Biodistribution and in vivo activities of tumor-associated macrophage-targeting nanoparticles incorporated with doxorubicin.
ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are increasingly considered a viable target for tumor imaging and therapy. Previously, we reported that innovative surface-functionalization of nanoparticles may help target them to TAMs. In this report, using poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporated with doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-NPs), we studied the effect of surface-modification of the nanoparticles with mannose and/or acid-sensitive sheddable polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the biodistribution of DOX and the uptake of DOX by TAMs in tumor-bearing mice. We demonstrated that surface-modification of the DOX-NPs with both mannose and acid-sensitive sheddable PEG significantly increased the accumulation of DOX in tumors, enhanced the uptake of the DOX by TAMs, but decreased the distribution of DOX in mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), such as liver. We also confirmed that the acid-sensitive sheddable PEGylated, mannose-modified DOX-nanoparticles (DOX-AS-M-NPs) targeted TAMs because depletion of TAMs in tumor-bearing mice significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in tumor tissues. Furthermore, in a B16-F10 tumor-bearing mouse model, we showed that the DOX-AS-M-NPs were significantly more effective than free DOX in controlling tumor growth but had only minimum effect on the macrophage population in mouse liver and spleen. The AS-M-NPs are promising in targeting cytotoxic or macrophage-modulating agents into tumors to improve tumor therapy.
Project description:It is increasingly evident that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumor invasion, proliferation, and metastasis. While delivery of drugs, imaging agents, and vaccines to TAMs was achieved by exploiting membrane receptors on TAMs, the uptake by normal macrophages remains an issue. In this communication, we report a PEG-sheddable, mannose-modified nanoparticle platform that can efficiently target TAMs via mannose-mannose receptor recognition after acid-sensitive PEG shedding in the acidic tumor microenvironment, while their uptake by normal macrophages in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) organs was significantly reduced due to effective PEG shielding at neutral pH. These nanoparticles have the potential to target drugs of interest to TAMs, with decreased uptake by normal macrophages.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote cancer growth and metastasis, but their role in tumor development needs to be fully understood due to the dynamic changes of tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, we report an approach to visualize TAMs by optical imaging and by Fluorine-19 (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that is largely applied to track immune cells in vivo. TAMs are targeted with PLGA-PEG-mannose nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether (PFCE) as MRI contrast agent. These particles are preferentially recognized and phagocytized by TAMs that overexpress the mannose receptor (MRC1/CD206). The PLGA-PEG-mannose NPs are not toxic and they were up-taken by macrophages as confirmed by in vitro confocal microscopy. At 48 h after intravenous injection of PLGA-PEG-mannose NPs, 4T1 xenograft mice were imaged and fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed nanoparticle retention at the tumor site. Because of the lack of 19F background in the body, observed 19F signals are robust and exhibit an excellent degree of specificity. In vivo imaging of TAMs in the TME by 19F MRI opens the possibility for detection of cancer at earlier stage and for prompt therapeutic interventions in solid tumors.
Project description:Ample attention has focused on cancer drug delivery via prodrug nanoparticles due to their high drug loading property and comparatively lower side effects. In this study, we designed a PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle for simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) as a combination therapy to treat cancer. DOX was conjugated to PEG by Schiff's base reaction. The obtained prodrug conjugate could self-assemble in water at pH 7.4 into nanoparticles (PEG-DOX NPs) and encapsulate Cur into the core through hydrophobic interaction (PEG-DOX-Cur NPs). When the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs are internalized by tumor cells, the Schiff's base linker between PEG and DOX would break in the acidic environment that is often observed in tumors, causing disassembling of the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs and releasing both DOX and Cur into the nuclei and cytoplasma of the tumor cells, respectively. Compared with free DOX, free Cur, free DOX-Cur combination, or PEG-DOX NPs, PEG-DOX-Cur NPs exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in vitro. In addition, the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs also showed prolonged blood circulation time, elevated local drug accumulation and increased tumor penetration. Enhanced anti-tumor activity was also observed from the PEG-DOX-Cur-treated animals, demonstrating better tumor inhibitory property of the NPs. Thus, the PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle system provides a simple yet efficient approach of drug delivery for chemotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemotherapy is a standard cancer treatment which uses anti-cancer drugs to destroy or slow the growth of cancer cells. However, chemotherapy has limited therapeutic effects in bladder cancer. One of the reasons of this resistance to chemotherapy is that higher levels of glutathione in invasive bladder cancer cells. We have fabricated nanoparticles that respond to high concentrations of glutathione and near-infrared laser irradiation in order to increase the drug accumulation at the tumor sites and combine chemotherapy with photothermal therapy to overcome the challenges of bladder cancer treatment. METHODS:The DOX&IR780@PEG-PCL-SS NPs were prepared by co-precipitation method. We investigated the tumor targeting capability of NPs in vitro and in vivo. The orthotopic bladder cancer model in C57BL/6 mice was established for in vivo study and the photothermal effects and therapeutic efficacy of NPs were evaluated. RESULTS:The DOX&IR780@PEG-PCL-SS NPs were synthesized using internal cross-linking strategy to increase the stability of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles can be ingested by tumor cells in a short time. The DOX&IR780@PEG-PCL-SS NPs have dual sensitivity to high levels of glutathione in bladder cancer cells and near-infrared laser irradiation. Glutathione triggers chemical structural changes of nanoparticles and preliminarily releases drugs, Near-infrared laser irradiation can promote the complete release of the drugs from the nanoparticles and induce a photothermal effect, leading to destroying the tumor cells. Given the excellent tumor-targeting ability and negligible toxicity to normal tissue, DOX&IR780@PEG-PCL-SS NPs can greatly increase the concentration of the anti-cancer drugs in tumor cells. The mice treated with DOX&IR780@PEG-PCL-SS NPs have a significant reduction in tumor volume. The DOX&IR780@PEG-PCL-SS NPs can be tracked by in vivo imaging system and have good tumor targeting ability, to facilitate our assessment during the experiment. CONCLUSION:A nanoparticle delivery system with dual sensitivity to glutathione and near-infrared laser irradiation was developed for delivering IR780 and DOX. Chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy of both primary bladder cancer and their metastases was achieved using this advanced delivery system.
Project description:Background:Glioma represents the most common malignant brain tumor. Outcomes of surgical resection are often unsatisfactory due to low sensitivity or resolution of imaging methods. Moreover, the use of traditional chemotherapeutics, such as doxorubicin (DOX), is limited due to their low blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Recently, the development of nanotechnology could overcome these obstacles. Materials and methods:Hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were prepared with the use of thermal decomposition method. They were coated with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG 2000) and DOX using a thin-film hydration method followed by loading of indocyanine green (ICG) into the phospholipid layers. Details regarding the characteristics of NPs were determined. The in vitro biocompatibility and antitumor efficacy were established with the use of MTT assay. In vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were used to evaluate BBB penetration and accumulation of NPs at the tumor site. Antitumor efficacy was evaluated using measures of tumor size, median survival times, body weights, and H&E staining. Results:The multifunctional NPs generated had an average diameter of 22.9 nm, a zeta potential of -38.19 mV, and were capable of providing a sustained release of DOX. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the SPIO@DSPE-PEG/DOX/ICG NPs effectively enhanced cellular uptake of DOX as compared with that of free DOX. In vivo fluorescence and MR imaging revealed that the NPs not only effectively crossed the BBB but selectively accumulated at the tumor site. Meanwhile, among all groups studied, C6 glioma-bearing rats treated with the NPs exhibited the maximal degree of therapeutic efficacy, including smallest tumor volume, lowest body weight loss, and longest survival times, with no obvious side effects. Conclusion:These results suggest that the SPIO@DSPE-PEG/DOX/ICG NPs can not only function as a nanoprobe for MR and fluorescence bimodal imaging, but also as a vehicle to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumor site, to achieve the theranostic treatment of glioma.
Project description:The development of nanoscaled theranostic agents for cancer combination therapies has received intensive attention in recent years. In this report, a degradable hollow mesoporous PEG-Si/C-DOX NP is designed and fabricated for pH-responsive, photoacoustic imaging-guided highly effective chemo-thermal combination therapy. The intrinsic hollow mesoporous structure endows the as-synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) with a high drug loading capacity (31.1%). Under NIR (808 nm) irradiation, the photothermal conversion efficiency of the Si/C NPs is as high as 40.7%. Preferential accumulation of the PEG-Si/C-DOX NPs around tumor tissue was demonstrated with photoacoustic images. Cellular internalization of the NPs and release of the DOX in nuclei are shown with fluorescent images. With efficient NIR photothermal conversion and high DOX loading capacity, the PEG-Si/C-DOX NPs are demonstrated to have remarkable cancer-cell-killing ability and to achieve complete in vivo tumor elimination via combinational chemo-thermal therapy. Last but not least, the NPs show good biodegradability and biosafety, making them a promising candidate for multifunctional drug delivery and cancer theranostic.
Project description:<b>Purpose:</b> Novel collagenase IV (ColIV) and clusterin (CLU)-modified polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) nanoparticles that load doxorubicin (DOX) were designed and fully evaluated <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. <b>Methods:</b> PCL-PEG-ColIV was synthesized by linking PCL-PEG and ColIV through a carbodiimide method. DOX-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-PCL-PEG-ColIV) were self-assembly prepared, followed by noncovalently adsorbing CLU on the DOX-PCL-PEG-ColIV surface to obtain DOX-PCL-PEG-ColIV /CLU nanoparticles, which can penetrate through the tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) and inhibit phagocytosis by macrophage. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were characterized. The cellular uptake and antiphagocytosis ability of nanoparticles in MCF-7 tumor cells and RAW264.7 cells were investigated. The penetration ability of nanoparticles was individually evaluated in the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ECM models. The tissue distribution and antitumor effect of nanoparticles were evaluated in MCF-7 cell-bearing nude mice. <b>Results:</b> Compared with DOX-PCL-PEG-COOH nanoparticles, DOX-PCL-PEG-ColIV/CLU nanoparticles could effectively overcome the phagocytosis by RAW264.7 and showed excellent cellular uptake in MCF-7 cells. In addition, they showed remarkable penetration ability through the 2D and 3D ECM models. DOX-PCL-PEG-ColIV/CLU nanoparticles significantly reduced the drug distribution in the liver and spleen and enhanced the drug accumulation in tumor tissue compared with DOX-PCL-PEG-COOH or DOX-PCL-PEG-ColIV nanoparticles. DOX-PCL-PEG-ColIV/CLU nanoparticles showed remarkable antitumor effect but did not cause severe pathological damages in the main tissues, including the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. <b>Conclusion:</b> Novel ColIV and CLU-modified PCL-PEG nanoparticles showed excellent cellular uptake, ECM penetration, antiphagocytosis, and antitumor effects both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>.
Project description:Combination therapy based on nano-sized drug delivery system has been developed as a promising strategy by combining two or more anti-tumor mechanisms. Here, we prepared liver-targeted nanoparticles (GH-DPP) composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethylene glycol-polyetherimide (DSPE-PEG-PEI) with Glycyrrhetinic acid-modified hyaluronic acid (GA-HA) for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and Bcl-2 siRNA. Particles size, zeta potential and morphology were determined for the drug-loaded GH-DPP nanoparticles (siRNA/DOX/GH-DPP). Cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity were analyzed against HepG2 cells. In vivo bio-distribution and anti-tumor therapeutic effects of siRNA/DOX/GH-DPP were evaluated in H22-bearing mice. The results showed that siRNA/DOX/GH-DPP nanoparticles were nearly spherical and showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. Compared to Glycyrrhetinic acid-free co-delivery system (siRNA/DOX/DPP) and GH-DPP nanoparticles for delivery of DOX or Bcl-2 siRNA alone, siRNA/DOX/GH-DPP nanoparticles could induce more cellular apoptosis, and showed higher anti-tumor effect. Herein GH-DPP nanoparticles could simultaneously deliver both chemotherapy drugs and siRNA into the tumor region, exhibiting great potential in anti-tumor therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND This study aimed to prepare doxorubicin- and tetrahydrocurcumin-loaded and transferrin-modified PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (Tf-NPs-DOX-THC) for enhanced and synergistic chemoradiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tf-NPs-DOX-THC were prepared via the double-emulsion method. The morphologies and particle sizes of the prepared nanoparticles were examined by TEM and DLS, respectively. The in vitro MTT, apoptosis, and clone formation assays were performed to detect the proliferation and radiosensitivity of cells with various treatments. Cellular uptake assay was also conducted. The tissue distribution of Tf-NPs was investigated by ex vivo DOX fluorescence imaging. The in vivo tumor growth inhibition efficiency of various treatments was evaluated in orthotopic C6 mouse models and C6 subcutaneously grafted mouse models. RESULTS Tf-NPs-DOX-THC exhibited high drug-loading efficiency (6.56±0.32%) and desirable particle size (under 250 nm). MTT, apoptosis, and clone formation assays revealed the enhanced anti-cancer activity and favorable radiosensitizing effect of Tf-NPs-DOX-THC. Strong fluorescence was observed in the brains of mice treated with Tf-NPs-DOX. The in vitro release of drug from nanoparticles was in a pH-sensitive manner. Tf-NPs-DOX-THC in combination with radiation also achieved favorable anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. CONCLUSIONS All results suggest that a combination of Tf-NPs-DOX-THC and radiation is a promising strategy for synergistic and sensitizing chemoradiotherapy of glioma.
Project description:Copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs) have been reported as a single-compartment theranostic nanosystem to visualize and treat tumors simultaneously. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo tumor-targeted delivery of this class of nanoparticles. In this study, we introduced a tumor-specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), onto the surface of CuS NPs as a model system to demonstrate the feasibility of actively targeted CuS NPs for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and PET image-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). A one-pot synthetic method was used for introducing FA to CuS NPs to yield FA-CuS NPs. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing folate receptor-expressing KB tumor showed significantly higher tumor uptake of FA-CuS NPs than non-targeted polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated PEG-CuS NPs after intravenous injection. Moreover, tumor uptake of FA-CuS NPs could be effectively blocked by free FA. Biodistribution and clearance of 64Cu-labeled FA-CuS NPs (FA-[64Cu]CuS NPs) could be readily visualized by microPET (?PET), which confirmed a significantly higher level of tumor uptake of FA-[64Cu]CuS NPs than non-targeted PEG-[64Cu]CuS NPs. ?PET image-guided PTT with FA-CuS NPs mediated substantially greater tumor damage compared with PTT mediated by PEG-CuS NPs. Thus, FA-CuS NPs is a promising candidate for PTT of folate receptor-positive tumors.