Pharmacokinetics on a microscale: visualizing Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide release from poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) nanocapsules in cells.
ABSTRACT: For successful design of a nanoparticulate drug delivery system, the fate of the carrier and cargo need to be followed. In this work, we fluorescently labeled poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanocapsules as a shell and separately an oligonucleotide (20 mer) as a payload. The nanocapsules were formed by interfacial anionic polymerization on aqueous droplets generated by an inverse miniemulsion process. After uptake, the PBCA capsules were shown to be round-shaped, endosomal structures and the payload was successfully released. Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides accumulated at the mitochondrial membrane due to a combination of the high mitochondrial membrane potential and the specific molecular structure of Cy5. The specificity of this accumulation at the mitochondria was shown as the uncoupler dinitrophenol rapidly diminished the accumulation of the Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide. Importantly, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer investigation showed that the dye-labeled cargo (Cy3/Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides) reached its target site without degradation during escape from an endosomal compartment to the cytoplasm. The time course of accumulation of fluorescent signals at the mitochondria was determined by evaluating the colocalization of Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides and mitochondrial markers for up to 48 hours. As oligonucleotides are an ideal model system for small interfering RNA PBCA nanocapsules demonstrate to be a versatile delivery platform for small interfering RNA to treat a variety of diseases.
Project description:Gold-coated liposomes are maneuvered using an optical trap to achieve precise delivery of encapsulated molecular cargo. Movement and payload release from these plasmon resonant nanocapsules are independently controlled using a pulsed trapping beam. This technology enables in vitro delivery of a payload to a selected cell and may be applied to the interrogation of individual cells within their biological microenvironment.
Project description:DNA nanotechnology provides a toolbox for creating custom and precise nanostructures with nanometer-level accuracy. These nano-objects are often static by nature and serve as versatile templates for assembling various molecular components in a user-defined way. In addition to the static structures, the intrinsic programmability of DNA nanostructures allows the design of dynamic devices that can perform predefined tasks when triggered with external stimuli, such as drug delivery vehicles whose cargo display or release can be triggered with a specified physical or chemical cue in the biological environment. Here, we present a DNA origami nanocapsule that can be loaded with cargo and reversibly opened and closed by changing the pH of the surrounding solution. Moreover, the threshold pH value for opening/closing can be rationally designed. We characterize the reversible switching and a rapid opening of "pH-latch"-equipped nanocapsules using Förster resonance energy transfer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the full cycle of capsule loading, encapsulation, and displaying the payload using metal nanoparticles and functional enzymes as cargo mimics at physiologically relevant ion concentrations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nanocapsules can efficiently encapsulate therapeutic cargo for anticancer drug delivery. However, the controlled release of the payload remains a challenge for effective drug delivery.<h4>Materials & methods</h4>We used dithiocarbamate-functionalized PAMAM dendrimer to cross-link the shell of arginine gold nanoparticles stabilized nanocapsule, and controlled the drug release from the nanocapsule. The ability of cross-linked nanocapsule to deliver hydrophobic paclitaxel to B16F10 cells was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Results</h4>Cross-linked nanocapsule possesses tunable stability and modular permeability, and can deliver paclitaxel with improved anticancer efficiency compared with free drug both in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Dithiocarbamate chemistry provides a new tool to harness multifactorial colloidal self-assembly for controlled drug delivery for cancer therapy.
Project description:Nanoparticles (NPs) are used in our everyday life, including as drug delivery vehicles. However, the effects of NPs at the cellular level and their impacts on autophagy are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the NP drug delivery vehicle poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) perturbs redox homeostasis in human epithelial cells, and that the degree of redox perturbation dictates divergent effects of PBCA on autophagy. Specifically, PBCA promoted functional autophagy at low concentrations, whereas it inhibited autophagy at high concentrations. Both effects were completely abolished by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). High concentrations of PBCA inhibited MAP1LC3B/GABARAP lipidation and LC3 flux, and blocked bulk autophagic cargo flux induced by mTOR inhibition. These effects were mimicked by the redox regulator H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. In contrast, low concentrations of PBCA enhanced bulk autophagic cargo flux in a Vps34-, ULK1/2- and ATG13-dependent manner, yet interestingly, without an accompanying increase in LC3 lipidation or flux. PBCA activated MAP kinase signaling cascades in a redox-dependent manner, and interference with individual signaling components revealed that the autophagy-stimulating effect of PBCA required the action of the JNK and p38-MK2 pathways, whose activities converged on the pro-autophagic protein Beclin-1. Collectively, our results reveal that PBCA exerts a dual effect on autophagy depending on the severity of the NP insult and the resulting perturbation of redox homeostasis. Such a dual autophagy-modifying effect may be of general relevance for redox-perturbing NPs and have important implications in nanomedicine.
Project description:Using DNA-microarrays analysis 39 differentially expressed genes were identified in 200 vs. 100 microns biofilms, which might be associated with thickness of S. mutans biofilm. Using DNA-microarrays analysis 29 differentially expressed genes were identified in 400 vs. 100 microns biofilms of S. mutans. 200 vs. 100 microns in depth: The arrays consisted of 1948 70-mer oligonucleotides representing 1960 ORFs from S. mutans UA159 and additional control sequences. The results represent the findings of two independent biological replicate arrays performed with two different RNA samples. In one of the arrays the 100-microns biofilm RNA sample was labeled with Cy5 and the 200-microns biofilm RNA with Cy3, while the second array was reversibly labeled. 400 vs. 100 microns in depth The arrays consisted of 1948 70-mer oligonucleotides representing 1960 ORFs from S. mutans UA159 and additional control sequences. The results represent the findings of three independent biological replicate arrays. In two of the arrays the RNA sample from 100-microns depths biofilm was labeled with Cy5 and the 400-micron - with Cy3, while the third array was reversibly labeled.
Project description:The fluorescent intensity of Cy3 and Cy5 dyes is strongly dependent on the nucleobase sequence of the labeled oligonucleotides. Sequence-dependent fluorescence may significantly influence the data obtained from many common experimental methods based on fluorescence detection of nucleic acids, such as sequencing, PCR, FRET, and FISH. To quantify sequence dependent fluorescence, we have measured the fluorescence intensity of Cy3 and Cy5 bound to the 5' end of all 1024 possible double-stranded DNA 5mers. The fluorescence intensity was also determined for these dyes bound to the 5' end of fixed-sequence double-stranded DNA with a variable sequence 3' overhang adjacent to the dye. The labeled DNA oligonucleotides were made using light-directed, in situ microarray synthesis. The results indicate that the fluorescence intensity of both dyes is sensitive to all five bases or base pairs, that the sequence dependence is stronger for double- (vs single-) stranded DNA, and that the dyes are sensitive to both the adjacent dsDNA sequence and the 3'-ssDNA overhang. Purine-rich sequences result in higher fluorescence. The results can be used to estimate measurement error in experiments with fluorescent-labeled DNA, as well as to optimize the fluorescent signal by considering the nucleobase environment of the labeling cyanine dye.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are selectively eliminated by mitophagy. Parkin and PINK1, gene products mutated in familial Parkinson's disease, play essential roles in mitophagy through ubiquitination of mitochondria. Cargo ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin is important to trigger selective autophagy. Although autophagy receptors recruit LC3-labeled autophagic membranes onto damaged mitochondria, how other essential autophagy units such as ATG9A-integrated vesicles are recruited remains unclear. Here, using mammalian cultured cells, we demonstrate that RABGEF1, the upstream factor of the endosomal Rab GTPase cascade, is recruited to damaged mitochondria via ubiquitin binding downstream of Parkin. RABGEF1 directs the downstream Rab proteins, RAB5 and RAB7A, to damaged mitochondria, whose associations are further regulated by mitochondrial Rab-GAPs. Furthermore, depletion of RAB7A inhibited ATG9A vesicle assembly and subsequent encapsulation of the mitochondria by autophagic membranes. These results strongly suggest that endosomal Rab cycles on damaged mitochondria are a crucial regulator of mitophagy through assembling ATG9A vesicles.
Project description:After endocytosis, most cargo enters the pleiomorphic early endosomes in which sorting occurs. As endosomes mature, transmembrane cargo can be sequestered into inwardly budding vesicles for degradation, or can exit the endosome in membrane tubules for recycling to the plasma membrane, the recycling endosome, or the Golgi apparatus. Endosome to Golgi transport requires the retromer complex. Without retromer, recycling cargo such as the MIG-14/Wntless protein aberrantly enters the degradative pathway and is depleted from the Golgi. Endosome-associated clathrin also affects the recycling of retrograde cargo and has been shown to function in the formation of endosomal subdomains. Here, we find that the Caemorhabditis elegans endosomal J-domain protein RME-8 associates with the retromer component SNX-1. Loss of SNX-1, RME-8, or the clathrin chaperone Hsc70/HSP-1 leads to over-accumulation of endosomal clathrin, reduced clathrin dynamics, and missorting of MIG-14 to the lysosome. Our results indicate a mechanism, whereby retromer can regulate endosomal clathrin dynamics through RME-8 and Hsc70, promoting the sorting of recycling cargo into the retrograde pathway.
Project description:Organelles of the endolysosomal system undergo multiple fission and fusion events to combine sorting of selected proteins to the vacuole with endosomal recycling. This sorting requires a consecutive remodeling of the organelle surface in the course of endosomal maturation. Here we dissect the remodeling and fusion machinery on endosomes during the process of endocytosis. We traced selected GFP-tagged endosomal proteins relative to exogenously added fluorescently labeled ?-factor on its way from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. Our data reveal that the machinery of endosomal fusion and ESCRT proteins has similar temporal localization on endosomes, whereas they precede the retromer cargo recognition complex. Neither deletion of retromer nor the fusion machinery with the vacuole affects this maturation process, although the kinetics seems to be delayed due to ESCRT deletion. Of importance, in strains lacking the active Rab7-like Ypt7 or the vacuolar SNARE fusion machinery, ?-factor still proceeds to late endosomes with the same kinetics. This indicates that endosomal maturation is mainly controlled by the early endosomal fusion and remodeling machinery but not the downstream Rab Ypt7 or the SNARE machinery. Our data thus provide important further understanding of endosomal biogenesis in the context of cargo sorting.
Project description:Cyclodextrin (CD)-based host-guest interactions with adamantane (Ad) have demonstrated use for functionalizing living cells <i>in vitro</i>. The next step in this supramolecular functionalization approach is to explore the concept to deliver chemical cargo to living cells <i>in vivo</i>, e.g., inoculated bacteria, in order to study their dissemination. We validated this concept in two rodent <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> models. Bacteria (1 × 10<sup>8</sup> viable <i>S. aureus</i>) were inoculated by (1) intramuscular injection or (2) intrasplenic injection followed by dissemination throughout the liver. The bacteria were prefunctionalized with <sup>99m</sup>Tc-UBI<sub>29-41</sub>-Ad<sub>2</sub> (primary vector), which allowed us to both determine the bacterial load and create an <i>in vivo</i> target for the secondary host-vector (24 h post-inoculation). The secondary vector, i.e., chemical cargo delivery system, made use of a <sup>111</sup>In-Cy5<sub>0.5</sub>CD<sub>9</sub>PIBMA<sub>39</sub> polymer that was administered intravenously. Bacteria-specific cargo delivery as a result of vector complexation was evaluated by dual-isotope SPECT imaging and biodistribution studies (<sup>111</sup>In), and by fluorescence (Cy5); these evaluations were performed 4 h post-injection of the secondary vector. Mice inoculated with nonfunctionalized <i>S. aureus</i> and mice without an infection served as controls. Dual-isotope SPECT imaging demonstrated that <sup>111</sup>In-Cy5<sub>0.5</sub>CD<sub>9</sub>PIBMA<sub>39</sub> colocalized with <sup>99m</sup>Tc-UBI<sub>29-41</sub>-Ad<sub>2</sub>-labeled bacteria in both muscle and liver. In inoculated muscle, a 2-fold higher uptake level (3.2 ± 1.0%ID/g) was noted compared to inoculation with nonfunctionalized bacteria (1.9 ± 0.4%ID/g), and a 16-fold higher uptake level compared to noninfected muscle (0.2 ± 0.1%ID/g). The hepatic accumulation of the host-vector was nearly 10-fold higher (27.1 ± 11.1%ID/g) compared to the noninfected control (2.7 ± 0.3%ID/g; <i>p</i> < 0.05). Fluorescence imaging of the secondary vector corroborated SPECT-imaging and biodistribution findings. We have demonstrated that supramolecular host-guest complexation can be harnessed to achieve an <i>in vivo</i> cargo delivery strategy, using two different bacterial models in soft tissue and liver. This proof-of-principle study paves a path toward developing innovative drug delivery concepts via cell functionalization techniques.