Histone deacetylases and phosphorylated polymerase II C-terminal domain recruit Spt6 for cotranscriptional histone reassembly.
ABSTRACT: Spt6 is a multifunctional histone chaperone involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure during elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Spt6 has a tandem SH2 (tSH2) domain within its C terminus that recognizes Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) peptides phosphorylated on Ser2, Ser5, or Try1 in vitro. Deleting the tSH2 domain, however, only has a partial effect on Spt6 occupancy in vivo, suggesting that more complex mechanisms are involved in the Spt6 recruitment. Our results show that the Ser2 kinases Bur1 and Ctk1, but not the Ser5 kinase Kin28, cooperate in recruiting Spt6, genome-wide. Interestingly, the Ser2 kinases promote the association of Spt6 in early transcribed regions and not toward the 3' ends of genes, where phosphorylated Ser2 reaches its maximum level. In addition, our results uncover an unexpected role for histone deacetylases (Rpd3 and Hos2) in promoting Spt6 interaction with elongating Pol II. Finally, our data suggest that phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD on Tyr1 promotes the association of Spt6 with the 3' ends of transcribed genes, independently of Ser2 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results show that a complex network of interactions, involving the Spt6 tSH2 domain, CTD phosphorylation, and histone deacetylases, coordinate the recruitment of Spt6 to transcribed genes in vivo.
Project description:Spt6 is a multifunctional histone chaperone involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure during elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Spt6 has a tandem SH2 (tSH2) domain within its C-terminus that recognizes Pol II CTD peptides phosphorylated on Ser2, Ser5 or Try1 in vitro. Deleting the tSH2 domain, however, only has a partial effect on Spt6 occupancy in vivo, suggesting that more complex mechanisms are involved in the Spt6 recruitment. Our results show that the Ser2 kinases Bur1 and Ctk1, but not the Ser5 kinase Kin28, cooperate in recruiting Spt6, genome-wide. Interestingly, the Ser2 kinases promote the association of Spt6 in early transcribed regions and not toward the 3' end of genes, where phosphorylated Ser2 reaches its maximum level. Additionally, our results uncover an unexpected role for histone deacetylases (Rpd3 and Hos2) in promoting Spt6 interaction with elongating Pol II. Finally, our data suggest that phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD on Tyr1 promotes the association of Spt6 with the 3' end of transcribed genes, independently of Ser2 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results show that a complex network of interactions, involving the Spt6 tSH2 domain, CTD phosphorylation and histone deacetylases, coordinate the recruitment of Spt6 to transcribed genes in vivo. We examined the genome-wide distribution (using ChIP-chip) of Spt6. Spt6 occupancy was also assayed in mutants for CTD Serine 2 and Serine 5 kinases and in mutants for histone deacetylases. ChIPs were performed with a Myc-tagged version of Spt6. Most ChIPs (in Cy5) were hybridyzed against a control ChIP sample from an isogenic non-tagged strain (in Cy3). In the ChIP experiments with the spt6-202del mutant, non immunoprecipitated DNA (input) was used as the control. In addition to Spt6 ChIPs, the project includes RNAPII (Rpb3) ChIP-chip datasets, where an anti-Rpb3 antibody was used to ChIP RNAPII and non immunoprecipitated DNA (input) was used as the control. All ChIP-chip experiments were done in duplicates. Each microarray was normalized using the Lima Loess and replicates were combined using a weighted average method as previously described (Pokholok et al., 2005).
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) phosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (pol II) but its roles in transcription beyond the expression of DNA damage response genes remain unclear. Here, we have used TT-seq and mNET-seq to monitor the direct effects of rapid CDK12 inhibition on transcription activity and CTD phosphorylation in human cells. CDK12 inhibition causes a genome-wide defect in transcription elongation and a global reduction of CTD Ser2 and Ser5 phosphorylation. The elongation defect is explained by the loss of the elongation factors LEO1 and CDC73, part of PAF1 complex, and SPT6 from the newly-elongating pol II. Our results indicate that CDK12 is a general activator of pol II transcription elongation and indicate that it targets both Ser2 and Ser5 residues of the pol II CTD.
Project description:The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) comprises multiple heptapeptide repeats of the consensus Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Reversible phosphorylation of Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 during the transcription cycle mediates the sequential recruitment of transcription/RNA processing factors. Phosphorylation of Ser7 is required for recruitment of the gene type-specific Integrator complex to the Pol II-transcribed small nuclear (sn)RNA genes. Here, we show that RNA Pol II-associated protein 2 (RPAP2) specifically recognizes the phospho-Ser7 mark on the Pol II CTD and also interacts with Integrator subunits. siRNA-mediated knockdown of RPAP2 and mutation of Ser7 to alanine cause similar defects in snRNA gene expression. In addition, we show that RPAP2 is a CTD Ser5 phosphatase. Taken together, our results indicate that during transcription of snRNA genes, Ser7 phosphorylation facilitates recruitment of RPAP2, which in turn both recruits Integrator and dephosphorylates Ser5.
Project description:ChIP-chip was performed to identify the genomic binding locations for the termination factors Nrd1, and Rtt103, and for RNA polymerase (Pol) II phosphorylated at the tyrosine 1 and threonine 4 position of its C-terminal domain (CTD). In different phases of the transcription cycle, Pol II recruits different factors via its CTD, which consists of heptapeptide repeats with the sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Here we show that the CTD of transcribing yeast Pol II is phosphorylated at Tyr1, and that this impairs recruitment of termination factors. Tyr1 phosphorylation levels rise downstream of the transcription start site (TSS), and decrease before the polyadenylation (pA) site. Tyr1-phosphorylated gene bodies are depleted of CTD-binding termination factors Nrd1, Pcf11, and Rtt103. Tyr1 phosphorylation blocks CTD binding by these termination factors, but stimulates binding of elongation factor Spt6. These results show that CTD modifications can not only stimulate but also block factor recruitment, and lead to an extended CTD code for transcription cycle coordination.
Project description:Dynamic phosphorylation of Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 heptad-repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit coordinates progression of RNA polymerase (Pol) II through the transcription cycle. Here, we describe an M phase-specific form of Pol II phosphorylated at Thr4, but not at Tyr1, Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 residues. Thr4 phosphorylated Pol II binds to centrosomes and midbody and interacts with the Thr4-specific Polo-like kinase 1. Binding of Pol II to centrosomes does not require the CTD but may involve subunits of the non-canonical R2TP-Prefoldin-like complex, which bind to and co-localize with Pol II at centrosomes. CTD Thr4 mutants, but not Ser2 and Ser5 mutants, display severe mitosis and cytokinesis defects characterized by multipolar spindles and polyploid cells. We conclude that proper M phase progression of cells requires binding of Pol II to centrosomes to facilitate regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis in a CTD Thr4-P dependent manner.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinase BUR1/BUR2 appears to be the yeast ortholog of P-TEFb, which phosphorylates Ser2 of the RNA Pol II CTD, but the importance of BUR1/BUR2 in CTD phosphorylation is unclear. We show that BUR1/BUR2 is cotranscriptionally recruited to the 5' end of ARG1 in a manner stimulated by interaction of the BUR1 C terminus with CTD repeats phosphorylated on Ser5 by KIN28. Impairing BUR1/BUR2 function, or removing the CTD-interaction domain in BUR1, reduces Ser2 phosphorylation in bulk Pol II and eliminates the residual Ser2P in cells lacking the major Ser2 CTD kinase, CTK1. Impairing BUR1/BUR2 or CTK1 evokes a similar reduction of Ser2P in Pol II phosphorylated on Ser5 and in elongating Pol II near the ARG1 promoter. By contrast, CTK1 is responsible for the bulk of Ser2P in total Pol II and at promoter-distal sites. In addition to phosphorylating Ser2 near promoters, BUR1/BUR2 also stimulates Ser2P formation by CTK1 during transcription elongation.
Project description:The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II is sequentially modified for recruitment of numerous accessory factors during transcription. One such factor is Spt6, which couples transcription elongation with histone chaperone activity and the regulation of H3 lysine 36 methylation. Here, we show that CTD association of Spt6 is required for Ser2 CTD phosphorylation and for the protein stability of Ctk1 (the major Ser2 CTD kinase). We also find that Spt6 associates with Ctk1, and, unexpectedly, Ctk1 and Ser2 CTD phosphorylation are required for the stability of Spt6-thus revealing a Spt6-Ctk1 feed-forward loop that robustly maintains Ser2 phosphorylation during transcription. In addition, we find that the BUR kinase and the polymerase associated factor transcription complex function upstream of the Spt6-Ctk1 loop, most likely by recruiting Spt6 to the CTD at the onset of transcription. Consistent with requirement of Spt6 in histone gene expression and nucleosome deposition, mutation or deletion of members of the Spt6-Ctk1 loop leads to global loss of histone H3 and sensitivity to hydroxyurea. In sum, these results elucidate a new control mechanism for the regulation of RNAPII CTD phosphorylation during transcription elongation that is likely to be highly conserved.
Project description:Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II C-terminal domain (CTD) repeats (1-YSPTSPS-7) is coupled to transcription and may act as a 'code' that controls mRNA synthesis and processing. To examine the code in budding yeast, we mapped genome-wide CTD Ser2, Ser5 and Ser7 phosphorylations and the CTD-associated termination factors Nrd1 and Pcf11. Phospho-CTD dynamics are not scaled to gene length and are gene-specific, with highest Ser5 and Ser7 phosphorylation at the 5' ends of well-expressed genes with nucleosome-occupied promoters. The CTD kinases Kin28 and Ctk1 markedly affect Pol II distribution in a gene-specific way. The code is therefore written differently on different genes, probably under the control of promoters. Ser7 phosphorylation is enriched on introns and at sites of Nrd1 accumulation, suggesting links to splicing and Nrd1 recruitment. Nrd1 and Pcf11 frequently colocalize, suggesting functional overlap. Unexpectedly, Pcf11 is enriched at centromeres and Pol III-transcribed genes.
Project description:RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can terminate transcription via several pathways. To study how a mechanism is chosen, we analyzed recruitment of Nrd1, which cooperates with Nab3 and Sen1 to terminate small nucleolar RNAs and other short RNAs. Budding yeast contains three C-terminal domain (CTD) interaction domain (CID) proteins, which bind the CTD of the Pol II largest subunit. Rtt103 and Pcf11 act in mRNA termination, and both preferentially interact with CTD phosphorylated at Ser2. The crystal structure of the Nrd1 CID shows a fold similar to that of Pcf11, but Nrd1 preferentially binds to CTD phosphorylated at Ser5, the form found proximal to promoters. This indicates why Nrd1 cross-links near 5' ends of genes and why the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 termination pathway acts specifically at short Pol II-transcribed genes. Nrd1 recruitment to genes involves a combination of interactions with CTD and Nab3.
Project description:Sequential modifications of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) coordinate the stage-specific association and release of cellular machines during transcription. Here we examine the genome-wide distributions of the 'early' (phospho-Ser5 (Ser5-P)), 'mid' (Ser7-P) and 'late' (Ser2-P) CTD marks. We identify gene class-specific patterns and find widespread co-occurrence of the CTD marks. Contrary to its role in 3'-processing of noncoding RNA, the Ser7-P marks are placed early and retained until transcription termination at all Pol II-dependent genes. Chemical-genomic analysis reveals that the promoter-distal Ser7-P marks are not remnants of early phosphorylation but are placed anew by the CTD kinase Bur1. Consistent with the ability of Bur1 to facilitate transcription elongation and suppress cryptic transcription, high levels of Ser7-P are observed at highly transcribed genes. We propose that Ser7-P could facilitate elongation and suppress cryptic transcription.