The crystal structures of apo and cAMP-bound GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum reveal structural and dynamic changes upon cAMP binding in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.
ABSTRACT: The cyclic AMP-dependent transcriptional regulator GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a member of the super-family of CRP/FNR (cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) transcriptional regulators that play central roles in bacterial metabolic regulatory networks. In C. glutamicum, which is widely used for the industrial production of amino acids and serves as a non-pathogenic model organism for members of the Corynebacteriales including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the GlxR homodimer controls the transcription of a large number of genes involved in carbon metabolism. GlxR therefore represents a key target for understanding the regulation and coordination of C. glutamicum metabolism. Here we investigate cylic AMP and DNA binding of GlxR from C. glutamicum and describe the crystal structures of apo GlxR determined at a resolution of 2.5 Å, and two crystal forms of holo GlxR at resolutions of 2.38 and 1.82 Å, respectively. The detailed structural analysis and comparison of GlxR with CRP reveals that the protein undergoes a distinctive conformational change upon cyclic AMP binding leading to a dimer structure more compatible to DNA-binding. As the two binding sites in the GlxR homodimer are structurally identical dynamic changes upon binding of the first ligand are responsible for the allosteric behavior. The results presented here show how dynamic and structural changes in GlxR lead to optimization of orientation and distance of its two DNA-binding helices for optimal DNA recognition.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-type regulator. Although over 200 GlxR-binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the physiological function of GlxR have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR-binding sites. In vitro binding assays and promoter-reporter assays demonstrated that GlxR directly activates expression of genes for aerobic respiration, ATP synthesis, and glycolysis and that it is required for expression of genes for cell separation and mechanosensitive channels. GlxR also directly represses a citrate uptake gene in the presence of citrate. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a mutant with a deletion of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. Thus, GlxR is physiologically functional at the relatively low cAMP levels in the cyaB mutant, allowing the cyaB mutant to grow much better than the glxR mutant.
Project description:A corynebacterial clone, previously isolated by scoring repression of lacZYA fused to the aceB promoter of Corynebacterium glutamicum, was analyzed further. In the clone, an open reading frame designated glxR, consisting of 681 nucleotides and encoding a 24,957-Da protein, was found. The molecular mass of a native GlxR protein was estimated by gel filtration column chromatography to be 44,000 Da, suggesting that the protein formed dimers. The predicted amino acid sequence contained both cyclic AMP (cAMP)- and DNA-binding motifs and was homologous with the cAMP receptor protein family of proteins. The aceB-repressing activity of the glxR clone was markedly relieved in an Escherichia coli cya mutant, but the activity was restored in growth medium containing cAMP. In glucose medium, the intracellular cAMP concentration of C. glutamicum reached 22 nmol/mg of protein in the early exponential phase and then decreased further; but in acetate medium, the intracellular cAMP concentration was only 5 nmol/mg of protein and remained low throughout the growth phase. The expression of glxR was not affected by the carbon source. Binding of purified GlxR to the promoter region of aceB could be demonstrated only in the presence of cAMP. These data suggest that GlxR may form dimers which bind to the aceB promoter region in the presence of cAMP and repress the glyoxylate bypass genes.
Project description:The genes involved in gluconate catabolism (gntP and gntK) in Corynebacterium glutamicum are scattered in the chromosome, and no regulatory genes are apparently associated with them, in contrast with the organization of the gnt operon in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In C. glutamicum, gntP and gntK are essential genes when gluconate is the only carbon and energy source. Both genes contain upstream regulatory regions consisting of a typical promoter and a hypothetical cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) binding region but lack the expected consensus operator region for binding of the GntR repressor protein. Expression analysis by Northern blotting showed monocistronic transcripts for both genes. The expression of gntP and gntK is not induced by gluconate, and the gnt genes are subject to catabolite repression by sugars, such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, as was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Specific analysis of the DNA promoter sequences (PgntK and PgntP) was performed using bifunctional promoter probe vectors containing mel (involved in melanin production) or egfp2 (encoding a green fluorescent protein derivative) as the reporter gene. Using this approach, we obtained results parallel to those from qRT-PCR. An applied example of in vivo gene expression modulation of the divIVA gene in C. glutamicum is shown, corroborating the possible use of the gnt promoters to control gene expression. glxR (which encodes GlxR, the hypothetical CRP protein) was subcloned from the C. glutamicum chromosomal DNA and overexpressed in corynebacteria; we found that the level of gnt expression was slightly decreased compared to that of the control strains. The purified GlxR protein was used in gel shift mobility assays, and a specific interaction of GlxR with sequences present on PgntP and PgntK fragments was detected only in the presence of cAMP.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a homolog of the cAMP receptor protein. Although over 200 GlxR binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the GlxR physiological function have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study comprehensively identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR binding sites. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a deletion mutant of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. To identify the direct GlxR targets, we immunoprecipitated DNA from a strain expressing a Strep-tag II-tagged GlxR-protein using an anti-Strep-tag II antibody. To investigate effect of depletion of cAMP by deletion of the cyaB gene, which encodes the sole adenylate cyclase in C. glutamicum, on GlxR binding in vivo, we immunoprecipitated DNA from a cyaB deletion strain expressing a Strep-tag II-tagged GlxR-protein using an anti-Strep-tag II antibody. Three or more independent biological replicates were generated in both cases.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a homolog of the cAMP receptor protein. Although over 200 GlxR binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the GlxR physiological function have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study comprehensively identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR binding sites. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a deletion mutant of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. Overall design: To identify the direct GlxR targets, we immunoprecipitated DNA from a strain expressing a Strep-tag II-tagged GlxR-protein using an anti-Strep-tag II antibody. To investigate effect of depletion of cAMP by deletion of the cyaB gene, which encodes the sole adenylate cyclase in C. glutamicum, on GlxR binding in vivo, we immunoprecipitated DNA from a cyaB deletion strain expressing a Strep-tag II-tagged GlxR-protein using an anti-Strep-tag II antibody. Three or more independent biological replicates were generated in both cases.
Project description:The central carbon metabolism genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum are under the control of a transcriptional regulatory network composed of several global regulators. It is known that the promoter region of ramA, encoding one of these regulators, interacts with its gene product, RamA, as well as with the two other regulators, GlxR and SugR, in vitro and/or in vivo. Although RamA has been confirmed to repress its own expression, the roles of GlxR and SugR in ramA expression have remained unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of GlxR binding site inactivation on expression of the ramA promoter-lacZ fusion in the genetic background of single and double deletion mutants of sugR and ramA. In the wild-type background, the ramA promoter activity was reduced to undetectable levels by the introduction of mutations into the GlxR binding site but increased by sugR deletion, indicating that GlxR and SugR function as the transcriptional activator and repressor, respectively. The marked repression of ramA promoter activity by the GlxR binding site mutations was largely compensated for by deletions of sugR and/or ramA. Furthermore, ramA promoter activity in the ramA-sugR double mutant was comparable to that in the ramA mutant but was significantly higher than that in the sugR mutant. Taken together, it is likely that the level of ramA expression is dynamically balanced by GlxR-dependent activation and repression by RamA along with SugR in response to perturbation of extracellular and/or intracellular conditions. These findings add multiple regulatory loops to the transcriptional regulatory network model in C. glutamicum.
Project description:The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP, also called catabolite gene activator protein or CAP) plays a key role in metabolic regulation in bacteria and has become a widely studied model allosteric transcription factor. On binding its effector cAMP in the N-terminal domain, CRP undergoes a structural transition to a conformation capable of specific DNA binding in the C-terminal domain and transcription initiation. The crystal structures of Escherichia coli CRP (EcCRP) in the cAMP-bound state, both with and without DNA, are known, although its structure in the off state (cAMP-free, apoCRP) remains unknown. We describe the crystal structure at 2.0A resolution of the cAMP-free CRP homodimer from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)R(v) (MtbCRP), whose sequence is 30% identical with EcCRP, as the first reported structure of an off-state CRP. The overall structure is similar to that seen for the cAMP-bound EcCRP, but the apo MtbCRP homodimer displays a unique level of asymmetry, with a root mean square deviation of 3.5A between all Calpha positions in the two subunits. Unlike structures of on-state EcCRP and other homologs in which the C-domains are asymmetrically positioned but possess the same internal conformation, the two C-domains of apo MtbCRP differ both in hinge structure and in internal arrangement, with numerous residues that have completely different local environments and hydrogen bond interactions, especially in the hinge and DNA-binding regions. Comparison of the structures of apo MtbCRP and DNA-bound EcCRP shows how DNA binding would be inhibited in the absence of cAMP and supports a mechanism involving functional asymmetry in apoCRP.
Project description:The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a burst of cAMP upon infection of macrophages. Bacterial cyclic AMP receptor proteins (CRP) are transcription factors that respond to cAMP by binding at target promoters when cAMP concentrations increase. Rv3676 (CRP(Mt)) is a CRP family protein that regulates expression of genes (rpfA and whiB1) that are potentially involved in M. tuberculosis persistence and/or emergence from the dormant state. Here, the CRP(Mt) homodimer is shown to bind two molecules of cAMP (one per protomer) at noninteracting sites. Furthermore, cAMP binding by CRP(Mt) was relatively weak, entropy driven, and resulted in a relatively small enhancement in DNA binding. Tandem CRP(Mt)-binding sites (CRP1 at -58.5 and CRP2 at -37.5) were identified at the whiB1 promoter (PwhiB1). In vitro transcription reactions showed that CRP1 is an activating site and that CRP2, which was only occupied in the presence of cAMP or at high CRP(Mt) concentrations in the absence of cAMP, is a repressing site. Binding of CRP(Mt) to CRP1 was not essential for open complex formation but was required for transcription activation. Thus, these data suggest that binding of CRP(Mt) to the PwhiB1 CRP1 site activates transcription at a step after open complex formation. In contrast, high cAMP concentrations allowed occupation of both CRP1 and CRP2 sites, resulting in inhibition of open complex formation. Thus, M. tuberculosis CRP has evolved several distinct characteristics, compared with the Escherichia coli CRP paradigm, to allow it to regulate gene expression against a background of high concentrations of cAMP.
Project description:Microbial arsenate respiration can enhance arsenic release from arsenic-bearing minerals--a process that can cause arsenic contamination of water. In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, the arsenate respiration genes (arrAB) are induced under anaerobic conditions with arsenate and arsenite. Here we report how genes that encode anaerobic regulator (arcA and etrA [fnr homolog]) and carbon catabolite repression (crp and cya) proteins affect arsenate respiration in ANA-3. Transcription of arcA, etrA, and crp in ANA-3 was similar in cells grown on arsenate and cells grown under aerobic conditions. ANA-3 strains lacking arcA and etrA showed minor to moderate growth defects, respectively, with arsenate. However, crp was essential for growth on arsenate. In contrast to the wild-type strain, arrA was not induced in the crp mutant in cultures shifted from aerobic to anaerobic conditions containing arsenate. This indicated that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cyclic AMP receptor (CRP) activates arr operon transcription. Computation analysis for genome-wide CRP binding motifs identified a putative binding motif within the arr promoter region. This was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with cAMP-CRP and several DNA probes. Lastly, four putative adenylate cyclase (cya) genes were identified in the genome. One particular cya-like gene was differentially expressed under aerobic versus arsenate respiration conditions. Moreover, a double mutant lacking two of the cya-like genes could not grow with arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor; exogenous cAMP could complement growth of the double cya mutant. It is concluded that the components of the carbon catabolite repression system are essential to regulating arsenate respiratory reduction in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.
Project description:An enzyme of unknown function within the amidohydrolase superfamily was discovered to catalyze the hydrolysis of the universal second messenger, cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The enzyme, which we have named CadD, is encoded by the human pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Although CadD is annotated as an adenosine deaminase, the protein specifically deaminates cAMP to cyclic-3',5'-inosine monophosphate (cIMP) with a kcat/Km of 2.7 ± 0.4 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and has no activity on adenosine, adenine, or 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This is the first identification of a deaminase specific for cAMP. Expression of CadD in Escherichia coli mimics the loss of adenylate cyclase in that it blocks growth on carbon sources that require the cAMP-CRP transcriptional activator complex for expression of the cognate genes. The cIMP reaction product cannot replace cAMP as the ligand for CRP binding to DNA in vitro and cIMP is a very poor competitor of cAMP activation of CRP for DNA binding. Transcriptional analyses indicate that CadD expression represses expression of several cAMP-CRP dependent genes. CadD adds a new activity to the cAMP metabolic network and may be a useful tool in intracellular study of cAMP-dependent processes.