Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.
ABSTRACT: To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura.Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime.Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant.This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment.
Project description:Up to 11% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy experience somatosensory auras, although these structures do not have any somatosensory physiological representation. We present the case of a patient with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy who had somatosensory auras on the right side of the body. Stereo-EEG recording demonstrated seizure onset in the left mesial temporal structures, with propagation to the sensory cortices, when the patient experienced the somatosensory aura. Direct electrical stimulation of both the left amygdala and the hippocampus elicited the patient's habitual, somatosensory aura, with afterdischarges propagating to sensory cortices. These unusual responses to cortical stimulation suggest that in patients with epilepsy, aberrant neural networks are established, which have an essential role in ictogenesis. Highlights • Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy may experience somatosensory auras.• Seizure activity propagated from mesial temporal structures to the sensory cortices.• Stimulation in the amygdala and hippocampus elicited habitual somatosensory aura.• We recorded afterdischarges propagating to insula and posterior cingulate contacts.
Project description:Palinacousis is an auditory illusion rarely reported in cases of temporal lobe dysfunction. After reviewing the literature and comparing our clinical experience, we believe that palinacousis can occur as an aura, a simple partial seizure, a complex partial seizure, and/or a postictal event. Palinacousis maybe more common than recognized in patients with receptive aphasias or diffuse cerebral dysfunction, whose language deficits preclude adequate description. We report the case of a 71 years old man with the previously diagnosis of an infarction of left middle cerebral artery and valvular heart disease who presented with the symptoms of palinacousis. He was not diagnosed psychotic diseases. An electroencephalography showed normal wave. He was diagnosed as temporal lobe epilepsy with palinacousis due to post-stroke. Palinacousis was completely reversed after treatment with antiepileptic drug. We report that palinacousis as an epileptic phenomenon can help localized potential lesions and can improve patient care.
Project description:Dominant, left anteromedial temporal lobe resection (AMTLR) for seizure control carries risks to verbal episodic memory and visual object naming. Consistent with traditional thinking, verbal memory decline is considered a consequence of hippocampal removal and naming decline has been attributed to lateral temporal resection. Interestingly, recent findings suggest a potential relation between visual naming and hippocampal integrity, which is consistent with studies that link the hippocampus with higher level visual processing. Historically, naming has been evaluated using visual object naming tasks; however, naming can also be assessed using auditory verbal descriptions. Recent cortical stimulation studies have shown a neuroanatomic distinction between visual naming and auditory description naming. We speculated that unlike visual naming, the hippocampus is not involved in auditory naming, and hypothesized that left AMTLR would not result in auditory naming decline, despite visual naming and verbal memory decline.In this cohort study, we tested auditory naming, visual naming, and verbal memory in 25 left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and 20 right MTLE patients pre-AMTLR and 1 year post-AMTLR.Left AMTLR patients declined in visual naming and verbal memory, with no decline in auditory naming. Right AMTLR patients exhibited no decline.Results suggest that left anteromedial temporal lobe resection presents a greater risk to visual naming than auditory naming in patients with left medial temporal lobe epilepsy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To develop language functional MRI (fMRI) methods that accurately predict postsurgical naming decline in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS:Forty-six patients with TLE (25 left) and 19 controls underwent two overt fMRI paradigms (auditory naming and picture naming, both with active baseline conditions) and one covert task (verbal fluency). Clinical naming performance was assessed preoperatively and 4 months following anterior temporal lobe resection. Preoperative fMRI activations were correlated with postoperative naming decline. Individual laterality indices (LI) were calculated for temporal (auditory and picture naming) and frontal regions (verbal fluency) and were considered as predictors of naming decline in multiple regression models, along with other clinical variables (age at onset of seizures, preoperative naming scores, hippocampal volume, age). RESULTS:In left TLE patients, activation of the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus during auditory naming and activation of left fusiform gyrus during picture naming were related to greater postoperative naming decline. Activation LI were the best individual predictors of naming decline in a multivariate regression model. For picture naming, an LI of higher than 0.34 gave 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity (positive predictive value (PPV) 91.6%). For auditory naming, a temporal lobe LI higher than 0.18 identified all patients with a clinically significant naming decline with 100% sensitivity and 58% specificity (PPV: 58.3%). No effect was seen for verbal fluency. INTERPRETATION:Auditory and picture naming fMRI are clinically applicable to predict postoperative naming decline after left temporal lobe resection in individual patients, with picture naming being more specific.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of frontal disconnection surgery in seizure control and related consequences in a consecutive patient series. Methods:We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent frontal disconnection surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Baseline epilepsy characteristics, detailed presurgical evaluation including epileptogenic zone (EZ) localization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of epileptogenic lesion, and pathological findings were reviewed. Patients were followed postoperatively for seizure outcome at 1 year. Results:A total of 16 patients were identified (six children and 10 adults). Most patients had a childhood onset of DRE with a median duration of epilepsy of 6.5 years (interquartile range 3.5-17.5 years) before surgery. In 10 (62.5%) patients, the EZ was localized to the frontal lobe, while in six patients, the EZ involved also adjacent lobes or consisted of multiple foci. In 10 (62.5%) patients, an epileptogenic lesion was detected on presurgical MRI, four of which (40%) had all MRI abnormalities confined to the frontal lobe. Two-thirds of the patients (11/16; 68.8%) underwent isolated frontal disconnection procedure, while remaining patients had frontal disconnection combined with resection of an adjacent lobe. Of the 12 patients in whom biopsy was taken from the disconnected frontal lobe, six (50%) had pathology-proven focal cortical dysplasia. We observed surgical-related complications in three (18.8%) cases, neurological deficits in other three (18.8%) patients, and worsening cognitive abilities in one (6.3%) patient. Overall, eight (50%) patients became completely seizure-free (ILAE 1) at one-year follow-up. Significance:Frontal disconnection surgery for DRE can result in seizure freedom in certain patients, especially when the EZ is strictly limited to the ipsilateral frontal region, and the MRI shows an epileptogenic lesion that is purely frontal in location. Frontal lobe disconnection procedure is safe and has a limited complication rate. However, further studies with larger patient population will yield more significance.
Project description:The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex.
Project description:Auditory speech comprehension is the result of neural computations that occur in a broad network that includes the temporal lobe auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal cortex. It remains unclear how representations in this network differentially contribute to speech comprehension. Here, we recorded high-density direct cortical activity during a sine-wave speech (SWS) listening task to examine detailed neural speech representations when the exact same acoustic input is comprehended versus not comprehended. Listeners heard SWS sentences (pre-exposure), followed by clear versions of the same sentences, which revealed the content of the sounds (exposure), and then the same SWS sentences again (post-exposure). Across all three task phases, high-gamma neural activity in the superior temporal gyrus was similar, distinguishing different words based on bottom-up acoustic features. In contrast, frontal regions showed a more pronounced and sudden increase in activity only when the input was comprehended, which corresponded with stronger representational separability among spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked by different words. We observed this effect only in participants who were not able to comprehend the stimuli during the pre-exposure phase, indicating a relationship between frontal high-gamma activity and speech understanding. Together, these results demonstrate that both frontal and temporal cortical networks are involved in spoken language understanding, and that under certain listening conditions, frontal regions are involved in discriminating speech sounds.
Project description:Purpose:Modern neuroimaging techniques allow investigating brain structures and substances involved in the pathophysiology of mental disorders, trying to find new markers of these disorders. To better understanding of the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, this study was conducted to assess the neurochemical alterations in the frontal and temporal lobes in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Methods:Twenty-one subjects with schizophrenia (paranoid and differentiated types), 16 subjects with bipolar I disorder (manic, depressive, and mixed episode), and 20 healthy subjects were studied. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and proton resonance magnetic spectroscopy (1H MRS) were performed on a 1.5?T scanner. Voxels of 8?cm3 were positioned in the left frontal and left temporal lobes. Results:Glx/H2O (GABA, glutamine, and glutamate/nonsuppressed water signal) ratios were significantly increased in the left temporal lobe in schizophrenia, but not in bipolar disorder, compared with controls. Cho/H2O (choline/nonsuppressed water signal) ratios in the left frontal lobe had a tendency to increase in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, relative to controls. A lower temporal lobe NAA/H2O ratio in mixed than in manic and depressive episode of bipolar patients was also found. No other significant differences were found among three studied groups as regards NAA, Cr, and mI ratios. Conclusions:Our results partially confirm the role of a glutamatergic system in schizophrenia, however, only in a temporal lobe. We also point to the importance of the choline-containing compounds (marker of cellular density) in the frontal lobe of patients suffering from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We also found the deleterious effect of mixed bipolar episode on the integrity and functioning of the temporal lobe. Glutamatergic left temporal spectroscopic changes may potentially help in differential diagnosis of schizophrenia from bipolar disorder.
Project description:To present findings on a series of cases of sporadic nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), a form of NFLE that is infrequently reported, in contrast to familial (autosomal dominant) NFLE. Both forms of NFLE need to be distinguished from parasomnias, nocturnal temporal lobe epilepsy, and other nocturnal disorders.Eight consecutive cases of sporadic NFLE were evaluated at a sleep clinic in Taiwan. All patients had clinical evaluations, daytime waking and sleeping EEGs, brain MRIs, and overnight video-polysomnography (vPSG) with seizure montage.Gender was equal (four males, four females); mean age was 18.4 yrs (range, 7-41 yrs). Age of NFLE onset was by puberty. Premorbid history was negative for any neurologic, medical or psychiatric disorder. NFLE subtypes: nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, n=6; paroxysmal arousals, n=2. MRI brain scan abnormalities with clinical correlates were found in one patient. Daytime awake EEGs were negative for ictal/interictal activity in all patients, but two patients had daytime sleep EEGs with interictal epileptiform EEG activity. During vPSG studies, three of eight patients with NFLE seizure events had concurrent epileptiform EEG activity, and two patients had interictal epileptiform EEG activity during their vPSG studies. No case had a spontaneous remission. Anticonvulsant therapy was highly effective in all eight cases (>75% reduction in seizure frequency).These cases confirm that sporadic NFLE closely resembles familial NFLE, and comprises a set of distinct clinical manifestations, with variable intensity, and variable scalp EEG epileptiform abnormalities across sleep and wakefulness, which have previously been identified in Caucasian patients from Europe and North America.
Project description:We investigated whether variation in auditory experience in humans during development alters the macroscopic neuroanatomy of primary or auditory association cortices. Volumetric analyses were based on MRI data from 25 congenitally deaf subjects and 25 hearing subjects, all right-handed. The groups were matched for gender and age. Gray and white matter volumes were determined for the temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus (HG), and the planum temporale. Deaf and hearing subjects did not differ in the total volume or the gray matter volume of HG, which suggests that auditory deafferentation does not lead to cell loss within primary auditory cortex in humans. However, deaf subjects had significantly larger gray matter-white matter ratios than hearing subjects in HG, with deaf subjects exhibiting significantly less white matter in both left and right HG. Deaf subjects also had higher gray matter-white matter ratios in the rest of the superior temporal gyrus, but this pattern was not observed for the temporal lobe as a whole. These findings suggest that auditory deprivation from birth results in less myelination and/or fewer fibers projecting to and from auditory cortices. Finally, the volumes of planum temporale and HG were significantly larger in the left hemisphere for both groups, suggesting that leftward asymmetries within "auditory" cortices do not arise from experience with auditory processing.