Ancestry of American polyploid Hordeum species with the I genome inferred from 5S and 18S-25S rDNA.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The genus Hordeum exists at three ploidy levels (2x, 4x and 6x) and presents excellent material for investigating the patterns of polyploid evolution in plants. Here the aim was to clarify the ancestry of American polyploid species with the I genome. * METHODS: Chromosomal locations of 5S and 18S-25S ribosomal RNA genes were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In both polyploid and diploid species, variation in 18S-25S rDNA repeated sequences was analysed by the RFLP technique. * KEY RESULTS: Six American tetraploid species were divided into two types that differed in the number of rDNA sites and RFLP profiles. Four hexaploid species were similar in number and location of both types of rDNA sites, but the RFLP profiles of 18S-25S rDNA revealed one species, H. arizonicum, with a different ancestry. * CONCLUSIONS: Five American perennial tetraploid species appear to be alloploids having the genomes of an Asian diploid H. roshevitzii and an American diploid species. The North American annual tetraploid H. depressum is probably a segmental alloploid combining the two closely related genomes of American diploid species. A hexaploid species, H. arizonicum, involves a diploid species, H. pusillum, in its ancestry; both species share the annual growth habit and are distributed in North America. Polymorphisms of rDNA sites detected by FISH and RFLP analyses provide useful information to infer the phylogenetic relationships of I-genome Hordeum species because of their highly conserved nature during polyploid evolution.
Project description:Polyploidization is a major mechanism of speciation in plants. Within the barley genus Hordeum, approximately half of the taxa are polyploids. While for diploid species a good hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships exists, there is little information available for the polyploids (4×, 6×) of Hordeum. Relationships among all 33 diploid and polyploid Hordeum species were analyzed with the low-copy nuclear marker region TOPO6 for 341 Hordeum individuals and eight outgroup species. PCR products were either directly sequenced or cloned and on average 12 clones per individual were included in phylogenetic analyses. In most diploid Hordeum species TOPO6 is probably a single-copy locus. Most sequences found in polyploid individuals phylogenetically cluster together with sequences derived from diploid species and thus allow the identification of parental taxa of polyploids. Four groups of sequences occurring only in polyploid taxa are interpreted as footprints of extinct diploid taxa, which contributed to allopolyploid evolution. Our analysis identifies three key species involved in the evolution of the American polyploids of the genus. (i) All but one of the American tetraploids have a TOPO6 copy originating from the Central Asian diploid H. roshevitzii, the second copy clustering with different American diploid species. (ii) All hexaploid species from the New World have a copy of an extinct close relative of H. californicum and (iii) possess the TOPO6 sequence pattern of tetraploid H. jubatum, each with an additional copy derived from different American diploids. Tetraploid H. bulbosum is an autopolyploid, while the assumed autopolyploid H. brevisubulatum (4×, 6×) was identified as allopolyploid throughout most of its distribution area. The use of a proof-reading DNA polymerase in PCR reduced the proportion of chimerical sequences in polyploids in comparison to Taq polymerase.
Project description:Five diploid Aegilops species of the Sitopsis section: Ae. speltoides, Ae. longissima, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. searsii, and Ae. bicornis, two tetraploid species Ae. peregrina (= Ae. variabilis) and Ae. kotschyi (Aegilops section) and hexaploid Ae. vavilovii (Vertebrata section) carry the S-genomes. The B- and G-genomes of polyploid wheat are also the derivatives of the S-genome. Evolution of the S-genome species was studied using Giemsa C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes representing 5S (pTa794) and 18S-5.8S-26S (pTa71) rDNAs as well as nine tandem repeats: pSc119.2, pAesp_SAT86, Spelt-1, Spelt-52, pAs1, pTa-535, and pTa-s53. To correlate the C-banding and FISH patterns we used the microsatellites (CTT)10 and (GTT)9, which are major components of the C-banding positive heterochromatin in wheat. According to the results obtained, diploid species split into two groups corresponding to Emarginata and Truncata sub-sections, which differ in the C-banding patterns, distribution of rDNA and other repeats. The B- and G-genomes of polyploid wheat are most closely related to the S-genome of Ae. speltoides. The genomes of allopolyploid wheat have been evolved as a result of different species-specific chromosome translocations, sequence amplification, elimination and re-patterning of repetitive DNA sequences. These events occurred independently in different wheat species and in Ae. speltoides . The 5S rDNA locus of chromosome 1S was probably lost in ancient Ae. speltoides prior to formation of Timopheevii wheat, but after the emergence of ancient emmer. Evolution of Emarginata species was associated with an increase of C-banding and (CTT)10-positive heterochromatin, amplification of Spelt-52, re-pattering of the pAesp_SAT86, and a gradual decrease in the amount of the D-genome-specific repeats pAs1, pTa-535, and pTa-s53. The emergence of Ae. peregrina and Ae. kotschyi did not lead to significant changes of the S*-genomes. However, partial elimination of 45S rDNA repeats from 5S* and 6S* chromosomes and alterations of C-banding and FISH-patterns have been detected. Similarity of the Sv-genome of Ae. vavilovii with the Ss genome of diploid Ae. searsii confirmed the origin of this hexaploid. A model of the S-genome evolution is suggested.
Project description:Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies.
Project description:The karyotypes of Allium, a genus that comprises many crops and ornamental plants, are relatively poorly studied. To extend our knowledge on karyotype structure of the genus, the chromosomal organization of rRNA genes and CMA/DAPI bands was studied. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using 5S and 35S rDNA probes and banding methods (silver staining and CMA<sub>3</sub>/DAPI staining) were used to analyze the karyotypes of eight cultivated Allium L. species. Analyzed Allium taxa revealed three different basic chromosome numbers (x =?7, 8, 9) and three different ploidy levels (diploid, triploid, and tetraploid). The rDNA sites chromosomal organization is reported the first time for the six species (A. moly, A. oreophilum, A. karataviense, A. nigrum, A. sphaerocephalon, A. porrum). The Allium species that were analyzed showed a high level of interspecies polymorphism in the number and localization of the rDNA sites. The fluorescence in situ hybridization patterns of 35S rDNA sites were more polymorphic than those of the 5S rDNA in the diploid species. Several groups of similar chromosomes could be distinguished among the chromosomes that had rDNA sites in the polyploid species. Each of the groups had three chromosomes (triploid A. sphaerocephalon L.) or four chromosomes (tetraploid A. porrum L.) suggesting their autopolyploid origin. In the genomes of four of the analyzed species, only some of the 35S rDNA sites were transcriptionally active. Fluorochrome banding revealed that the CMA<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> bands were associated with the 35S rDNA sites in all of the species that were analyzed, except A. fistulosum L. in which positive CMA<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> bands were detected in the terminal position of all of the chromosome arms. The rDNA sequences, nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), and CMA/DAPI bands are very good chromosome markers that allowed to distinguished from two to five pairs of homologous chromosomes in analyzed Allium species. The karyotypes of the studied species could be clearly distinguished by the number and position of the rDNA sites, NORs, and CMA/DAPI bands, which revealed high interspecific differentiation among the taxa.
Project description:Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used in Thinopyrum ponticum, a decaploid species, and its related diploid species, to investigate the distribution of the 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA. The distribution of rDNA was similar in all three diploid species (Th. bessarabicum, Th. elongatum and Pseudoroegneria stipifolia). Two pairs of loci were observed in each somatic cell at metaphase and interphase. One pair was located near the terminal end and the other in the interstitial regions of the short arms of one pair of chromosomes. However, all of the major loci in Th. ponticum were located on the terminal end of the short arms of chromosomes, and one chromosome had only one major locus. The maximum number of major loci detected on metaphase spreads was 20, which was the sum of that of its progenitors. The interstitial loci that exist in the possible diploid genome donor species were probably 'lost' during the evolutionary process of the decaploid species. A number of minor loci were also detected on whole regions of two pairs of homologous chromosomes. These results suggested that the position of rDNA loci in the Triticeae might be changeable rather than fixed. Positional changes of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA loci between Th. ponticum and its candidate genome donors indicate that it is almost impossible to find a genome in the polyploid species that is completely identical to that of its diploid donors. The possible evolutionary significance of the distribution of the rDNA is also discussed. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear DNA in Th. ponticum were investigated by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence data from five positive clones selected at random, together with restriction site analysis, indicated that the ITS repeated units are nearly homogeneous in this autoallodecapolypoid species. Combined with in situ hybridization results, the data led to the conclusion that the ITS region has experienced interlocus as well as intralocus concerted evolution. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the sequences from Th. ponticum have concerted to the E genome repeat type.
Project description:Polyploidization is a widespread mechanism of evolutionary divergence in flowering plants. Ecological divergence of polyploid lineages has been proposed as a key process shaping the distribution of cytotypes in nature (niche shift hypothesis); however, evidence for the role of niche separation in replicated diploid-polyploid species pairs is still needed. This study aimed to assess the role of abiotic factors shaping current cytotype distributions. For that, we examined the distribution and environmental niches of two varieties recognized in diploid-tetraploid Jasione maritima across the species range and within a putative contact zone on the Iberian Peninsula. We counted chromosomes, screened for ploidy across Iberian Peninsula and characterized environmental requirements using niche modeling tools. We found that J. maritima var. maritima is composed by diploids with disjunct distribution in the west coast of France and northwest Iberian Peninsula, and by tetraploids in Iberian Peninsula, while var. sabularia is tetraploid. In the Iberian Peninsula, two parapatric contact zones along a linear coastal distribution were detected, one between diploid and tetraploid var. maritima, and the other between tetraploids of the two varieties. Environmental variables of diploid populations from France are distinct from those of southern diploid populations, which are more similar to tetraploids. In general, niche modeling results are congruent with the observed distribution patterns, although the results suggest a wider contact zone between varieties and cytotypes. Tetraploids of both varieties revealed different degrees of environmental divergence in comparison with their diploid counterpart. Tetraploid var. sabularia differed environmentally from diploids suggesting niche divergence. In contrast, tetraploid var. maritima overlapped with diploid environmental niche and currently occupies its entire predicted range, whereas diploids are restricted to northern areas of their suitable environment. Differences in ecological envelopes facilitate the recognition of functional units of biodiversity within polyploid groups, allowing the study of factors related to post-polyploidization divergence. Thus, whereas changes in environmental requirements may have allowed tetraploid var. sabularia to spread in habitats not favorable to diploids, other factors are involved with the distribution of diploid and tetraploid var. maritima.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In the flowering plants, many polyploid species complexes display evolutionary radiation. This could be facilitated by gene flow between otherwise separate evolutionary lineages in contact zones. Achillea collina is a widespread tetraploid species within the Achillea millefolium polyploid complex (Asteraceae-Anthemideae). It is morphologically intermediate between the relic diploids, A. setacea-2x in xeric and A. asplenifolia-2x in humid habitats, and often grows in close contact with either of them. By analyzing DNA sequences of two single-copy nuclear genes and the genomic AFLP data, we assess the allopolyploid origin of A. collina-4x from ancestors corresponding to A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x, and the ongoing backcross introgression between these diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages. RESULTS: In both the ncpGS and the PgiC gene tree, haplotype sequences of the diploid A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x group into two clades corresponding to the two species, though lineage sorting seems incomplete for the PgiC gene. In contrast, A. collina-4x and its suspected backcross plants show homeologous gene copies: sequences from the same tetraploid individual plant are placed in both diploid clades. Semi-congruent splits of an AFLP Neighbor Net link not only A. collina-4x to both diploid species, but some 4x individuals in a polymorphic population with mixed ploidy levels to A. setacea-2x on one hand and to A. collina-4x on the other, indicating allopolyploid speciation as well as hybridization across ploidal levels. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study clearly demonstrate the hybrid origin of Achillea collina-4x, the ongoing backcrossing between the diploid progenitor and their tetraploid progeny lineages. Such repeated hybridizations are likely the cause of the great genetic and phenotypic variation and ecological differentiation of the polyploid taxa in Achillea millefolium agg.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nothoscordum gracile is an apomitic tetraploid widely distributed throughout the Americas and naturalized in many temperate regions of other continents. It has been suggested to form a species complex with sexual and apomictic N. nudicaule and N. macrostemon. Tetraploids of these species also share a structurally heterozygous chromosome complement 2n = 19 (13M + 6A). In this work, the origin of N. gracile and its relationships with its related species was investigated based on cytological and molecular data. METHODS: Cytogenetic analyses were based on meiotic behaviour, CMA bands, localization of 5S and 45S rDNA sites, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Nuclear ITS and plastidial trnL-trnF sequences were also obtained for most individuals. KEY RESULTS: Proximal CMA bands were observed in the long arms of all acrocentrics of 2x and 4x N. macrostemon but not in diploid and some tetraploid cytotypes of N. nudicaule. Samples of N. gracile showed a variable number of CMA bands in the long arms of acrocentrics. Analysis of ITS sequences, dot-blot, GISH, and 5S and 45S rDNA sites, revealed no differentiation among the three species. The trnL-trnF cpDNA fragment showed variation with a trend to geographical structuring irrespective of morphospecies and fully congruent with karyotype variation. CONCLUSIONS: The 2n = 19 karyotype was probably formed by a centric fusion event occurring in N. nudicaule and later transmitted to tetraploid cytotypes of N. macrostemon. Diploids of N. nudicaule and N. macrostemon appeared as consistent recently diverged species, whereas tetraploid apomicts seem to constitute an assemblage of polyploid hybrids originating from multiple independent hybridization events between them, part of which are morphologically recognizable as N. gracile.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Effects of polyploidisation on gene flow between natural populations are little known. Central European diploid and tetraploid populations of Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata are here used to study interspecific and interploidal gene flow, using a combination of nuclear and plastid markers. RESULTS:Ploidal levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. Network analyses clearly separated diploids according to species. Tetraploids and diploids were highly intermingled within species, and some tetraploids intermingled with the other species, as well. Isolation with migration analyses suggested interspecific introgression from tetraploid A. arenosa to tetraploid A. lyrata and vice versa, and some interploidal gene flow, which was unidirectional from diploid to tetraploid in A. arenosa and bidirectional in A. lyrata. CONCLUSIONS:Interspecific genetic isolation at diploid level combined with introgression at tetraploid level indicates that polyploidy may buffer against negative consequences of interspecific hybridisation. The role of introgression in polyploid systems may, however, differ between plant species, and even within the small genus Arabidopsis, we find very different evolutionary fates when it comes to introgression.
Project description:The genus Avena comprises four distinct genomes organized in diploid (AA or CC), tetraploid (AABB or AACC) and hexaploid species (AACCDD), constituting an interesting model for phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this work was to characterize 45S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) variability in distinct species representative of Avena genome diversity-A. strigosa (AA), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. eriantha (CpCp), A. barbata (AABB), A. murphyi (AACC), A. sativa (AACCDD) and A. sterilis (AACCDD) through the assessment of the 5' external transcribed spacer (5'-ETS), a promising IGS region for phylogenetic studies poorly studied in Avena genus. In this work, IGS length polymorphisms were detected mainly due to distinct 5'-ETS sequence types resulting from major differences in the number and organization of repeated motifs. Although species with A genome revealed a 5'-ETS organization (A-organization) similar to the one previously described in A. sativa, a distinct organization was unraveled in C genome diploid species (C-organization). Interestingly, such new organization presents a higher similarity with other Poaceae species than A-genome sequences, supporting the hypothesis of C-genome being the ancestral Avena genome. Additionally, polyploid species with both genomes mainly retain the A-genome 5'-ETS organization, confirming the preferential elimination of C-genome sequences in Avena polyploid species. Moreover, 5'-ETS sequences phylogenetic analysis consistently clustered the species studied according to ploidy and genomic constitution supporting the use of ribosomal genes to highlight Avena species evolutive pathways.