Pharmacokinetics on a microscale: visualizing Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide release from poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) nanocapsules in cells.
ABSTRACT: For successful design of a nanoparticulate drug delivery system, the fate of the carrier and cargo need to be followed. In this work, we fluorescently labeled poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanocapsules as a shell and separately an oligonucleotide (20 mer) as a payload. The nanocapsules were formed by interfacial anionic polymerization on aqueous droplets generated by an inverse miniemulsion process. After uptake, the PBCA capsules were shown to be round-shaped, endosomal structures and the payload was successfully released. Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides accumulated at the mitochondrial membrane due to a combination of the high mitochondrial membrane potential and the specific molecular structure of Cy5. The specificity of this accumulation at the mitochondria was shown as the uncoupler dinitrophenol rapidly diminished the accumulation of the Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide. Importantly, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer investigation showed that the dye-labeled cargo (Cy3/Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides) reached its target site without degradation during escape from an endosomal compartment to the cytoplasm. The time course of accumulation of fluorescent signals at the mitochondria was determined by evaluating the colocalization of Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides and mitochondrial markers for up to 48 hours. As oligonucleotides are an ideal model system for small interfering RNA PBCA nanocapsules demonstrate to be a versatile delivery platform for small interfering RNA to treat a variety of diseases.
Project description:Gold-coated liposomes are maneuvered using an optical trap to achieve precise delivery of encapsulated molecular cargo. Movement and payload release from these plasmon resonant nanocapsules are independently controlled using a pulsed trapping beam. This technology enables in vitro delivery of a payload to a selected cell and may be applied to the interrogation of individual cells within their biological microenvironment.
Project description:Nanocapsules can efficiently encapsulate therapeutic cargo for anticancer drug delivery. However, the controlled release of the payload remains a challenge for effective drug delivery.We used dithiocarbamate-functionalized PAMAM dendrimer to cross-link the shell of arginine gold nanoparticles stabilized nanocapsule, and controlled the drug release from the nanocapsule. The ability of cross-linked nanocapsule to deliver hydrophobic paclitaxel to B16F10 cells was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo.Cross-linked nanocapsule possesses tunable stability and modular permeability, and can deliver paclitaxel with improved anticancer efficiency compared with free drug both in vitro and in vivo.Dithiocarbamate chemistry provides a new tool to harness multifactorial colloidal self-assembly for controlled drug delivery for cancer therapy.
Project description:DNA nanotechnology provides a toolbox for creating custom and precise nanostructures with nanometer-level accuracy. These nano-objects are often static by nature and serve as versatile templates for assembling various molecular components in a user-defined way. In addition to the static structures, the intrinsic programmability of DNA nanostructures allows the design of dynamic devices that can perform predefined tasks when triggered with external stimuli, such as drug delivery vehicles whose cargo display or release can be triggered with a specified physical or chemical cue in the biological environment. Here, we present a DNA origami nanocapsule that can be loaded with cargo and reversibly opened and closed by changing the pH of the surrounding solution. Moreover, the threshold pH value for opening/closing can be rationally designed. We characterize the reversible switching and a rapid opening of "pH-latch"-equipped nanocapsules using Förster resonance energy transfer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the full cycle of capsule loading, encapsulation, and displaying the payload using metal nanoparticles and functional enzymes as cargo mimics at physiologically relevant ion concentrations.
Project description:The fluorescent intensity of Cy3 and Cy5 dyes is strongly dependent on the nucleobase sequence of the labeled oligonucleotides. Sequence-dependent fluorescence may significantly influence the data obtained from many common experimental methods based on fluorescence detection of nucleic acids, such as sequencing, PCR, FRET, and FISH. To quantify sequence dependent fluorescence, we have measured the fluorescence intensity of Cy3 and Cy5 bound to the 5' end of all 1024 possible double-stranded DNA 5mers. The fluorescence intensity was also determined for these dyes bound to the 5' end of fixed-sequence double-stranded DNA with a variable sequence 3' overhang adjacent to the dye. The labeled DNA oligonucleotides were made using light-directed, in situ microarray synthesis. The results indicate that the fluorescence intensity of both dyes is sensitive to all five bases or base pairs, that the sequence dependence is stronger for double- (vs single-) stranded DNA, and that the dyes are sensitive to both the adjacent dsDNA sequence and the 3'-ssDNA overhang. Purine-rich sequences result in higher fluorescence. The results can be used to estimate measurement error in experiments with fluorescent-labeled DNA, as well as to optimize the fluorescent signal by considering the nucleobase environment of the labeling cyanine dye.
Project description:We investigated fluorescence enhancements and lifetime reductions of Cy5 probe molecules at various distances from the deposited silver island film surface using single molecule spectroscopic methods. The proximity of fluorophore molecules to the surface was controlled by alternating layers of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA-biotin) and avidin, followed by binding of Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides to the top of a BSA-biotin layer structure. We observed dramatically varied brightness of fluorophores with distances from metal structures as well with reduced blinking in the presence of silver island films. In addition, distributions of fluorescence lifetimes and apparent emission intensities from individual molecules indicate an inhomogeneous nature of local matrix surface near metallic nanostructures. These studies illustrate the exclusive information that is otherwise hidden in ensemble measurements.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are selectively eliminated by mitophagy. Parkin and PINK1, gene products mutated in familial Parkinson's disease, play essential roles in mitophagy through ubiquitination of mitochondria. Cargo ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin is important to trigger selective autophagy. Although autophagy receptors recruit LC3-labeled autophagic membranes onto damaged mitochondria, how other essential autophagy units such as ATG9A-integrated vesicles are recruited remains unclear. Here, using mammalian cultured cells, we demonstrate that RABGEF1, the upstream factor of the endosomal Rab GTPase cascade, is recruited to damaged mitochondria via ubiquitin binding downstream of Parkin. RABGEF1 directs the downstream Rab proteins, RAB5 and RAB7A, to damaged mitochondria, whose associations are further regulated by mitochondrial Rab-GAPs. Furthermore, depletion of RAB7A inhibited ATG9A vesicle assembly and subsequent encapsulation of the mitochondria by autophagic membranes. These results strongly suggest that endosomal Rab cycles on damaged mitochondria are a crucial regulator of mitophagy through assembling ATG9A vesicles.
Project description:After endocytosis, most cargo enters the pleiomorphic early endosomes in which sorting occurs. As endosomes mature, transmembrane cargo can be sequestered into inwardly budding vesicles for degradation, or can exit the endosome in membrane tubules for recycling to the plasma membrane, the recycling endosome, or the Golgi apparatus. Endosome to Golgi transport requires the retromer complex. Without retromer, recycling cargo such as the MIG-14/Wntless protein aberrantly enters the degradative pathway and is depleted from the Golgi. Endosome-associated clathrin also affects the recycling of retrograde cargo and has been shown to function in the formation of endosomal subdomains. Here, we find that the Caemorhabditis elegans endosomal J-domain protein RME-8 associates with the retromer component SNX-1. Loss of SNX-1, RME-8, or the clathrin chaperone Hsc70/HSP-1 leads to over-accumulation of endosomal clathrin, reduced clathrin dynamics, and missorting of MIG-14 to the lysosome. Our results indicate a mechanism, whereby retromer can regulate endosomal clathrin dynamics through RME-8 and Hsc70, promoting the sorting of recycling cargo into the retrograde pathway.
Project description:Effective gene delivery tools offer the possibility of addressing multiple diseases; current strategies rely on viruses or polyplexes. Encapsulation of DNA within nanoparticles is an attractive alternative method for gene delivery. We investigated the use of our recently developed Logic Gate Nanoparticle for gene delivery. The nanoparticles, composed of a dual pH response random copolymer (poly-?-aminoester ketal-2), can undergo a two-step "in series" response to endosomal pH. The first sep is a hydrophobic-hydrophilic switch, which is followed immediately by rapid degradation. Rapid fragmentation is known to increase cytoplasmic delivery from nanoparticles. Therefore, we hypothesized that our Logic Gate Nanoparticles would enable increased gene delivery and expression relative to nanoparticles that degrade more slowly such as PLGA-based nanoparticles. Passive nanoparticle entry into cells was demonstrated by delivering Cy5-labeled pDNA encoding EGFP into HCT116, a colon carcinoma cell line. Flow cytometry analysis showed that cells are positive for Cy5-DNA-nanoparticles and produced EGFP expression superior to PLGA nanoparticles. Inhibition of V-ATPases using bafilomycin A1 demonstrates that expression of EGFP is dependent on low endosomal pH. The advanced Logic Gate Nanoparticles offer new therapeutic possibilities in gene delivery and other applications where rapid release is important.
Project description:Organelles of the endolysosomal system undergo multiple fission and fusion events to combine sorting of selected proteins to the vacuole with endosomal recycling. This sorting requires a consecutive remodeling of the organelle surface in the course of endosomal maturation. Here we dissect the remodeling and fusion machinery on endosomes during the process of endocytosis. We traced selected GFP-tagged endosomal proteins relative to exogenously added fluorescently labeled ?-factor on its way from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. Our data reveal that the machinery of endosomal fusion and ESCRT proteins has similar temporal localization on endosomes, whereas they precede the retromer cargo recognition complex. Neither deletion of retromer nor the fusion machinery with the vacuole affects this maturation process, although the kinetics seems to be delayed due to ESCRT deletion. Of importance, in strains lacking the active Rab7-like Ypt7 or the vacuolar SNARE fusion machinery, ?-factor still proceeds to late endosomes with the same kinetics. This indicates that endosomal maturation is mainly controlled by the early endosomal fusion and remodeling machinery but not the downstream Rab Ypt7 or the SNARE machinery. Our data thus provide important further understanding of endosomal biogenesis in the context of cargo sorting.
Project description:Small gold nanorods have a significantly large absorption/scattering ratio and are especially beneficial in exploiting photothermal effects, for example in photothermal therapy and remote drug release. This work systematically investigates the influence of growth conditions on the size, growth yield, and stability of small gold nanorods. The silver-assisted seed-mediated growth method was optimized to synthesize stable small gold nanorods with a high growth yield (>85%). Further study on the influence of silver ions on the growth facilitates the growth of small gold nanorods with tunable longitudinal surface plasmon resonance from 613 to 912 nm, with average dimensions of 13-25 nm in length and 5-6 nm in diameter. Moreover, the small gold nanorods were successfully functionalized with thiol-modified hairpin oligonucleotides (hpDNA) labeled with Cy5. Fluorescence intensity measurements show an increase in the presence of target DNA and an enhanced signal/background ratio when the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance of small gold nanorods overlaps with the excitation and emission wavelength of Cy5. This coincides with a reduced fluorescence lifetime of Cy5 in the hairpin structure, indicating surface plasmon resonance-enhanced energy transfer to the small gold nanorods. This study may provide insight on the synthesis and functionalization of small gold nanorods in biomedical sensing and therapy.