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Nep1-like proteins from three kingdoms of life act as a microbe-associated molecular pattern in Arabidopsis.

ABSTRACT: Necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLPs) are secreted by a wide range of plant-associated microorganisms. They are best known for their cytotoxicity in dicot plants that leads to the induction of rapid tissue necrosis and plant immune responses. The biotrophic downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis encodes 10 different noncytotoxic NLPs (HaNLPs) that do not cause necrosis. We discovered that these noncytotoxic NLPs, however, act as potent activators of the plant immune system in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ectopic expression of HaNLP3 in Arabidopsis triggered resistance to H. arabidopsidis, activated the expression of a large set of defense-related genes, and caused a reduction of plant growth that is typically associated with strongly enhanced immunity. N- and C-terminal deletions of HaNLP3, as well as amino acid substitutions, pinpointed to a small central region of the protein that is required to trigger immunity, indicating the protein acts as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP). This was confirmed in experiments with a synthetic peptide of 24 aa, derived from the central part of HaNLP3 and corresponding to a conserved region in type 1 NLPs that induces ethylene production, a well-known MAMP response. Strikingly, corresponding 24-aa peptides of fungal and bacterial type 1 NLPs were also able to trigger immunity in Arabidopsis. The widespread phylogenetic distribution of type 1 NLPs makes this protein family (to our knowledge) the first proteinaceous MAMP identified in three different kingdoms of life.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC4250136 | BioStudies | 2014-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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