Effects of Nicotine on Streptococcus gordonii Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Cell Aggregation.
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus gordonii is a commensal species of human oral flora. It initiates dental biofilm formation and provides binding sites for later colonizers to attach to and generate mature biofilm. Smoking is the second highest risk factor for periodontal disease, and cigarette smoke extract has been reported to facilitate Porphyromonas gingivalis-S. gordonii dual-species biofilm formation. Our hypothesis is that nicotine, one of the most important and active components of tobacco, stimulates S. gordonii multiplication and aggregation. In the present study, S. gordonii planktonic cell growth (kinetic absorbance and CFU), biofilm formation (crystal violet stain and confocal laser scanning microscopy [CLSM]), aggregation with/without sucrose, and 11 genes that encode binding proteins or regulators of gene expression were investigated. Results demonstrated planktonic cell growth was stimulated by 1 to 4 mg/ml nicotine treatment. Biofilm formation was increased at 0.5 to 4 mg/ml nicotine. CLSM indicated bacterial cell mass was increased by 2 and 4 mg/ml nicotine, but biofilm extracellular polysaccharide was not significantly affected by nicotine. Cell aggregation was upregulated by 4, 8, and 16 mg/ml nicotine with sucrose and by 16 mg/ml nicotine without sucrose. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR indicated S. gordonii abpA, scaA, ccpA, and srtA were upregulated in planktonic cells by 2 mg/ml nicotine. In conclusion, nicotine stimulates S. gordonii planktonic cell growth, biofilm formation, aggregation, and gene expression of binding proteins. Those effects may promote later pathogen attachment to tooth surfaces, the accumulation of tooth calculus, and the development of periodontal disease in cigarette smokers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases worldwide. Dental caries is mainly associated with Streptococcus mutans and the Lactobacillus species. A specific relationship was found between nicotine and S. mutans growth as the presence of nicotine increased S. mutans biofilm formation. Nicotine is able to increase the number of S. mutans and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis. Among the widely used herbs and spices is cinnamon which demonstrated a strong antibacterial activity against a wide variety of bacteria including S. mutans and showed the ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. Cinnamon essential oil, obtained from the leaves of C. zeylanicum, has been demonstrated to be effective against S. mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, which are partially responsible for dental plaque formation and caries development. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of nicotine exposure on the inhibitory effects of cinnamon water extract on S. mutans biofilm formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A 24-h culture of S. mutans UA159 in microtiter plates was treated with varying nicotine concentrations (0-32?mg/ml) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose (TSBS) with or without a standardized concentration (2.5?mg/ml) of cinnamon water extract. A spectrophotometer was used to determine total growth absorbance and planktonic growth. The microtiter plate wells were washed, fixed and stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. RESULTS:The presence of 2.5?mg/ml cinnamon water extract inhibits nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation from 34 to 98% at different concentrations of nicotine (0-32?mg/ml). CONCLUSION:The results demonstrated nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation is decreased from 34 to 98% in the presence of 2.5?mg/ml cinnamon water extract. This provides further evidence about the biofilm inhibitory properties of cinnamon water extract and reconfirms the harmful effects of nicotine.
Project description:Dermatophytes are responsible for a majority of fungal infections in humans and other vertebrates, causing dermatophytosis. Treatment failures are often associated with biofilm formation, making dermatophytes resistant to antifungals. In this study, effects of a rhamnolipid (RL-SS14) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SS14 on planktonic cells of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, their biofilm formation, and disruption of mature biofilms were assessed. The composition of RL-SS14 was analysed using FTIR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and GC-MS. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against the planktonic forms of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were 0.5?mg/mL and 0.125?mg/mL, respectively. Crystal-violet (biofilm biomass) and safranin (extracellular matrix) staining revealed that RL-SS14 significantly inhibited biofilm formation and also reduced preformed biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. Microscopic visualization of treated biofilms via SEM, AFM, and CLSM revealed marked morphological damage, cell death, and reduced extracellular matrix. The results indicate the potential of RL-SS14 as an anti-biofilm agent against dermatophytes.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans is considered the most relevant bacteria in the transition of non-pathogenic commensal oral microbiota to biofilms which contribute to the dental caries process. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a natural plant product, cinnamaldehyde against S. mutans biofilms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), and growth curves were determined to assess its antimicrobial effect against planktonic S. mutans. The biofilm biomass and metabolism with different concentrations of cinnamaldehyde and different incubation time points were assessed using the crystal violet and MTT assays. The biofilms were visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, aggregation, acid production, and acid tolerance were evaluated after cinnamaldehyde treatment. The gene expression of virulence-related factors (gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, comDE, vicR, ciaH, ldh and relA) was investigated by real-time PCR. The MIC and MBC of cinnamaldehyde against planktonic S. mutans were 1000 and 2000 ?g/mL, respectively. The results showed that cinnamaldehyde can decrease biofilm biomass and metabolism at sub-MIC concentrations. CLSM images revealed that the biofilm-covered surface areas decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde increased cell surface hydrophobicity, reduced S. mutans aggregation, inhibited acid production, and acid tolerance. Genes expressions in the biofilms were down-regulated in the presence of cinnamaldehyde. Therefore, our data demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde at sub-MIC level suppressed the microbial activity on S. mutans biofilm by modulating hydrophobicity, aggregation, acid production, acid tolerance, and virulence gene expression.
Project description:Infection is one of the most prevalent causes for dental implant failure. We have developed a novel antimicrobial peptide coating on titanium by immobilizing the antimicrobial peptide GL13K. GL13K was developed from the human salivary protein BPIFA2. The peptide exhibited MIC of 8 µg/ml against planktonic Pseudonomas aeruginosa and their biofilms were reduced by three orders of magnitude with 100 µg/ml GL13K. This peptide concentration also killed 100% of Streptococcus gordonii. At 1 mg/ml, GL13K caused less than 10% lysis of human red blood cells, suggesting low toxicity to mammalian cells. Our GL13K coating has also previously showed bactericidal effect and inhibition of biofilm growth against peri-implantitis related pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. The GL13K coating was cytocompatible with human fibroblasts and osteoblasts. However, the bioactivity of antimicrobial coatings has been commonly tested under (quasi)static culture conditions that are far from simulating conditions for biofilm formation and growth in the oral cavity. Oral salivary flow over a coating is persistent, applies continuous shear forces, and supplies sustained nutrition to bacteria. This accelerates bacteria metabolism and biofilm growth. In this work, the antimicrobial effect of the coating was tested against Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer that provides attachment for the biofilm accretion by P. gingivalis, using a drip-flow biofilm bioreactor with media flow rates simulating salivary flow. The GL13K peptide coatings killed bacteria and prevented formation and growth of S. gordonii biofilms in the drip-flow bioreactor and under regular mild-agitation conditions. Surprisingly the interaction of the bacteria with the GL13K peptide coatings ruptured the cell wall at their septum or polar areas leaving empty shell-like structures or exposed protoplasts. The cell wall rupture was not detected under regular culture conditions, suggesting that cell wall rupture induced by GL13K peptides also requires media flow and possible attendant biological sequelae of the conditions in the bioreactor.
Project description:Polymicrobial biofilms play important roles in oral and systemic infections. The oral plaque bacterium Streptococcus gordonii is known to attach to the hyphal cell wall of the fungus Candida albicans to form corn-cob like structures in biofilms. However, the role of C. albicans in formation of polymicrobial biofilms is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the role of C. albicans transcription factors in regulation of polymicrobial biofilms and antibiotic tolerance of S. gordonii. The proteins secreted by C. albicans and S. gordonii in mixed planktonic cultures were determined using mass spectrometry. Antibiotic tolerance of S. gordonii to ampicillin and erythromycin was determined in mixed cultures and mixed biofilms with C. albicans. Additionally, biofilm formation of S. gordonii with C. albicans knock-out mutants of 45 transcription factors that affect cell wall integrity, filamentous growth and biofilm formation was determined. Furthermore, these mutants were also screened for antibiotic tolerance in mixed biofilms with S. gordonii. Analysis of secreted proteomes resulted in the identification of proteins being secreted exclusively in mixed cultures. Antibiotic testing showed that S. gordonii had significantly increased survival in mixed planktonic cultures with antibiotics as compared to single cultures. C. albicans mutants of transcription factors Sfl2, Brg1, Leu3, Cas5, Cta4, Tec1, Tup1, Rim101 and Efg1 were significantly affected in mixed biofilm formation. Also mixed biofilms of S. gordonii with mutants of C. albicans transcription factors, Tec1 and Sfl2, had significantly reduced antibiotic tolerance as compared to control cultures. Our data indicates that C. albicans may have an important role in mixed biofilm formation as well as antibiotic tolerance of S. gordonii in polymicrobial biofilms. C. albicans may play a facilitating role than being just an innocent bystander in oral biofilms and infections.
Project description:Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated disease that occurs when acidogenic/aciduric bacteria obtain an ecological advantage over commensal species. In previous studies, the effects of the antimicrobial peptide GH12 on planktonic bacteria and monospecies biofilms were confirmed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of GH12 on a cariogenic multispecies biofilm and to preliminarily explain the mechanism. In this biofilm model, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 70061 was the representative of cariogenic bacteria, while Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 35105 and Streptococcus sanguinis JCM 5708 were selected as healthy microbiota. The results showed that GH12 was more effective in suppressing S. mutans than the other two species, with lower MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values among diverse type strains and clinical isolated strains. Therefore, GH12, at no more than 8 mg/liter, was used to selectively suppress S. mutans in the multispecies biofilm. GH12 at 4 mg/liter and 8 mg/liter reduced the cariogenic properties of the multispecies biofilm in biofilm formation, glucan synthesis, and lactic acid production. In addition, GH12 suppressed S. mutans within the multispecies biofilm and changed the bacterial composition. Furthermore, 8 mg/liter GH12 showed a selective bactericidal impact on S. mutans, and GH12 promoted hydrogen peroxide production in S. sanguinis and S. gordonii, which improved their ecological advantages. In conclusion, GH12 inhibited the cariogenic properties and changed the composition of the multispecies biofilm through a two-part mechanism by which GH12 directly suppressed the growth of S. mutans as well as enhanced the ecological competitiveness of S. sanguinis and S. gordonii IMPORTANCE Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases worldwide, with substantial economic and quality-of-life impacts. Streptococcus mutans has been considered the principal pathogen of dental caries. To combat dental caries, an antimicrobial peptide, GH12, was designed, and its antibacterial effects on planktonic S. mutans and the monospecies biofilm were confirmed. As etiological concepts of dental caries evolved to include microecosystems, the homeostasis between pathogenic and commensal bacteria and a selective action on cariogenic virulence have increasingly become the focus. The novelty of this research was to study the effects of the antimicrobial peptides on a controlled cariogenic multispecies biofilm model. Notably, the role of an antimicrobial agent in regulating interspecific competition and composition shifts within this multispecies biofilm was investigated. With promising antibacterial and antibiofilm properties, the use of GH12 might be of importance in preventing and controlling caries and other dental infections.
Project description:Viridans streptococci, which include Streptococcus gordonii, are pioneer oral bacteria that initiate dental plaque formation. Sessile bacteria in a biofilm exhibit a mode of growth that is distinct from that of planktonic bacteria. Biofilm formation of S. gordonii Challis was characterized using an in vitro biofilm formation assay on polystyrene surfaces. The same assay was used as a nonbiased method to screen isogenic mutants generated by Tn916 transposon mutagenesis for defective biofilm formation. Biofilms formed optimally when bacteria were grown in a minimal medium under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation was affected by changes in pH, osmolarity, and carbohydrate content of the growth media. Eighteen biofilm-defective mutants of S. gordonii Challis were identified based on Southern hybridization with a Tn916-based probe and DNA sequences of the Tn916-flanking regions. Molecular analyses of these mutants showed that some of the genes required for biofilm formation are involved in signal transduction, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and adhesion. These characteristics are associated with quorum sensing, osmoadaptation, and adhesion functions in oral streptococci. Only nine of the biofilm-defective mutants had defects in genes of known function, suggesting that novel aspects of bacterial physiology may play a part in biofilm formation. Further identification and characterization of biofilm-associated genes will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation of oral streptococci.
Project description:Cell-to-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS) leads to biofilm formation and causing other virulence factors which are extreme problems for food safety, biofilm related infectious diseases etc. This study evaluated the anti-QS activity of the Amomum tsaoko extract (0.5-4 mg/ml) by using Chromobacterium violaceum a biosensor strain and biofilm formation by crystal violate assay. Experimental results demonstrated that the overall yield of Amomum tsao-ko extract was 11.33 ± 0.3% (w/w). MIC for Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive), Salmonella Typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative) was 1, 2 and 2 mg/ml, respectively. A concentration of 4 mg/ml extract showed highest biofilm inhibition 51.96% on S. Typhimurium when 47.06%, 45.28% were shown by S. aureus, P. aeruginosa respectively. The damage of biofilm architecture was observed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). A level of 44.59% inhibition of violacein production was demonstrated when the dose was 4 mg/ml. Swarming motility inhibition was observed in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, the treatment of A. tsaoko extract can deliver value to food product and medicine by controlling pathogenesis.
Project description:Oral streptococci such as Streptococcus gordonii are facultative anaerobes that initiate biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. An isolated S. gordonii::Tn917-lac biofilm-defective mutant contained a transposon insertion in an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a homolog of NosX of Ralstonia eutropha, a putative maturation factor of nitrous oxide reductase. Located downstream are two genes, qor1 and qor2, predicted to encode two putative NADPH quinone oxidoreductases. These three genes are cotranscribed, forming a putative oxidative stress response (osr) operon in S. gordonii. Inactivation of nosX, qor1, or qor2 resulted in biofilm-defective phenotypes. Expression of nosX, measured by the beta-galactosidase activity of the nosX::Tn917-lac mutant, was growth-phase dependent and enhanced when grown under aerobic conditions or in the presence of paraquat. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed that nosX-specific mRNA levels were increased approximately 8.4 and 3.5 fold in biofilm-derived cells grown on plastic and glass, respectively, when compared to planktonic cells. Expression of nosX increased 19.9 fold in cells grown under aerated aerobic conditions and 4.7 fold in cells grown under static aerobic conditions. Two ORFs immediately adjacent to the osr operon encode a putative NADH oxidase (Nox) and a putative thiol-specific antioxidant enzyme (AhpC, for alkyl hydroperoxide peroxidase C). Expression of nox and ahpC was also significantly increased in cells grown under aerated and static aerobic conditions when compared to anaerobic conditions. In addition, nox expression was increased in biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. These genes may be part of an island that deals with oxidoreductive response, some of which may be important in S. gordonii biofilm formation.
Project description:Bacterial biofilms and their associated infections are a continuing problem in the healthcare community. Previous approaches utilizing anti-biofilm coatings suffer from short lifetimes, and their applications are limited to surfaces. In this research, we explored a new approach to biofilm prevention based on the hypothesis that changing planktonic bacteria behavior to result in sub-optimal biofilm formation. The behavior of planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to a cationic polymer was characterized for changes in growth behavior and aggregation behavior, and linked to resulting P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, biomass, viability, and metabolic activity. The incubation of P. aeruginosa planktonic bacteria with a cationic polymer resulted in the aggregation of planktonic bacteria, and a reduction in biofilm development. We propose that cationic polymers may sequester planktonic bacteria away from surfaces, thereby preventing their attachment and suppressing biofilm formation.