Alternate deacylating specificities of the archaeal sirtuins Sir2Af1 and Sir2Af2.
ABSTRACT: Sirtuins were originally shown to regulate a wide array of biological processes such as transcription, genomic stability, and metabolism by catalyzing the NAD(+) -dependent deacetylation of lysine residues. Recent proteomic studies have revealed a much wider array of lysine acyl modifications in vivo than was previously known, which has prompted a reevaluation of sirtuin substrate specificity. Several sirtuins have now been shown to preferentially remove propionyl, succinyl, and long-chain fatty acyl groups from lysines, which has changed our understanding of sirtuin biology. In light of these developments, we revisited the acyl specificity of several well-studied archaeal and bacterial sirtuins. We find that the Archaeoglobus fulgidus sirtuins, Sir2Af1 and Sir2Af2, preferentially remove succinyl and myristoyl groups, respectively. Crystal structures of Sir2Af1 bound to a succinylated peptide and Sir2Af2 bound to a myristoylated peptide show how the active site of each enzyme accommodates a noncanonical acyl chain. As compared to its structure in complex with an acetylated peptide, Sir2Af2 undergoes a conformational change that expands the active site to accommodate the myristoyl group. These findings point to both structural and biochemical plasticity in sirtuin active sites and provide further evidence that sirtuins from all three domains of life catalyze noncanonical deacylation.
Project description:Sirtuins are a class of enzymes originally identified as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein lysine deacetylases. Among the seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT1-7, only SIRT1-3 possess efficient deacetylase activity in vitro, whereas SIRT4-7 possess very weak in vitro deacetylase activity. Several sirtuins that exhibit weak deacetylase activity have recently been shown to possess more efficient activity for the removal other acyl lysine modifications, such as succinyl lysine and palmitoyl lysine. Here, we demonstrate that even the well-known deacetylase SIRT2 possesses efficient activity for the removal of long-chain fatty acyl groups. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for the removal of a myristoyl group is slightly higher than that for the removal of an acetyl group. The crystal structure of SIRT2 in complex with a thiomyristoyl peptide reveals that SIRT2 possesses a large hydrophobic pocket that can accommodate the myristoyl group. Comparison of the SIRT2 acyl pocket to those of SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 reveals that the acyl pockets of SIRT1-3 are highly similar, and to a lesser degree, similar to that of SIRT6. The efficient in vitro demyristoylase activity of SIRT2 suggests that this activity may be physiologically relevant and warrants future investigative studies.
Project description:Sirtuins are NAD(+) dependent lysine deacylases involved in many regulatory processes such as control of metabolic pathways, DNA repair and stress response. Modulators of sirtuin activity are required as tools for uncovering the biological function of these enzymes and as potential therapeutic agents. Systematic discovery of such modulators is hampered by the lack of direct and continuous activity assays. The present study describes a novel continuous assay based on the increase of a fluorescence signal subsequent to sirtuin mediated removal of a fluorescent acyl chain from a modified TNF?-derived peptide. This substrate is well recognized by human sirtuins 1-6 and represents the best sirtuin 2 substrate described so far with a kcat/KM-value of 176 000?M(-1)s(-1). These extraordinary substrate properties allow the first determination of Ki-values for the specific Sirt2 inhibitory peptide S2iL5 (600?nM) and for the quasi-universal sirtuin inhibitor peptide thioxo myristoyl TNF? (80?nM).
Project description:Acylation of lysine is an important protein modification regulating diverse biological processes. It was recently demonstrated that members of the human Sirtuin family are capable of catalyzing long chain deacylation, in addition to the well-known NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation activity [Feldman, J. L., Baeza, J., and Denu, J. M. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 31350-31356]. Here we provide a detailed kinetic and structural analysis that describes the interdependence of NAD(+)-binding and acyl-group selectivity for a diverse series of human Sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT3 and SIRT6. Steady-state and rapid-quench kinetic analyses indicated that differences in NAD(+) saturation and susceptibility to nicotinamide inhibition reflect unique kinetic behavior displayed by each Sirtuin and depend on acyl substrate chain length. Though the rate of nucleophilic attack of the 2'-hydroxyl on the C1'-O-alkylimidate intermediate varies with acyl substrate chain length, this step remains rate-determining for SIRT2 and SIRT3; however, for SIRT6, this step is no longer rate-limiting for long chain substrates. Cocrystallization of SIRT2 with myristoylated peptide and NAD(+) yielded a co-complex structure with reaction product 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose, revealing a latent hydrophobic cavity to accommodate the long chain acyl group, and suggesting a general mechanism for long chain deacylation. Comparing two separately determined co-complex structures containing either a myristoylated peptide or 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose indicates there are conformational changes at the myristoyl-ribose linkage with minimal structural differences in the enzyme active site. During the deacylation reaction, the fatty acyl group is held in a relatively fixed position. We describe a kinetic and structural model to explain how various Sirtuins display unique acyl substrate preferences and how different reaction kinetics influence NAD(+) dependence. The biological implications are discussed.
Project description:Sirtuins, a class of enzymes known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes, including aging, transcription, and metabolism. Sirtuins are considered promising targets for treating several human diseases. There are seven sirtuins in humans (Sirt1-7). Small molecules that can target a particular human sirtuin are important for drug development and fundamental studies of sirtuin biology. Here we demonstrate that thiosuccinyl peptides are potent and selective Sirt5 inhibitors. The design of these inhibitors is based on our recent discovery that Sirt5 prefers to catalyze the hydrolysis of malonyl and succinyl groups, rather than an acetyl group, from lysine residues. Furthermore, among the seven human sirtuins, Sirt5 is the only one that has this unique acyl group preference. This study demonstrates that the different acyl group preferences of different sirtuins can be conveniently utilized to develop small molecules that selectively target different sirtuins.
Project description:Sirtuins are pivotal regulators in various cellular processes, including transcription, DNA repair, genome stability, and energy metabolism. Their functions have been generally attributed to NAD-dependent deacetylase activity. However, human SIRT5 (sirtuin 5), which has been reported to exhibit little deacetylase activity, was recently identified as an NAD-dependent demalonylase and desuccinylase. Biochemical studies suggested that the mechanism of SIRT5-catalyzed demalonylation and desuccinylation is similar to that of deacetylation catalyzed by other sirtuins. Previously, we solved the crystal structure of a SIRT5-succinyl-lysine peptide-NAD complex. Here, we present two more structures: a binary complex of SIRT5 with an H3K9 succinyl peptide and a binary complex of SIRT5 with a bicyclic intermediate obtained by incubating SIRT5-H3K9 thiosuccinyl peptide co-crystals with NAD. To our knowledge, this represents the first bicyclic intermediate for a sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation reaction that has been captured in a crystal structure, thus providing unique insights into the reaction mechanism. The structural information should benefit the design of specific inhibitors for SIRT5 and help in exploring the therapeutic potential of targeting sirtuins for treating human diseases.
Project description:Sirtuins are NAD-dependent lysine deacylases that play critical roles in cellular regulation and are implicated in human diseases. Modulators of sirtuins are needed as tools for investigating their biological functions and possible therapeutic applications. However, the discovery of sirtuin modulators is hampered by the lack of efficient sirtuin assays. Here we report an improved fluorogenic assay for SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3 using a new substrate, a myristoyl peptide with a C-terminal aminocoumarin. The new assay has several advantages, including significantly lower substrate concentration needed, increased signal-to-background ratio, and improved Z'-factor. The novel assay thus will expedite high-throughput screening of SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3 modulators.
Project description:Chromatin structure and gene expression are dynamically regulated by posttranslational modifications of histones. Recent advance in mass spectrometry has identified novel types of lysine acylations, such as butyrylation and malonylation, whose functions and regulations are likely different from those of acetylation. Sirtuins, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone deacetylases, catalyze various deacylations. However, it is poorly understood how distinct sirtuins regulate the histone acylation states of nucleosomes that have many lysine residues. Here, we provide mass spectrometry-based quantitative information about the acyl group- and site-selectivity of all human sirtuins on acylated nucleosomes. The acyl group- and site-selectivity of each sirtuin is unique to its subtype. Sirt5 exclusively removes negatively-charged acyl groups, while Sirt1/2/3/6/7 preferentially remove hydrophobic acyl groups; Sirt1 and Sirt3 selectively remove acetyl group more than butyryl group, whereas Sirt2 and Sirt6 showed the opposite selectivity. Investigating site-selectivity for active sirtuins revealed acylated lysines on H4 tails to be poor substrates and acylated H3K18 to be a good substrate. Furthermore, we found Sirt7 to be a robust deacylase of H3K36/37, and its activity reliant on nucleosome-binding at its C-terminal basic region. All together, our quantitative dataset provides a useful resource in understanding chromatin regulations by histone acylations.
Project description:The histone deacetylase (HDAC) family regulates many biological pathways through the deacetylation of lysine residues on histone and nonhistone proteins. Mammals have 18 HDACs that are classified into four classes. Class I, II, and IV are zinc-dependent, while class III is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent lysine deacetylase or sirtuins. HDAC8, a class I HDAC family member, has been shown to have low deacetylation activity compared to other HDACs in vitro. Recent studies showed that several sirtuins, with low deacetylase activities, can actually hydrolyze other acyl lysine modifications more efficiently. Inspired by this, we tested the activity of HDAC8 using a variety of different acyl lysine peptides. Screening a panel of peptides with different acyl lysine modifications, we found that HDAC8 can catalyze the removal of acyl groups with 2-16 carbons from lysine 9 of the histone H3 peptide (H3K9). Interestingly, the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of HDAC8 on octanoyl, dodecanoyl, and myristoyl lysine are several-fold better than that on acetyl lysine. The increased catalytic efficiencies of HDAC8 on larger fatty acyl groups are due to the much lower Km values. T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells treated with a HDAC8 specific inhibitor, PCI-34051, exhibited an increase in global fatty acylation compared to control treatment. Thus, the de-fatty-acylation activity of HDAC8 is likely physiologically relevant. This is the first report of a zinc-dependent HDAC with de-fatty-acylation activity, and identification of HDAC8 de-fatty-acylation targets will help to further understand the function of HDAC8 and protein lysine fatty acylation.
Project description:Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacylases, regulating a variety of cellular processes. The nuclear Sirt1, the cytosolic Sirt2, and the mitochondrial Sirt3 are robust deacetylases, whereas the other sirtuins have preferences for longer acyl chains. Most previous studies investigated sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation on peptide substrates only. We used the genetic code expansion concept to produce natively folded, site-specific, and lysine-acetylated Sirt1-3 substrate proteins, namely Ras-related nuclear, p53, PEPCK1, superoxide dismutase, cyclophilin D, and Hsp10, and analyzed the deacetylation reaction. Some acetylated proteins such as Ras-related nuclear, p53, and Hsp10 were robustly deacetylated by Sirt1-3. However, other reported sirtuin substrate proteins such as cyclophilin D, superoxide dismutase, and PEPCK1 were not deacetylated. Using a structural and functional approach, we describe the ability of Sirt1-3 to deacetylate two adjacent acetylated lysine residues. The dynamics of this process have implications for the lifetime of acetyl modifications on di-lysine acetylation sites and thus constitute a new mechanism for the regulation of proteins by acetylation. Our studies support that, besides the primary sequence context, the protein structure is a major determinant of sirtuin substrate specificity.
Project description:Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins (sirtuins) are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that regulate important biological processes. Mammals have seven sirtuins, Sirt1 to Sirt7. Four of them (Sirt4 to Sirt7) have no detectable or very weak deacetylase activity. We found that Sirt5 is an efficient protein lysine desuccinylase and demalonylase in vitro. The preference for succinyl and malonyl groups was explained by the presence of an arginine residue (Arg(105)) and tyrosine residue (Tyr(102)) in the acyl pocket of Sirt5. Several mammalian proteins were identified with mass spectrometry to have succinyl or malonyl lysine modifications. Deletion of Sirt5 in mice appeared to increase the level of succinylation on carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1, which is a known target of Sirt5. Thus, protein lysine succinylation may represent a posttranslational modification that can be reversed by Sirt5 in vivo.