Bovine herpesvirus glycoprotein D: a review of its structural characteristics and applications in vaccinology.
ABSTRACT: The viral envelope glycoprotein D from bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and -5), two important pathogens of cattle, is a major component of the virion and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of herpesviruses. Glycoprotein D is essential for virus penetration into permissive cells and thus is a major target for virus neutralizing antibodies during infection. In view of its role in the induction of protective immunity, gD has been tested in new vaccine development strategies against both viruses. Subunit, DNA and vectored vaccine candidates have been developed using this glycoprotein as the primary antigen, demonstrating that gD has the capacity to induce robust virus neutralizing antibodies and strong cell-mediated immune responses, as well as protection from clinical symptoms, in target species. This review highlights the structural and functional characteristics of BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and where appropriate, Human herpesvirus gD, as well as its role in viral entry and interactions with host cell receptors. Furthermore, the interactions of gD with the host immune system are discussed. Finally, the application of this glycoprotein in new vaccine design is reviewed, taking its structural and functional characteristics into consideration.
Project description:Several biological characteristics of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) make it a good candidate as a gene delivery vector for vaccination purposes. These characteristics include little or no pathogenicity, unlikely oncogenicity, the capability to accommodate large amounts of foreign genetic material, the ability to infect several cell types coming from different animal species, and the ability to maintain transgene expression in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Starting from BoHV-4 cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), we used MuA transposase-mediated in vitro transposition to generate recombinant BoHV-4 expressing the immunodominant glycoprotein D (gD) of BoHV-1, one of the most important pathogens of cattle. Although a cis-acting element from woodchuck hepatitis virus (the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element [WPRE]) in the 3' end of the gD expression cassette was required for maximal gD expression from plasmids in transient transfection assays, this element was not necessary for efficient expression of gD from recombinant BoHV-4 genomes. BoHV-4 recombinants containing gD expression cassettes with or without the WPRE expressed gD at similarly high levels. Several cell lines originating from different animal species expressed gD when infected with BoHV-4 recombinants. When rabbits were immunized with one of the recombinants, high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies against BoHV-1 were generated. This work is one of the first demonstrations of the use BoHV-4 as a vector for vaccine purposes and may provide the basis for BoHV-1 vaccination of cattle with recombinant BoHV-4.
Project description:Nipah virus (NiV) is an emergent pathogen capable of causing acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis in pigs and humans. A high fatality rate and broad host tropism makes NiV a serious public and animal health concern. There is therefore an urgent need for a NiV vaccines to protect animals and humans. In this study we investigated the immunogenicity of bovine herpesvirus (BoHV-4) vectors expressing either NiV attachment (G) or fusion (F) glycoproteins, BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-G?TK or BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-F?TK, respectively in pigs. The vaccines were benchmarked against a canarypox (ALVAC) vector expressing NiV G, previously demonstrated to induce protective immunity in pigs. Both BoHV-4 vectors induced robust antigen-specific antibody responses. BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-G?TK stimulated NiV-neutralizing antibody titers comparable to ALVAC NiV G and greater than those induced by BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-F?TK. In contrast, only BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-F?TK immunized pigs had antibodies capable of significantly neutralizing NiV G and F-mediated cell fusion. All three vectored vaccines evoked antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses, which were particularly strong in BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-G?TK immunized pigs and to a lesser extent BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-F?TK. These findings emphasize the potential of BoHV-4 vectors for inducing antibody and cell-mediated immunity in pigs and provide a solid basis for the further evaluation of these vectored NiV vaccine candidates.
Project description:Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae, causes a variety of diseases, which result in significant economic losses worldwide. Envelope glycoprotein D (gD) of BoHV-1 plays an important role in viral entry into the permissive cells, and protective immune response. The fine mapping epitope on the gD will contribute to the understanding of viral pathogenesis and development of alternative vaccines against various diseases associated with BoHV-1. We previously reported the preparation of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2B6, which was raised by a truncated recombinant gD protein, demonstrating a neutralizing activity against BoHV-1 infection in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. This study described the identification of a linear B-cell epitope on gD using MAb 2B6. A series of partially overlapping gD proteins with glutathione S-transferase tag were generated to define the epitope recognized by MAb 2B6. The amino acid (aa) sequence 323GEPKPGPSPDADRPE337 was recognized by MAb 2B6 using Western blot with the variedly truncated recombinant proteins. Importantly, this epitope was highly conserved among the typical members of BoHV-1, indicating that the epitope may be utilized in diagnosis of diseases due to BoHV-1 infection. Furthermore, the minimal linear epitope sequence 323GEPKPGP329 on gD recognized by MAb 2B6 was confirmed using single-aa residue deletion mutation in carboxyl terminal. This finding not only contributes to our understanding of gD of BoHV-1 virion but also shows a potential for the development of vaccine candidates and diagnostic techniques.
Project description:Bovine herpesviruses 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) share high genetic and antigenic similarities, but exhibit marked differences in tissue tropism and neurovirulence. The amino-terminal region of glycoprotein C (gC), which is markedly different in each of the viruses, is involved in virus binding to cellular receptors and in interactions with the immune system. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic differences of the 5' region of the gC (5' gC) gene (amino-terminal) of South American BoHV-1 (n=19) and BoHV-5 (n=25) isolates. Sequence alignments of 374 nucleotides (104 amino acids) revealed mean similarity levels of 97.3 and 94.2% among BoHV-1 gC (gC1), respectively, 96.8 and 95.6% among BoHV-5 gC (gC5), and 62 and 53.3% between gC1 and gC5. Differences included the absence of 40 amino acid residues (27 encompassing predicted linear epitopes) scattered throughout 5' gC1 compared to 5' gC5. Virus neutralizing assays testing BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 antisera against each isolate revealed a high degree of cross-neutralization between the viruses, yet some isolates were neutralized at very low titers by heterologous sera, and a few BoHV-5 isolates reacted weakly with either sera. The virus neutralization differences observed within the same viral species, and more pronounced between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, likely reflect sequence differences in neutralizing epitopes. These results demonstrate that the 5' gC region is well conserved within each viral species but is divergent between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, likely contributing to their biological and antigenic differences.
Project description:Bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5) are economically important pathogens, associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, including respiratory and genital disease, reproductive failure and meningoencephalitis. The standard serological assay to diagnose BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections is the virus neutralization test (VNT), a time consuming procedure that requires manipulation of infectious virus. In the present study a highly sensitive and specific single dilution indirect ELISA was developed using recombinant glycoprotein D from BoHV-5 as antigen (rgD5ELISA). Bovine serum samples (n = 450) were screened by VNT against BoHV-5a and by rgD5ELISA. Compared with the VNT, the rgD5ELISA demonstrated accuracy of 99.8%, with 100% sensitivity, 96.7% specificity and coefficient of agreement between the tests of 0.954. The rgD5ELISA described here shows excellent agreement with the VNT and is shown to be a simple, convenient, specific and highly sensitive virus-free assay for detection of serum antibodies to BoHV-5.
Project description:The epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) oncogene is a major target for the immunotherapy of breast cancer. Following up to the therapeutic success achieved with Her-2-targeting monoclonal antibodies, immune-prophylactic approaches directed against Her-2 have also been investigated taking into account, and trying to overcome, Her-2 self-tolerance. Perhaps due to safety (and efficacy) concerns, the least explored anti-Her-2 active immunization strategy so far has been the one relying on viral-vectored vaccine formulations. Taking advantage of the favorable properties of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) in terms of safety and ease of manipulation as well as its previously documented ability to transduce and confer immunogenicity to heterologous antigens, we tested the ability of different recombinant HER-2-BoHV-4 immunogens to 8break tolerance and elicit a protective, anti-mammary tumor antibody response in HER-2 transgenic BALB-neuT mice. All the tested constructs expressed the HER-2 transgenes at high levels and elicited significant cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice upon administration via either DNA vaccination or viral infection. In BALB-neuT mice, instead, only the viral construct expressing the membrane-bound chimeric form of Her-2 protein (BoHV-4-RHuT-gD) elicited a humoral immune response that was more intense and earlier-appearing than that induced by DNA vaccination. In keeping with this observation, two administrations of BoHV-4-RHuT-gD effectively protected BALB-neuT mice from tumor formation, with 50% of vaccinated animals tumor-free after 30 weeks from immunization compared to 100% of animals exhibiting at least one palpable tumor in the case of animals vaccinated with the other BoHV-4-HER-2 constructs.
Project description:Various types of intercellular connections that are essential for communication between cells are often utilized by pathogens. Recently, a new type of cellular connection, consisting of long, thin, actin-rich membrane extensions named tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), has been shown to play an important role in cell-to-cell spread of HIV and influenza virus. In the present report, we show that TNTs are frequently formed by cells infected by an alphaherpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Viral proteins, such as envelope glycoprotein E (gE), capsid protein VP26, and tegument protein Us3, as well as cellular organelles (mitochondria) were detected by immunofluorescence and live-cell imaging of nanotubes formed by bovine primary fibroblasts and oropharynx cells (KOP cells). Time-lapse confocal studies of live cells infected with fluorescently labeled viruses showed that viral particles were transmitted via TNTs. This transfer also occurred in the presence of neutralizing antibodies, which prevented free entry of BoHV-1. We conclude that TNT formation contributes to successful cell-to-cell spread of BoHV-1 and demonstrate for the first time the participation of membrane nanotubes in intercellular transfer of a herpesvirus in live cells.IMPORTANCE Efficient transmission of viral particles between cells is an important factor in successful infection by herpesviruses. Herpesviruses can spread by the free-entry mode or direct cell-to-cell transfer via cell junctions and long extensions of neuronal cells. In this report, we show for the first time that an alphaherpesvirus can also spread between various types of cells using tunneling nanotubes, intercellular connections that are utilized by HIV and other viruses. Live-cell monitoring revealed that viral transmission occurs between the cells of the same type as well as between epithelial cells and fibroblasts. This newly discovered route of herpesviruses spread may contribute to efficient transmission despite the presence of host immune responses, especially after reactivation from latency that developed after primary infection. Long-range communication provided by TNTs may facilitate the spread of herpesviruses between many tissues and organs of an infected organism.
Project description:The RV144 HIV vaccine trial included a recombinant HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) construct fused to a small portion of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) so that the first 40 amino acids of gp120 were replaced by the signal sequence and the first 27 amino acids of the mature form of gD. This region of gD contains most of the binding site for HVEM, an HSV receptor important for virus infection of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. RV144 induced antibodies to HIV that were partially protective against infection, as well as antibodies to HSV. We derived monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from peripheral blood B cells of recipients of the RV144 HIV vaccine and showed that these antibodies neutralized HSV-1 infection in cells expressing HVEM, but not the other major virus receptor, nectin-1. The MAbs mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and mice that received the MAbs and were then challenged by corneal inoculation with HSV-1 had reduced eye disease, shedding, and latent infection. To our knowledge, this is the first description of MAbs derived from human recipients of a vaccine that specifically target the HVEM binding site of gD. In summary, we found that monoclonal antibodies derived from humans vaccinated with the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD (i) neutralized HSV-1 infection in a cell receptor-specific manner, (ii) mediated ADCC, and (iii) reduced ocular disease in virus-infected mice.IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores and neonatal herpes and is a leading cause of blindness. Despite many trials, no HSV vaccine has been approved. Nectin-1 and HVEM are the two major cellular receptors for HSV. These receptors are expressed at different levels in various tissues, and the role of each receptor in HSV pathogenesis is not well understood. We derived human monoclonal antibodies from persons who received the HIV RV144 vaccine that contained the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD fused to HIV gp120. These antibodies were able to specifically neutralize HSV-1 infection in vitro via HVEM. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that HVEM-specific HSV-1 neutralizing antibodies protect mice from HSV-1 eye disease, indicating the critical role of HVEM in HSV-1 ocular infection.
Project description:The complete genome of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) strain V155 has been cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Following electroporation into Escherichia coli strain DH10B, the BoHV-1 BAC was stably propagated over multiple generations of its host. BAC DNA recovered from DH10B cells and transfected into bovine cells produced a cytopathic effect which was indistinguishable from that of the parent virus. Analysis of the replication kinetics of the viral progeny indicated that insertion of the BAC vector into the thymidine kinase gene did not affect viral replication. Specific manipulation of the BAC was demonstrated by deleting the gene encoding glycoprotein E by homologous recombination in DH10B cells facilitated by GET recombination. These studies illustrate that the propagation and manipulation of herpesviruses in bacterial systems will allow for rapid and accurate characterization of BoHV-1 genes. In turn, this will allow for the full utilization of BoHV-1 as a vaccine vector.
Project description:The worldwide prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the shortage of efficient vaccines and novel therapeutic strategies against HSV are widely global concerns. The abundance on the virion and the major stimulus for the virus-neutralizing antibodies makes gD a predominant candidate for cure of HSV infection. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed m27f, targeting to glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV-2, which also has cross-reactivity against HSV-1 gD. It has a high level of neutralizing activity against both HSV-1 and HSV-2, and binds to a highly conserved region (residues 292-297) within the pro-fusion domain of gD. It can effectively block HSV cell-to-cell spread in vitro. The pre- or post-attachment neutralization assay and syncytium formation inhibition assay revealed that m27f neutralizes HSV at the post-binding stage. Moreover, therapeutic administration of m27f completely prevented infection-related mortality of mice challenged with a lethal dose of HSV-2. Our newly identified epitope for the neutralizing antibody would facilitate studies of gD-based HSV entry or vaccine design, and m27f itself demonstrated a high potential for adaptation as a protective or therapeutic drug against HSV.