MicroRNA expression profiling in PBMCs: a potential diagnostic biomarker of chronic hepatitis C.
ABSTRACT: The expression levels of miR-16, miR-193b, miR-199a, miR-222, and miR-324 in PBMCs were significantly higher in CHC patients compared with healthy controls and significantly different between CHC patients with HCV genotype 1 (GT-1) and non-genotype-1 (non-GT-1). Multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that patients with high expression levels of the six target miRNAs had an approximately 7.202-fold risk of CHC compared with those with low expression levels of the target miRNAs. We concluded that the expression levels of miR-16, miR-193b, miR-199a, miR-222, and miR-324 target miRNAs in PBMCs of CHC may act as significant risk biomarkers for the development of CHC.
Project description:In a previous microarray study, we identified a subset of micro RNAS (miRNAs), which expression was distinctly higher in atretic than healthy follicles of cattle. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of those miRNAs in granulosa and theca cells during atresia. Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed that miR-21-5p/-3p, miR-150, miR-409a, miR-142-5p, miR-378, miR-222, miR-155, and miR-199a-5p were expressed at higher levels in atretic than healthy follicles (9-17 mm, classified based on steroidogenic capacity). All miRNAs except miR-21-3p and miR-378 were expressed at higher levels in theca than granulosa cells. The expression of 13 predicted miRNA targets was determined in follicular cells by RT-qPCR, revealing downregulation of HIF1A, ETS1, JAG1, VEGFA, and MSH2 in either or both cell types during atresia. Based on increases in miRNA levels simultaneous with decreases in target levels in follicular cells, several predicted miRNA target interactions were confirmed that are putatively involved in follicular atresia, namely miR-199a-5p/miR-155-HIF1A in granulosa cells, miR-155/miR-222-ETS1 in theca cells, miR-199a-5p-JAG1 in theca cells, miR-199a-5p/miR-150/miR-378-VEGFA in granulosa and theca cells, and miR-155-MSH2 in theca cells. These results offer novel insight on the involvement of miRNAs in follicle development by identifying a miRNA target network that is putatively involved in follicle atresia.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Due to the absence of reliable and accurate biomarkers for the early detection of liver malignancy, circulating microRNAs have recently emerged as great candidates for prompt cancer identification. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of liver-specific circulating microRNAs as an accurate non-invasive diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODOLOGY:A total of 165 patients were enrolled in this study and categorized into four main groups: 42 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis, 45 CHC with cirrhosis (LC), 38 HCC with HCV patients, and 40 healthy controls. The expression profiles of seven miRNAs (miR-16, miR-34a, miR-125a, miR-139, miR-145, miR-199a, and miR-221) were analyzed using real-time PCR. RESULTS:Serum levels of miRNA-125a, miRNA-139, miRNA-145, and miRNA199a were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in HCC than in both CHC and LC groups. On the other hand, no significant difference was shown in the expression of miR-16, miR-34a, and miR-221 between the CHC, LC, and HCC groups. MiR-16, miR-34a, and miR-221 were significantly elevated in the HCC group compared to the control group. MiR-34a showed the highest specificity and sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicated that the measurement of serum levels of miR-125a, miR-139, miR-145, and miR-199a can help to differentiate HCC from CHC and LC. Also, miR-16, miR-34a, and miR-221 serum levels would have a prognostic value. MiR-34a had the highest specificity and sensitivity, indicating that it might serve as a novel and potential non-invasive biomarker for HCV-induced HCC.
Project description:Restoration of epicardial coronary blood flow, achieved by early reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), is the guideline recommended to treat patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, despite successful blood restoration, increasing numbers of patients develop left ventricular adverse remodelling (LVAR) and heart failure. Therefore, reliable prognostic biomarkers for LVAR in STEMI are urgently needed. Our aim was to investigate the role of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) and their association with LVAR in STEMI patients following the PPCI procedure. We analysed the expression of circulating miRNAs in blood samples of 56 patients collected at admission and after revascularization (at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h). The associations between miRNAs and left ventricular end diastolic volumes at 6 months were estimated to detect LVAR. miRNAs were also analysed in samples isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human myocardium of failing hearts. Kinetic analysis of miRNAs showed a fast time-dependent increase in miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-193b, miR-499, and miR-320a in STEMI patients compared to controls. Moreover, the expression of miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-324, miR-208, miR-423, miR-522, and miR-545 was differentially expressed even before PPCI in STEMI. Furthermore, the increase in circulating miR-320a and the decrease in its expression in PBMCs were significantly associated with LVAR and correlated with the expression of miR-320a in human failing myocardium from ischaemic origin. In conclusion, we determined the time course expression of new circulating miRNAs in patients with STEMI treated with PPCI and we showed that miR-320a was positively associated with LVAR.
Project description:Staging fibrosis is crucial for the prognosis and to determine the rapid need of treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and C (CHC). The expression of 13 fibrosis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-20a, miR-21, miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-29a, miR-29c, miR-92a, miR-122, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-224) was analyzed in 194 serums and 177 liver biopsies of patients with either CHB or CHC to develop models to diagnose advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis (Metavir F3-F4). In CHB patients, the model (serum miR-122, serum miR-222, platelet count and alkaline phosphatase) was more accurate than APRI and FIB-4 to discriminate in between mild and moderate fibrosis (F1-F2) and F3-F4 (AUC of CHB model: 0.85 vs APRI: 0.70 and FIB-4: 0.81). In CHC patients, the model (hepatic miR-122, hepatic miR-224, platelet count, albumin and alanine aminotransferase) was more accurate than both APRI and FIB-4 to discriminate in between patients with F3-F4 and F1-F2 (AUC of the CHC model?=?0.93 vs APRI: 0.86 and FIB-4: 0.79). Most of the miRNAs tested were differentially expressed in patients with CHB and CHC. In particular, serum miR-122 was 28-fold higher in patients with CHB than in those with CHC. Both CHB and CHC models may help for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis (F3-F4).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Th17 cells are a newly discovered subset of CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells known as key participants in various immune responses and inflammatory conditions including autoimmune diseases. Mi(cro)RNAs are a family of non-coding RNAs that regulate numerous critical immune functions. Immuno-miRNAs modulate cell biological processes in T cells, such as differentiation and function of Th17 cells. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of miR-9-5p, miR-193b-3p, and autoimmunity-related genes during human Th17 cells differentiation.<h4>Methods</h4>Human naïve CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by magnetic cell sorting system (MACS) and their purity was checked by flow-cytometric analysis. Naïve CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells were cultured under Th17-polarizing condition for 6 days. IL- 17 secretion was determined by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Next, the expression levels of miRNAs and putative targets genes were assessed by qRT-PCR at different time points of differentiation.<h4>Results</h4>Our result showed dramatic downregulation of TCF7, MAP3K1, ENTPD1, and NT5E genes during human Th17 differentiation. Polarization also had a significant inducible effect on the expression of miR-9 and miR-193b over differentiation of human Th17 cells. According to our results, miR-9-5p and miR-193b-3p may contribute to Th17 differentiation probably by inhibiting the expression of negative regulators of Th17 differentiation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study confirmed deregulation of TCF7, MAP3K1, ENTPD1, and NT5E genes in Th17 differentiation process and introduced miR-9 and miR-193b as Th17 cell-associated miRNAs, making them good candidates for further investigations.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs capable of inhibiting gene expression post-transcriptionally and expression profiling can provide therapeutic targets and tools for cancer diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor with unknown cause and differentiation status. Here, we profiled miRNA expression of chondrosarcoma, namely clinical samples from human conventional chondrosarcoma tissue, established chondrosarcoma cell lines, and primary non-tumorous adult articular chondrocytes, by miRNA array and quantitative real-time PCR. A wide variety of miRNAs were differently downregulated in chondrosarcoma compared to non-tumorous articular chondrocytes; 27 miRNAs: miR-10b, 23b, 24-1*, 27b, 100, 134, 136, 136*, 138, 181d, 186, 193b, 221*, 222, 335, 337-5p, 376a, 376a*, 376b, 376c, 377, 454, 495, 497, 505, 574-3p, and 660, were significantly downregulated in chondrosarcoma and only 2: miR-96 and 183, were upregulated. We further validated the expression levels of miRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR for miR-181a, let-7a, 100, 222, 136, 376a, and 335 in extended number of chondrosarcoma clinical samples. Among them, all except miR-181a were found to be significantly downregulated in chondrosarcoma derived samples. The findings provide potential diagnostic value and new molecular understanding of chondrosarcoma.
Project description:Ectosomes (Ects) are a subpopulation of extracellular vesicles formed by the process of plasma membrane shedding. In the present study, we profiled ectosome-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and analyzed their pro- and anti-angiogenic potential. Methods: We used different approaches for detecting and enumerating Ects, including atomic force microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Furthermore, we used bioinformatics tools to analyze functional data obtained from specific miRNA enrichment signatures during angiogenesis and vasculature development. Results: Levels of miR-193b-3p, miR-199a-3p, miR-20a-3p, miR-26b-5p, miR-30b-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-374a-5p, miR-409-3p, and miR-95-3p were significantly different between Ects obtained from patients with T2DM and those obtained from healthy controls. Conclusion: Our results showed differences in the abundance of pro- and anti-angiogenic miRNAs in Ects of patients with T2DM, and are suggestive of mechanisms underlying the development of vascular complications due to impaired angiogenesis in such patients.
Project description:Most primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) are diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). However, clinical behavior and prognosis differ considerably from those for nodal DLBCL (nDLBCL), and their pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with cancer development and progression. We investigated a large miRNA panel for differential expression in PCNSL and nDLBCL, to determine new mechanisms potentially involved in PCNSL pathogenesis. Using paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens from 21 HIV-negative patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL (n = 11) and nDLBCL (n= 10), we measured the expression of 365 miRNA species by quantitative real-time PCR using low-density PCR arrays. We found that 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed: median expression levels of 13 miRNAs were 2.1-13.1 times higher in PCNSL, and median expression levels of 5 miRNAs were 2.6-3.3 times higher in nDLBCL. MiRNAs upregulated in PCNSL were associated with the Myc pathway (miR-17-5p, miR-20a, miR-9), with blocking of terminal B-cell differentiation (miR-9, miR-30b/c), or with upregulation by inflammatory cytokines (miR-155). Putative tumor-suppressor miRNAs (miR-199a, miR-214, miR-193b, miR-145) were downregulated in PCNSL. There was no overlap of miRNAs dysregulated in PCNSL with those differentially expressed between immunohistologically defined germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and non-GCB types or, apart from miR-9, with miRNAs known to be overexpressed in human brain. We conclude that PCNSL exhibits a distinct pattern of miRNA expression compared with nDLBCL. This argues for the involvement of different molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of these two lymphoma types.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that can function as gene regulators and are involved in tumorigenesis. We review the commonly dysregulated miRNAs in liver tumor tissues and plasma/serum of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The frequently reported up-regulated miRNAs in liver tumor tissues include miR-18a, miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-224, whereas down-regulated miRNAs include miR-26a, miR-101, miR-122, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-199a, miR-199b, miR-200a, and miR-223. For a subset of these miRNAs (up-regulated miR-222 and miR-224, down-regulated miR-26a and miR-125b), the pattern of dysregulated circulating miRNAs in plasma/serum is mirrored in tumor tissue based on multiple independent studies. Dysregulated miRNAs target oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Normalization of dysregulated miRNAs by up- or down-regulation has been shown to inhibit HCC cell proliferation or sensitize liver cancer cells to chemotherapeutic treatment. miRNAs hold as yet unrealized potential as biomarkers for early detection of HCC and as precision therapeutic targets, but further studies in diverse populations and across all stages of HCC are needed.
Project description:Due to an increasing emergence of new and drug-resistant strains of the influenza A virus (IAV), developing novel measures to combat influenza is necessary. We have previously shown that inhibiting Wnt/?-catenin pathway reduces IAV infection. In this study, we aimed to identify antiviral human microRNAs (miRNAs) that target the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway. Using a miRNA expression library, we identified 85 miRNAs that up-regulated and 20 miRNAs that down-regulated the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway. Fifteen miRNAs were validated to up-regulate and five miRNAs to down-regulate the pathway. Overexpression of four selected miRNAs (miR-193b, miR-548f-1, miR-1-1, and miR-509-1) that down-regulated the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway reduced viral mRNA, protein levels in A/PR/8/34-infected HEK293 cells, and progeny virus production. Overexpression of miR-193b in lung epithelial A549 cells also resulted in decreases of A/PR/8/34 infection. Furthermore, miR-193b inhibited the replication of various strains, including H1N1 (A/PR/8/34, A/WSN/33, A/Oklahoma/3052/09) and H3N2 (A/Oklahoma/309/2006), as determined by a viral reporter luciferase assay. Further studies revealed that ?-catenin was a target of miR-193b, and ?-catenin rescued miR-193b-mediated suppression of IAV infection. miR-193b induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and delayed vRNP nuclear import. Finally, adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of miR-193b to the lung reduced viral load in mice challenged by a sublethal dose of A/PR/8/34. Collectively, our findings suggest that miR-193b represses IAV infection by inhibiting Wnt/?-catenin signalling.