Should chloride-rich crystalloids remain the mainstay of fluid resuscitation to prevent 'pre-renal' acute kidney injury?: con.
ABSTRACT: The high chloride content of 0.9% saline leads to adverse pathophysiological effects in both animals and healthy human volunteers, changes not seen after balanced crystalloids. Small randomized trials confirm that the hyperchloremic acidosis induced by saline also occurs in patients, but no clinical outcome benefit was demonstrable when compared with balanced crystalloids, perhaps due to a type II error. A strong signal is emerging from recent large propensity-matched and cohort studies for the adverse effects that 0.9% saline has on the clinical outcome in surgical and critically ill patients when compared with balanced crystalloids. Major complications are the increased incidence of acute kidney injury and the need for renal replacement therapy, and that pathological hyperchloremia may increase postoperative mortality. However, there are no large-scale randomized trials comparing 0.9% saline with balanced crystalloids. Some balanced crystalloids are hypo-osmolar and may not be suitable for neurosurgical patients because of their propensity to cause brain edema. Saline may be the solution of choice used for the resuscitation of patients with alkalosis and hypochloremia. Nevertheless, there is evidence to suggest that balanced crystalloids cause less detriment to renal function than 0.9% saline, with perhaps better clinical outcome. Hence, we argue that chloride-rich crystalloids such as 0.9% saline should be replaced with balanced crystalloids as the mainstay of fluid resuscitation to prevent 'pre-renal' acute kidney injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both balanced crystalloids and saline are used for intravenous fluid administration in critically ill adults, but it is not known which results in better clinical outcomes. METHODS:In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial conducted in five intensive care units at an academic center, we assigned 15,802 adults to receive saline (0.9% sodium chloride) or balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A) according to the randomization of the unit to which they were admitted. The primary outcome was a major adverse kidney event within 30 days - a composite of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as an elevation of the creatinine level to ?200% of baseline) - all censored at hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever occurred first. RESULTS:Among the 7942 patients in the balanced-crystalloids group, 1139 (14.3%) had a major adverse kidney event, as compared with 1211 of 7860 patients (15.4%) in the saline group (marginal odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.99; conditional odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99; P=0.04). In-hospital mortality at 30 days was 10.3% in the balanced-crystalloids group and 11.1% in the saline group (P=0.06). The incidence of new renal-replacement therapy was 2.5% and 2.9%, respectively (P=0.08), and the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction was 6.4% and 6.6%, respectively (P=0.60). CONCLUSIONS:Among critically ill adults, the use of balanced crystalloids for intravenous fluid administration resulted in a lower rate of the composite outcome of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction than the use of saline. (Funded by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and others; SMART-MED and SMART-SURG ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02444988 and NCT02547779 .).
Project description:Saline, the intravenous fluid most commonly administered to critically ill adults, contains a high chloride content, which may be associated with acute kidney injury and death. Whether using balanced crystalloids rather than saline decreases the risk of acute kidney injury and death among critically ill adults remains unknown.The Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART) is a pragmatic, cluster-level allocation, cluster-level crossover trial being conducted between 1 June 2015 and 30 April 2017 in five intensive care units at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, USA. SMART compares saline (0.9% sodium chloride) with balanced crystalloids (clinician's choice of lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A®). Each intensive care unit is assigned to provide either saline or balanced crystalloids each month, with the assigned crystalloid alternating monthly over the course of the trial. All adults admitted to participating intensive care units during the study period are enrolled and followed until hospital discharge or 30 days after enrollment. The anticipated enrollment is approximately 14,000 patients. The primary outcome is Major Adverse Kidney Events within 30 days-the composite of in-hospital death, receipt of new renal replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (discharge creatinine ?200% of baseline creatinine). Secondary clinical outcomes include in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit-free days, ventilator-free days, vasopressor-free days, and renal replacement therapy-free days. Secondary renal outcomes include new renal replacement therapy receipt, persistent renal dysfunction, and incidence of stage 2 or higher acute kidney injury.This ongoing pragmatic trial will provide the largest and most comprehensive comparison to date of clinical outcomes with saline versus balanced crystalloids among critically ill adults.For logistical reasons, SMART was prospectively registered separately for the medical ICU (SMART-MED; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02444988 ; registered on 11 May 2015; date of first patient enrollment: 1 June 2015) and the nonmedical ICUs (SMART-SURG; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02547779 ; registered on 9 September 2015; date of first patient enrollment: 1 October 2015).
Project description:Importance:Saline (0.9% sodium chloride), the fluid most commonly used to treat diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Balanced crystalloids, an alternative class of fluids for volume expansion, do not cause acidosis and, therefore, may lead to faster resolution of DKA than saline. Objective:To compare the clinical effects of balanced crystalloids with the clinical effects of saline for the acute treatment of adults with DKA. Design, Setting, and Participants:This study was a subgroup analysis of adults with DKA in 2 previously reported companion trials-Saline Against Lactated Ringer's or Plasma-Lyte in the Emergency Department (SALT-ED) and the Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART). These trials, conducted between January 2016 and March 2017 in an academic medical center in the US, were pragmatic, multiple-crossover, cluster, randomized clinical trials comparing balanced crystalloids vs saline in emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This study included adults who presented to the ED with DKA, defined as a clinical diagnosis of DKA, plasma glucose greater than 250 mg/dL, plasma bicarbonate less than or equal to 18 mmol/L, and anion gap greater than 10 mmol/L. Data analysis was performed from January to April 2020. Interventions:Balanced crystalloids (clinician's choice of Ringer lactate solution or Plasma-Lyte A solution) vs saline for fluid administration in the ED and ICU according to the same cluster-randomized multiple-crossover schedule. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was time between ED presentation and DKA resolution, as defined by American Diabetes Association criteria. The secondary outcome was time between initiation and discontinuation of continuous insulin infusion. Results:Among 172 adults included in this secondary analysis of cluster trials, 94 were assigned to balanced crystalloids and 78 to saline. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 29 (24-45) years, and 90 (52.3%) were women. The median (IQR) volume of isotonic fluid administered in the ED and ICU was 4478 (3000-6372) mL. Cumulative incidence analysis revealed shorter time to DKA resolution in the balanced crystalloids group (median time to resolution: 13.0 hours; IQR: 9.5-18.8 hours) than the saline group (median: 16.9 hours; IQR: 11.9-34.5 hours) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]?=?1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.38; P = .004). Cumulative incidence analysis also revealed shorter time to insulin infusion discontinuation in the balanced crystalloids group (median: 9.8 hours; IQR: 5.1-17.0 hours) than the saline group (median: 13.4 hours; IQR: 11.0-17.9 hours) (aHR?=?1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.03; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance:In this secondary analysis of 2 cluster randomized clinical trials, compared with saline, treatment with balanced crystalloids resulted in more rapid resolution of DKA, suggesting that balanced crystalloids may be preferred over saline for acute management of adults with DKA. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02614040; NCT02444988.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Comparative clinical effects of balanced crystalloids and saline are uncertain, particularly in noncritically ill patients cared for outside an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS:We conducted a single-center, pragmatic, multiple-crossover trial comparing balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A) with saline among adults who were treated with intravenous crystalloids in the emergency department and were subsequently hospitalized outside an ICU. The type of crystalloid that was administered in the emergency department was assigned to each patient on the basis of calendar month, with the entire emergency department crossing over between balanced crystalloids and saline monthly during the 16-month trial. The primary outcome was hospital-free days (days alive after discharge before day 28). Secondary outcomes included major adverse kidney events within 30 days - a composite of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as an elevation of the creatinine level to ?200% of baseline) - all censored at hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever occurred first. RESULTS:A total of 13,347 patients were enrolled, with a median crystalloid volume administered in the emergency department of 1079 ml and 88.3% of the patients exclusively receiving the assigned crystalloid. The number of hospital-free days did not differ between the balanced-crystalloids and saline groups (median, 25 days in each group; adjusted odds ratio with balanced crystalloids, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.04; P=0.41). Balanced crystalloids resulted in a lower incidence of major adverse kidney events within 30 days than saline (4.7% vs. 5.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.95; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Among noncritically ill adults treated with intravenous fluids in the emergency department, there was no difference in hospital-free days between treatment with balanced crystalloids and treatment with saline. (Funded by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and others; SALT-ED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02614040 .).
Project description:Intravenous fluid therapy is the most common intervention received by acutely ill patients. Historically, saline (0.9% sodium chloride) has been the most frequently administered intravenous fluid, especially in North America. Balanced crystalloid solutions (e.g., lactated Ringer's, Plasma-Lyte) are an increasingly used alternative to saline. Balanced crystalloids have a sodium, potassium, and chloride content closer to that of extracellular fluid and, when given intravenously, have fewer adverse effects on acid-base balance. Preclinical research has demonstrated that saline may cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, inflammation, hypotension, acute kidney injury, and death. Studies of patients and healthy human volunteers suggest that even relatively small volumes of saline may exert physiological effects. Randomized trials in the operating room have demonstrated that using balanced crystalloids rather than saline prevents the development of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and may reduce the need for vasopressors. Observational studies among critically ill adults have associated receipt of balanced crystalloids with lower rates of complications, including acute kidney injury and death. Most recently, large randomized trials among critically ill adults have examined whether balanced crystalloids result in less death or severe renal dysfunction than saline. Although some of these trials are still ongoing, a growing body of evidence raises fundamental concerns regarding saline as the primary intravenous crystalloid for critically ill adults and highlights fundamental unanswered questions for future research about fluid therapy in critical illness.
Project description:Intravenous fluids are one of the most used medical therapy for patients, especially critically ill patients. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing between balanced crystalloids and normal saline in critically ill patients and its effect on various clinical outcomes.Meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs).Electronic search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane library, and clinical trials.gov from inception through March 1, 2018, with inclusion of prospective studies that investigated one of the primary outcomes which were acute kidney injury (AKI) and in-hospital mortality while secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and new renal replacement therapy (RRT).Six RCTs were included. Total of 19,332 patients were included in the final analysis. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality (11.5% vs 12.2%; OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-1.01; P?=?0.09; I2 =?0%), incidence of AKI (12% vs 12.7%, OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.84-1.01; P?=?0.1; I2 =?0), overall ICU mortality (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.81-1.01, P?=?0.08, I2 =?0%), or need for new RRT (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.67-1.28, P?=?0.65, I2 =?38%) between balanced crystalloids and isotonic saline in critically ill patients.Balanced crystalloids and isotonic saline have no difference on various clinical outcomes including in-hospital mortality, AKI, overall ICU mortality, and new RRT. Further powerful clinical trials are required to determine the relationship between crystalloid fluid type and clinical outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent trials have suggested use of balanced crystalloids may decrease the incidence of major adverse kidney events compared to saline in critically ill adults. The effect of crystalloid composition on biomarkers of early acute kidney injury remains unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>From February 15 to July 15, 2016, we conducted an ancillary study to the Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART) comparing the effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on urinary levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) among 261 consecutively-enrolled critically ill adults admitted from the emergency department to the medical ICU. After informed consent, we collected urine 36?± 12?h after hospital admission and measured NGAL and KIM-1 levels using commercially available ELISAs. Levels of NGAL and KIM-1 at 36?± 12?h were compared between patients assigned to balanced crystalloids versus saline using a Mann-Whitney U test.<h4>Results</h4>The 131 patients (50.2%) assigned to the balanced crystalloid group and the 130 patients (49.8%) assigned to the saline group were similar at baseline. Urinary NGAL levels were significantly lower in the balanced crystalloid group (median, 39.4?ng/mg [IQR 9.9 to 133.2]) compared with the saline group (median, 64.4?ng/mg [IQR 27.6 to 339.9]) (P <?0.001). Urinary KIM-1 levels did not significantly differ between the balanced crystalloid group (median, 2.7?ng/mg [IQR 1.5 to 4.9]) and the saline group (median, 2.4?ng/mg [IQR 1.3 to 5.0]) (P =?0.36).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this ancillary analysis of a clinical trial comparing balanced crystalloids to saline among critically ill adults, balanced crystalloids were associated with lower urinary concentrations of NGAL and similar urinary concentrations of KIM-1, compared with saline. These results suggest only a modest reduction in early biomarkers of acute kidney injury with use of balanced crystalloids compared with saline.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02444988 . Date registered: May 15, 2015.
Project description:Rationale: Administration of intravenous crystalloid solutions is a fundamental therapy for sepsis, but the effect of crystalloid composition on patient outcomes remains unknown.Objectives: To compare the effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on 30-day in-hospital mortality among critically ill adults with sepsis.Methods: Secondary analysis of patients from SMART (Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial) admitted to the medical ICU with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, Clinical Modification System code for sepsis, using multivariable regression to control for potential confounders.Measurements and Main Results: Of 15,802 patients enrolled in SMART, 1,641 patients were admitted to the medical ICU with a diagnosis of sepsis. A total of 217 patients (26.3%) in the balanced crystalloids group experienced 30-day in-hospital morality compared with 255 patients (31.2%) in the saline group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.93; P?=?0.01). Patients in the balanced group experienced a lower incidence of major adverse kidney events within 30 days (35.4% vs. 40.1%; aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.97) and a greater number of vasopressor-free days (20?±?12 vs. 19?±?13; aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54) and renal replacement therapy-free days (20?±?12 vs. 19?±?13; aOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.08-1.69) compared with the saline group.Conclusions: Among patients with sepsis in a large randomized trial, use of balanced crystalloids was associated with a lower 30-day in-hospital mortality compared with use of saline.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02444988).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Crystalloids are the most frequently prescribed drugs in intensive care medicine and emergency medicine. Thus, even small differences in outcome may have major implications, and therefore, the choice between balanced crystalloids versus normal saline continues to be debated. We examined to what extent the currently accrued information size from completed and ongoing trials on the subject allow intensivists and emergency physicians to choose the right fluid for their patients. METHODS:Systematic review and meta-analysis with random effects inverse variance model. Published randomized controlled trials enrolling adult patients to compare balanced crystalloids versus normal saline in the setting of intensive care medicine or emergency medicine were included. The main outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up, and secondary outcomes were moderate to severe acute kidney injury (AKI) and initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Trial sequential analyses (TSA) were performed, and risk of bias and overall quality of evidence were assessed. Additionally, previously published meta-analyses, trial sequential analyses and ongoing large trials were analysed for included studies, required information size calculations and the assumptions underlying those calculations. RESULTS:Nine studies (n?=?32,777) were included. Of those, eight had data available on mortality, seven on AKI and six on RRT. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between balanced crystalloids versus normal saline for mortality (P?=?0.33), the incidence of moderate to severe AKI (P?=?0.37) or initiation of RRT (P?=?0.29). Quality of evidence was low to very low. Analysis of previous meta-analyses and ongoing trials showed large differences in calculated required versus accrued information sizes and assumptions underlying those. TSA revealed the need for extremely large trials based on our realistic and clinically relevant assumptions on relative risk reduction and baseline mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analysis could not find significant differences between balanced crystalloids and normal saline on mortality at the longest follow-up, moderate to severe AKI or new RRT. Currently accrued information size is smaller, and the required information size is larger than previously anticipated. Therefore, completed and ongoing trials on the topic may fail to provide adequate guidance for choosing the right crystalloid. Thus, physiology will continue to play an important role for individualizing this choice.