Assessment of ?4, ?v, ?1 and ?3 integrins expression throughout the implantation window phase in endometrium of a mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndromes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Endometrial integrin expression changes might be a reason for implantation failure in polycystic ovarian syndromes (PCOS). Objective : Assessment of integrin genes and proteins expression upon endometrium in the PCOS experimental mouse model was the main goal of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:30 NMRI female mice were equally divided into control, experimental (PCOS; received estradiol valerate (40 mg/kg)) and sham group (received; olive oil). After 8 weeks, each group was hyper stimulated by 7 IU PMSG and then, after 48hrs, 7 IU HCG was injected. Vaginal plaque was checked. After 5 days, Progesterone and estradiol levels and endometrial tissues were investigated to evaluate of ?4, ?v, ?1 and ?3 integrins gene and protein by qPCR method and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS:Tissue samples were assessed and showed that level of progesterone was significantly decreased in PCOS group. RESULTS of molecular part in the amount of ?v, ?3, ?1 and ?4 gene expressions showed a great difference in ?3 and ?v genes expressions between experimental groups. ?v, ?3, ?4 and ?1 proteins in the endometrial stroma in the control group were expressed, but they were not detected in PCOS group. CONCLUSION:According to the results, integrins had different expression patterns in different areas of the endometrium; such as epithelial and stromal. It seems that in PCOS, this pattern has changed and the results might have a great influence on implantation failure. Therefore, this study suggests that a great attention to this problem may be essential in patients who are involved.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It has been hypothesized that blastocyst integrin expression changes can affect the spontaneous miscarriage in polycystic ovarian syndromes (PCOS). OBJECTIVE:In this study, the profile of integrin genes and proteins was investigated on blastocyst of the PCOS experimental mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS:30 NMRI female mice were equally divided into 3 groups: control, experimental [PCOS that was injected estradiol valerate (40 mg/kg)]. After 8 weeks, each group was hyper stimulated by PMSG and HCG. Vaginal plaque was checked, and mice were investigated 5 days after the test. Progesterone and estradiol levels were determined; ?4, ?v, ?1 and ?3 integrin genes and protein of blastocysts were examined by real time PCR method and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS:Estradiol level was significantly increased (p?0.035) in PCOS group. Based on our finding, the ratio of genes' expressions ?v, ?3, ?1 and ?4 in PCOS to control group was 0.479±0.01, 0.5±0.001, 2.7±0.4 and 1.023±0.2 respectively. Genes expression showed a great difference (p?0.001) between ?3, ?1 and ?v in PCOS compared to other groups. ?v and ?3 integrin proteins expressed in all groups but intensity of these proteins in PCOS groups, was lower than other groups. CONCLUSION:Pattern of ?v and ?3 integrins expression on the mouse blastocyst surface has an important effect during the implantation window. This pattern has changed in PCOS model and might have a great influence on implantation failure. Therefore, this experimental study suggests that a great attention to this problem may be essential in patients who are involved.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent disorder in reproductive aged women associated with a number of endocrine and metabolic complications, including increased risk of endometrial cancer.<h4>Objective</h4>To study the effect of the characteristic increased androgen levels in PCOS on the endometrium, a novel scaffold-free multicellular endometrial organoid was established.<h4>Design</h4>Human endometrial organoids were constructed using primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells from endometrial tissues. Organoids were treated for 14 days with physiologic levels of estradiol and testosterone to mimic a normal follicular phase or PCOS hormone profiles. Organoids were harvested for immunostaining and ribonucleic acid sequencing.<h4>Setting</h4>Academic institution.<h4>Patients</h4>Endometrial tissues from 10 premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign pathologies were obtained following written consent.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Organoid architecture, cell specific markers, functional markers, proliferation, and gene expression were measured.<h4>Results</h4>A method to generate scaffold-free endometrial organoids containing epithelial and stromal cells was established. These organoids exhibited distinct organization with epithelial cells lining the outer surface and stromal cells in the center of the organoids. Epithelial cells were polarized, organoids expressed cell type specific and functional markers, as well as androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors. Treatment with PCOS hormones increased cell proliferation and dysregulated genes in endometrial organoids.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A new multicellular, scaffold-free endometrial organoid system was established that resembled physiology of the native endometrium. Excess androgens in PCOS promoted cell proliferation in endometrial organoids, revealing new mechanisms of PCOS-associated with risk of endometrial neoplasia.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women, is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim was to compare gene expression between endometrial samples of normal fertile controls and women with PCOS.<h4>Design and setting</h4>We conducted a case control study at university teaching hospitals.<h4>Patients</h4>Normal fertile controls and women with PCOS participated in the study.<h4>Interventions</h4>Endometrial samples were obtained from normal fertile controls and from women with PCOS, either induced to ovulate with clomiphene citrate or from a modeled secretory phase using daily administration of progesterone.<h4>Main outcome measure</h4>Total RNA was isolated from samples and processed for array hybridization with Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data were analyzed using GeneSpring GX11 and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. Selected gene expression differences were validated using RT-PCR and/or immunohistochemistry in separately obtained PCOS and normal endometrium.<h4>Results</h4>ANOVA analysis revealed 5160 significantly different genes among the three conditions. Of these, 466 were differentially regulated between fertile controls and PCOS. Progesterone-regulated genes, including mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), S100P, and claudin-4 were significantly lower in PCOS endometrium; whereas cell proliferation genes, such as Anillin and cyclin B1, were up-regulated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Differences in gene expression provide evidence of progesterone resistance in midsecretory PCOS endometrium, independent of clomiphene citrate and corresponding to the observed phenotypes of hyperplasia, cancer, and poor reproductive outcomes in this group of women.
Project description:Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is a pivotal early step in blood vessel remodeling; however, very little is known about the regulation of this process in the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle. In this study, explants of human endometrium were incubated with estradiol and/or progesterone and the conditioned medium (CM) applied to cultures of VSMC to test the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone stimulate endometrial cells to secrete a factor(s) that promotes VSMC migration. Endometrial explants were composed of highly organized glands and stroma. VSMC migration (cells migrated in 21 h/mm(2) fibronectin-coated semipermeable membrane) in the presence of CM from human endometrial explants obtained in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle and incubated for 24 h with estradiol was approximately threefold greater (P < 0.001) than with medium alone and greater (P < 0.05) than with CM from explants treated with estradiol plus progesterone or progesterone. It is concluded, therefore, that estrogen stimulates endometrial secretion of a factor(s) that promotes VSMC migration as an early step in vessel remodeling within the endometrium.
Project description:Background Determination of the role of steroid hormones in expression and regulation of endometrial glucose transport 4 (GLUT4) in humans is important for understanding endometrial disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common hormone-imbalance disease. Methods Endometrial biopsy samples were collected from non-PCOS patients with regular menstrual cycles or with hyperplasia and from PCOS patients with or without hyperplasia. In addition, endometrial tissues from postmenopausal women were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 10 IU/ml), 17?-estradiol (E2, 10 nM), progesterone (P4, 100 nM), or a combination of E2 and P4 for 24 h. The expression of GLUT4 was measured at the mRNA level using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and at the protein level using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results A cyclical change in GLUT4 expression pattern was observed in non-PCOS patients, and a high level of GLUT4 expression was seen in the proliferative phase compared to the secretory phase. Low levels of GLUT4 expression were found in PCOS patients compared to menstrual cycle phase-matched non-PCOS patients, and there was no significant change in GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients during the menstrual cycle. GLUT4 was localized in both epithelial and stromal cells, with notable changes in epithelial cells. We postulate that decreased GLUT4 expression might be regulated by steroid hormones. In support of this, we showed that in cultured endometrial tissues hCG and E2 alone had no effect on GLUT4 expression. However, P4 alone and P4 in combination with E2 decreased GLUT4 expression. Compared with non-PCOS controls, PCOS patients with endometrial hyperplasia exhibited decreased GLUT4 expression in particular in the epithelial cells. Conclusion We conclude that P4 can induce changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression during the menstrual cycle and that abnormal hormonal conditions such as PCOS disrupt normal patterns of GLUT4 expression in endometrial cells.
Project description:Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) is a pro-survival factor that protects tissues against stressors, such as hypoxia and inflammation. STC-1 is co-expressed with the endometrial receptivity markers, and recently endometrial STC-1 was reported to be dysregulated in endometriosis, a condition linked with endometrial progesterone resistance and inflammation. These features are also common in the endometrium in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women. Given that women with PCOS present with subfertility, pregnancy complications, and increased risk for endometrial cancer, we investigated endometrial STC-1 expression in affected women. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained from women with PCOS and controls, including samples from overweight/obese women with PCOS before and after a 3-month lifestyle intervention. A total of 98 PCOS and 85 control samples were used in immunohistochemistry, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, or in vitro cell culture. STC-1 expression was analyzed at different cycle phases and in endometrial stromal cells (eSCs) after steroid hormone exposure. The eSCs were also challenged with 8-bromo-cAMP and hypoxia for STC-1 expression. The findings indicate that STC-1 expression is not steroid hormone mediated although secretory-phase STC-1 expression was blunted in PCOS. Lower expression seems to be related to attenuated STC-1 response to stressors in PCOS eSCs, shown as downregulation of protein kinase A activity. The 3-month lifestyle intervention did not restore STC-1 expression in PCOS endometrium. More studies are warranted to further elucidate the mechanisms behind the altered endometrial STC-1 expression and rescue mechanism in the PCOS endometrium.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>Endometrium in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents altered gene expression indicating progesterone resistance and predisposing to reduced endometrial receptivity and endometrial cancer.<h4>Objective</h4>We hypothesized that an altered endocrine/metabolic environment in PCOS may result in an endometrial "disease phenotype" affecting the gene expression of different endometrial cell populations, including stem cells and their differentiated progeny.<h4>Design and setting</h4>This was a prospective study conducted at an academic medical center.<h4>Patients and main outcome measures</h4>Proliferative-phase endometrium was obtained from 6 overweight/obese PCOS (National Institutes of Health criteria) and 6 overweight/obese controls. Microarray analysis was performed on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-isolated endometrial epithelial cells (eEPs), endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts (eSFs), and mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs). Gene expression data were validated using microfluidic quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.<h4>Results</h4>The comparison between eEP(PCOS) and eEP(Ctrl) showed dysregulation of inflammatory genes and genes with oncogenic potential (CCL2, IL-6, ORM1, TNAIFP6, SFRP4, SPARC). eSF(PCOS) and eSF(Ctrl) showed up-regulation of inflammatory genes (C4A/B, CCL2, ICAM1, TNFAIP3). Similarly, in eMSC(PCOS) vs eMSC(Ctrl), the most up-regulated genes were related to inflammation and cancer (IL-8, ICAM1, SPRR3, LCN2). Immunohistochemistry scoring showed increased expression of CCL2 in eEP(PCOS) and eSF(PCOS) compared with eEP(Ctrl) and eSF(Ctrl) and IL-6 in eEP(PCOS) compared with eEP(Ctrl).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Isolated endometrial cell populations in women with PCOS showed altered gene expression revealing inflammation and prooncogenic changes, independent of body mass index, especially in eEP(PCOS) and eMSC(PCOS), compared with controls. The study reveals an endometrial disease phenotype in women with PCOS with potential negative effects on endometrial function and long-term health.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrine diseases in women of childbearing age, has been found to be accompanied by changes in the gut microbiota. The Bu Shen Yang Xue formula (BSYXF) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of PCOS. This study aimed to investigate whether the protective effects of β-sitosterol, the main active ingredient of BSYXF, on PCOS was mediated by regulating gut microbiota. <b>Methods:</b> The presence of β-sitosterol in BSYXF was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCOS-like mouse model was induced by dehydroepiandrosterone. The fecal supernatant of β-sitosterol-treated mice was prepared for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Body weight and wet weight of the uterus and ovary of the mice were recorded for organ index calculation. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was used to assess the endometrial morphology and microenvironment changes. Expression of endometrial receptivity markers cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Integrin α<i>νβ</i>3, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and homeobox A10 (HOXA10) in the endometrium were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to detect the expression of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in the serum. The diversity of gut microbiota was examined by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. <b>Results:</b> With the treatment of β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol<b>-</b>FMT, the uterine index of PCOS-like mice increased, the ovarian index decreased, levels of COX-2, LH and T decreased, and levels of Integrin α<i>νβ</i>3, LIF, HOXA10, FSH, and P increased. Under β-sitosterol treatment, the structure of the gut microbiota in PCOS-like mice was also changed. <b>Conclusion:</b> β-sitosterol regulates the endometrial receptivity of PCOS and harmonizes the sex hormone balance, which may be related to the changes in the structure and composition of gut microbiota, thus affecting the pathological process of PCOS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>When the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone bind to nuclear receptors, they have transcriptional impact on target genes in the human endometrium. These transcriptional changes have a critical function in preparing the endometrium for embryo implantation.<h4>Methods</h4>382 genes were selected, differentially expressed in the receptive endometrium, to study their responsiveness of estrogen and progesterone. The endometrial cell lines HEC1A and RL95-2 were used as experimental models for the non-receptive and receptive endometrium, respectively. Putative targets for activated steroid hormone receptors were investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using receptor-specific antibodies. Promoter occupancy of the selected genes by steroid receptors was detected in ChIP-purified DNA by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Expression analysis by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR was used to further investigate hormone dependent mRNA expression regulation of a subset of genes.<h4>Results</h4>ChIP-qPCR analysis demonstrated that each steroid hormone receptor had distinct group of target genes in the endometrial cell lines. After estradiol treatment, expression of estrogen receptor target genes predominated in HEC1A cells (n = 137) compared to RL95-2 cells (n = 35). In contrast, expression of progesterone receptor target genes was higher in RL95-2 cells (n = 83) than in HEC1A cells (n = 7) after progesterone treatment. RT-PCR analysis of 20 genes demonstrated transcriptional changes after estradiol or progesterone treatment of the cell lines.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Combined results from ChIP-qPCR and RT-PCR analysis showed different patterns of steroid hormone receptor occupancy at target genes, corresponding to activation or suppression of gene expression after hormone treatment of HEC1A and RL95-2 cell lines.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic oligo/anovulation, hyperandrogenemia, infertility, and metabolic alterations related to insulin resistance. These abnormalities in PCOS may have complex effects on pathophysiology of the endometrium, contributing to infertility and endometrial disorders.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective of this study was to examine dysregulated signaling pathways in the endometrium of patients with PCOS (PCOSE) by analyzing expression profiles with a pathway-oriented method.<h4>Design</h4>Microarrays, RT-PCR, laser capture microdissection, and immunohistochemistry were performed with endometrial tissues.<h4>Setting</h4>This study was performed at a university hospital laboratory.<h4>Patients</h4>This study comprised 12 regularly cycling women and 12 PCOS patients.<h4>Main outcome measure</h4>Dysregulated signaling pathways in PCOSE were identified as a gene set.<h4>Results</h4>Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct expression profiles for PCOSE and the endometrium of normal cycling women. Gene sets associated with androgen signaling were not enriched in PCOSE, although they affect ovarian physiology of PCOS patients. Several biological pathways including cell cycle, apoptosis, glycolysis, and integrin-Rho-cytoskeleton network were aberrantly down-regulated in PCOSE. Expression of genes constituting these gene sets enriched in normal cycling women was systemically down-regulated in PCOSE. Laser capture microdissection-coupled real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry further demonstrated that cell proliferation in the stroma, but not the epithelium, is significantly reduced in PCOSE.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Systemic down-regulation of various signaling pathways in PCOSE with extremely prolonged proliferative phase provides insight into the abnormal phenotypes that reflect pathophysiology of PCOS in the endometrium, possibly leading to increased risks of endometrial disorders.