Intracellular Na+ overload causes oxidation of CaMKII and leads to Ca2+ mishandling in isolated ventricular myocytes.
ABSTRACT: An increase of late Na(+) current (INaL) in cardiac myocytes can raise the cytosolic Na(+) concentration and is associated with activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and Ca(2+) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). We tested the hypothesis that augmentation of INaL can increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidation of CaMKII, resulting in spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release and increased diastolic Ca(2+) in myocytes. Increases of INaL and/or of the cytosolic Na(+) concentration led to mitochondrial ROS production and oxidation of CaMKII to cause dysregulation of Ca(2+) handling in rabbit cardiac myocytes.
Project description:In heart failure Ca/calmodulin kinase (CaMK)II expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased. Both ROS and CaMKII can increase late I(Na) leading to intracellular Na accumulation and arrhythmias. It has been shown that ROS can activate CaMKII via oxidation.We tested whether CaMKII? is required for ROS-dependent late I(Na) regulation and whether ROS-induced Ca released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is involved.40 ?mol/L H(2)O(2) significantly increased CaMKII oxidation and autophosphorylation in permeabilized rabbit cardiomyocytes. Without free [Ca](i) (5 mmol/L BAPTA/1 mmol/L Br(2)-BAPTA) or after SR depletion (caffeine 10 mmol/L, thapsigargin 5 ?mol/L), the H(2)O(2)-dependent CaMKII oxidation and autophosphorylation was abolished. H(2)O(2) significantly increased SR Ca spark frequency (confocal microscopy) but reduced SR Ca load. In wild-type (WT) mouse myocytes, H(2)O(2) increased late I(Na) (whole cell patch-clamp). This increase was abolished in CaMKII?(-/-) myocytes. H(2)O(2)-induced [Na](i) and [Ca](i) accumulation (SBFI [sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate] and Indo-1 epifluorescence) was significantly slowed in CaMKII?(-/-) myocytes (versus WT). CaMKII?(-/-) myocytes developed significantly less H(2)O(2)-induced arrhythmias and were more resistant to hypercontracture. Opposite results (increased late I(Na), [Na](i) and [Ca](i) accumulation) were obtained by overexpression of CaMKII? in rabbit myocytes (adenoviral gene transfer) reversible with CaMKII inhibition (10 ?mol/L KN93 or 0.1 ?mol/L AIP [autocamtide 2-related inhibitory peptide]).Free [Ca](i) and a functional SR are required for ROS activation of CaMKII. ROS-activated CaMKII? enhances late I(Na), which may lead to cellular Na and Ca overload. This may be of relevance in hear failure, where enhanced ROS production meets increased CaMKII expression.
Project description:The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of the late Na current (INaL) and its arrhythmogenic potential in the progression of pressure-induced heart disease. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was used to induce pressure overload in mice. After one week the hearts developed isolated hypertrophy with preserved systolic contractility. In patch-clamp experiments both, INaL and the action potential duration (APD90) were unchanged. In contrast, after five weeks animals developed heart failure with prolonged APDs and slowed INaL decay time which could be normalized by addition of the INaL inhibitor ranolazine (Ran) or by the Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor AIP. Accordingly the APD90 could be significantly abbreviated by Ran, tetrodotoxin and the CaMKII inhibitor AIP. Isoproterenol increased the number of delayed afterdepolarizations (DAD) in myocytes from failing but not sham hearts. Application of either Ran or AIP prevented the occurrence of DADs. Moreover, the incidence of triggered activity was significantly increased in TAC myocytes and was largely prevented by Ran and AIP. Western blot analyses indicate that increased CaMKII activity and a hyperphosphorylation of the Nav1.5 at the CaMKII phosphorylation site (Ser571) paralleled our functional observations five weeks after TAC surgery. In pressure overload-induced heart failure a CaMKII-dependent augmentation of INaL plays a crucial role in the AP prolongation and generation of cellular arrhythmogenic triggers, which cannot be found in early and still compensated hypertrophy. Inhibition of INaL and CaMKII exerts potent antiarrhythmic effects and might therefore be of potential therapeutic interest. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes".
Project description:In heart failure (HF), abnormal myocyte Ca(2+) handling has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between Ca(2+) handling, reduced myocyte contractility, and enhanced arrhythmogenesis during HF progression in a canine model of non-ischaemic HF.Key Ca(2+) handling parameters were determined by measuring cytosolic and intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) [Ca(2+)] in isolated ventricular myocytes at different stages of HF. The progression of HF was associated with an early and continuous increase in ryanodine receptor (RyR2)-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak. The increase in RyR2 activity was paralleled by an increase in the frequency of diastolic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCWs) in HF myocytes under conditions of ?-adrenergic stimulation. In addition to causing arrhythmogenic-delayed afterdepolarizations, SCWs decreased the amplitude of subsequent electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients by depleting SR Ca(2+). At late stages of HF, Ca(2+) release oscillated essentially independent of electrical pacing. The increased propensity for the generation of SCWs in HF myocytes was attributable to reduced ability of the RyR2 channels to become refractory following Ca(2+) release. The progressive alterations in RyR2 function and Ca(2+) cycling in HF myocytes were associated with sequential modifications of RyR2 by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and thiol oxidation.These findings suggest that destabilized RyR2 activity due to excessive CaMKII phopshorylation and oxidation resulting in impaired post-release refractoriness is a common mechanism involved in arrhythmogenesis and contractile dysfunction in the failing heart.
Project description:Ionizing radiation (IR) is an integral part of modern multimodal anti-cancer therapies. IR involves the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in targeted tissues. This is associated with subsequent cardiac dysfunction when applied during chest radiotherapy. We hypothesized that IR (i.e., ROS)-dependently impaired cardiac myocytes' Ca handling might contribute to IR-dependent cardiocellular dysfunction. Isolated ventricular mouse myocytes and the mediastinal area of anaesthetized mice (that included the heart) were exposed to graded doses of irradiation (sham 4 and 20 Gy) and investigated acutely (after ~1 h) as well as chronically (after ~1 week). IR induced a dose-dependent effect on myocytes' systolic function with acutely increased, but chronically decreased Ca transient amplitudes, which was associated with an acutely unaltered but chronically decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load. Likewise, in vivo echocardiography of anaesthetized mice revealed acutely enhanced left ventricular contractility (strain analysis) that declined after 1 week. Irradiated myocytes showed persistently increased diastolic SR Ca leakage, which was acutely compensated by an increase in SR Ca reuptake. This was reversed in the chronic setting in the face of slowed relaxation kinetics. As underlying cause, acutely increased ROS levels were identified to activate Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Accordingly, CaMKII-, but not PKA-dependent phosphorylation sites of the SR Ca release channels (RyR2, at Ser-2814) and phospholamban (at Thr-17) were found to be hyperphosphorylated following IR. Conversely, ROS-scavenging as well as CaMKII-inhibition significantly attenuated CaMKII-activation, disturbed Ca handling, and subsequent cellular dysfunction upon irradiation. Targeted cardiac irradiation induces a biphasic effect on cardiac myocytes Ca handling that is associated with chronic cardiocellular dysfunction. This appears to be mediated by increased oxidative stress and persistently activated CaMKII. Our findings suggest impaired cardiac myocytes Ca handling as a so far unknown mediator of IR-dependent cardiac damage that might be of relevance for radiation-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Project description:AIMS:The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study showed reduced mortality and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF) in diabetic patients treated with empagliflozin. Overexpression and Ca2+ -dependent activation of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) are hallmarks of HF, leading to contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias. We tested whether empagliflozin reduces CaMKII- activity and improves Ca2+ -handling in human and murine ventricular myocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS:Myocytes from wild-type mice, mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) as a model of HF, and human failing ventricular myocytes were exposed to empagliflozin (1 ?mol/L) or vehicle. CaMKII activity was assessed by CaMKII-histone deacetylase pulldown assay. Ca2+ spark frequency (CaSpF) as a measure of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak was investigated by confocal microscopy. [Na+ ]i was measured using Na+ /Ca2+ -exchanger (NCX) currents (whole-cell patch clamp). Compared with vehicle, 24 h empagliflozin exposure of murine myocytes reduced CaMKII activity (1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 4.2 ± 0.9, P < 0.05, n = 10 mice), and also CaMKII-dependent ryanodine receptor phosphorylation (0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1, P < 0.05, n = 11 mice), with similar results upon TAC. In murine myocytes, empagliflozin reduced CaSpF (TAC: 1.7 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 1/100 ?m-1 s-1 , P < 0.05, n = 4 mice) but increased SR Ca2+ load and Ca2+ transient amplitude. Importantly, empagliflozin also significantly reduced CaSpF in human failing ventricular myocytes (1 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9, P < 0.05, n = 4 patients), while Ca2+ transient amplitude was increased (F/F0 : 0.53 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.02, P < 0.05, n = 3 patients). In contrast, 30 min exposure with empagliflozin did not affect CaMKII activity nor Ca2+ -handling but significantly reduced [Na+ ]i . CONCLUSIONS:We show for the first time that empagliflozin reduces CaMKII activity and CaMKII-dependent SR Ca2+ leak. Reduced Ca2+ leak and improved Ca2+ transients may contribute to the beneficial effects of empagliflozin in HF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure are characterized by increased late sodium current and abnormal Ca2+ handling. Ranolazine, a selective inhibitor of the late sodium current, can reduce sodium accumulation and Ca 2+ overload. In this study, we investigated the effects of ranolazine on pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS:Inhibition of late sodium current with the selective inhibitor ranolazine suppressed cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and improved heart function assessed by echocardiography, hemodynamics, and histological analysis in mice exposed to chronic pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Ca2+ imaging of ventricular myocytes from TAC mice revealed both abnormal SR Ca 2+ release and increased SR Ca 2+ leak. Ranolazine restored aberrant SR Ca 2+ handling induced by pressure overload. Ranolazine also suppressed Na + overload induced in the failing heart, and restored Na + -induced Ca 2+ overload in an sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX)-dependent manner. Ranolazine suppressed the Ca 2+ -dependent calmodulin (CaM)/CaMKII/myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) and CaM/CaMKII/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) hypertrophy signaling pathways triggered by pressure overload. Pressure overload also prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to ER-initiated apoptosis, while inhibition of late sodium current or NCX relieved ER stress and ER-initiated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrates that inhibition of late sodium current with ranolazine improves pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and systolic and diastolic function by restoring Na+ and Ca 2+ handling, inhibiting the downstream hypertrophic pathways and ER stress. Inhibition of late sodium current may provide a new treatment strategy for cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Project description:Abnormal calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is considered an important trigger of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whereas increased Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity has been proposed to contribute to SR leak and AF induction, downstream targets of CaMKII remain controversial.To test the hypothesis that inhibition of CaMKII-phosphorylated type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) prevents AF initiation in FKBP12.6-deficient (-/-) mice.Mice lacking RyR2-stabilizing subunit FKBP12.6 had a higher incidence of spontaneous and pacing-induced AF compared with wild-type mice. Atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6-/- mice exhibited spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCaWs) leading to Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activation and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). Mutation S2814A in RyR2, which inhibits CaMKII phosphorylation, reduced Ca(2+) spark frequency, SR Ca(2+) leak, and DADs in atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6-/-:S2814A mice compared with FKBP12.6-/- mice. Moreover, FKBP12.6-/-:S2814A mice exhibited a reduced susceptibility to inducible AF, whereas FKBP12.6-/-:S2808A mice were not protected from AF.FKBP12.6 mice exhibit AF caused by SR Ca(2+) leak, Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activation, and DADs, which promote triggered activity. Genetic inhibition of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation prevents AF induction in FKBP12.6-/- mice by suppressing SR Ca(2+) leak and DADs. These results suggest suppression of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation as a potential anti-AF therapeutic target.
Project description:We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta(C) (CaMKII-TG) develop dilated cardiomyopathy associated with increased ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak and lowering of SR Ca(2+) load. We hypothesized that phospholamban (PLN) ablation would restore SR Ca(2+) load and prevent the decreased ventricular contractility, dilation and mortality seen in CaMKII-TG.Our objectives were to generate CaMKII-TG mice lacking PLN, determine whether the maladaptive effects of cardiac CaMKIIdelta(C) expression were corrected, and establish the mechanistic basis for these changes.CaMKII-TG were crossed with PLN knockout (PLN-KO) mice to generate KO/TG mice. Myocytes from wild type (WT), CaMKII-TG, PLN-KO and KO/TG were compared. The decreased SR Ca(2+) load and twitch Ca(2+) transients seen in CaMKII-TG were normalized in KO/TG. Surprisingly the heart failure phenotype was exacerbated, as indicated by increased left ventricular dilation, decreased ventricular function, increased apoptosis and greater mortality. In KO/TG myocytes SR Ca(2+) sparks and leak were significantly increased, presumably because of the combined effects of restored SR Ca(2+) load and RyR2 phosphorylation. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading was increased in cardiomyocytes from KO/TG versus WT or CaMKII-TG mice and this was dependent on elevated SR Ca(2+) sparks. Cardiomyocytes from KO/TG showed poor viability, improved by inhibiting SR Ca(2+) release and mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading.Normalizing cardiomyocyte SR Ca(2+) loading in the face of elevated CaMKII and RyR2 phosphorylation leads to enhanced SR Ca(2+) leak and mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, associated with exacerbated cell death, heart failure and mortality.
Project description:Cardiac mitochondria can take up Ca(2+), competing with Ca(2+) transporters like the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase. Rapid mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] transients have been reported to be synchronized with normal cytosolic [Ca(2+)](i) transients. However, most intra-mitochondrial free [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](mito)) measurements have been uncalibrated, and potentially contaminated by non-mitochondrial signals. Here we measured calibrated [Ca(2+)](mito) in single rat myocytes using the ratiometric Ca(2+) indicator fura-2 AM and plasmalemmal permeabilization by saponin (to eliminate cytosolic fura-2). The steady-state [Ca(2+)](mito) dependence on [Ca(2+)](i) (with 5 mM EGTA) was sigmoid with [Ca(2+)](mito)<[Ca(2+)](i) for [Ca(2+)](i) below 475 nM. With low [EGTA] (50 microM) and 150 nM [Ca(2+)](i) (+/-15 mM Na(+)) cyclical spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release occurred (5-15/min). Changes in [Ca(2+)](mito) during individual [Ca(2+)](i) transients were small ( approximately 2-10 nM/beat), but integrated gradually to steady-state. Inhibition SR Ca(2+) handling by thapsigargin, 2 mM tetracaine or 10 mM caffeine all stopped the progressive rise in [Ca(2+)](mito) and spontaneous Ca(2+) transients (confirming that SR Ca(2+) releases caused the [Ca(2+)](mito) rise). Confocal imaging of local [Ca(2+)](mito) (using rhod-2) showed that [Ca(2+)](mito) rose rapidly with a delay after SR Ca(2+) release (with amplitude up to 10 nM), but declined much more slowly than [Ca(2+)](i) (time constant 2.8+/-0.7 s vs. 0.19+/-0.06 s). Total Ca(2+) uptake for larger [Ca(2+)](mito) transients was approximately 0.5 micromol/L cytosol (assuming 100:1 mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering), consistent with prior indirect estimates from [Ca(2+)](i) measurements, and corresponds to approximately 1% of the SR Ca(2+) uptake during a normal Ca(2+) transient. Thus small phasic [Ca(2+)](mito) transients and gradually integrating [Ca(2+)](mito) signals occur during repeating [Ca(2+)](i) transients.
Project description:Increased cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR)-dependent diastolic SR Ca leak is present in heart failure and in conditions when adrenergic tone is high. Increasing Ca leak from the SR could result in spontaneous Ca wave (SCaW) formation. SCaWs activate the inward Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) current causing a delayed afterdepolarization (DAD), potentially leading to arrhythmia. Here we examine SCaWs in ventricular myocytes isolated from failing and healthy rabbit hearts. Myocytes from healthy hearts did not exhibit SCaWs under baseline conditions versus 43% of those exposed to isoproterenol (ISO). This ISO-induced increase in activity was reversed by inhibition of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by KN93. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by H89 had no observed effect. Of myocytes treated with forskolin 50% showed SCaW activity, attributable to a large increase in SR Ca load ([Ca](SRT)) versus control. At similar [Ca](SRT) (121muM) myocytes treated with ISO plus KN93 had significantly fewer SCaWs versus those treated with ISO or ISO plus H89 (0.2+/-0.28 vs. 1.1+/-0.28 and 1.29+/-0.39 SCaWs cell(-)(1), respectively). In myocytes isolated from failing hearts ISO induced an increase in the percentage of cells generating SCaWs vs. baseline (74% vs. 11%) with no increase in [Ca](SRT). Inhibiting CaMKII reversed this effect (14%). At similar [Ca](SRT) (71microM) myocytes treated with ISO or ISO plus H89 had significantly more SCaWs per cell vs. untreated (2.5+/-0.5; 1.6+/-0.7 vs. 0.36+/-0.3, respectively). Treatment with ISO plus KN93 completely abolished this effect. The evidence suggests the ISO-dependent increase in SCaW activity in both healthy and failing myocytes is CaMKII-dependent, implicating CaMKII in arrhythmogenesis.