Unknown

Dataset Information

0

Sequence divergence and diversity suggests ongoing functional diversification of vertebrate NAD metabolism.


ABSTRACT: NAD is not only an important cofactor in redox reactions but has also received attention in recent years because of its physiological importance in metabolic regulation, DNA repair and signaling. In contrast to the redox reactions, these regulatory processes involve degradation of NAD and therefore necessitate a constant replenishment of its cellular pool. NAD biosynthetic enzymes are common to almost all species in all clades, but the number of NAD degrading enzymes varies substantially across taxa. In particular, vertebrates, including humans, have a manifold of NAD degrading enzymes which require a high turnover of NAD. As there is currently a lack of a systematic study of how natural selection has shaped enzymes involved in NAD metabolism we conducted a comprehensive evolutionary analysis based on intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence. We compare NAD biosynthetic and degrading enzymes in four eukaryotic model species and subsequently focus on human NAD metabolic enzymes and their orthologs in other vertebrates. We find that the majority of enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are subject to varying levels of purifying selection. While NAD biosynthetic enzymes appear to experience a rather high level of evolutionary constraint, there is evidence for positive selection among enzymes mediating NAD-dependent signaling. This is particularly evident for members of the PARP family, a diverse protein family involved in DNA damage repair and programmed cell death. Based on haplotype information and substitution rate analysis we pinpoint sites that are potential targets of positive selection. We also link our findings to a three dimensional structure, which suggests that positive selection occurs in domains responsible for DNA binding and polymerization rather than the NAD catalytic domain. Taken together, our results indicate that vertebrate NAD metabolism is still undergoing functional diversification.

SUBMITTER: Gossmann TI 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4248024 | BioStudies | 2014-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

Similar Datasets

2020-01-01 | S-EPMC7050480 | BioStudies
2018-01-01 | S-EPMC6054311 | BioStudies
2019-01-01 | S-EPMC6798084 | BioStudies
2019-01-01 | S-EPMC6657305 | BioStudies
2009-01-01 | S-EPMC2738131 | BioStudies
1000-01-01 | S-EPMC3944813 | BioStudies
2020-01-01 | S-EPMC7076215 | BioStudies
2021-01-01 | S-EPMC7963035 | BioStudies
2009-01-01 | S-EPMC2896262 | BioStudies
1000-01-01 | S-EPMC4352772 | BioStudies