, and PGC1-? and PPAR. Conclusions:The knockout of AR promoted the regeneration of normal and fatty livers through regulating energy metabolism. AR may be a new potential therapeutic target to accelerate liver regeneration after surgery.