Identification of optimal reference genes for gene expression normalization in a wide cohort of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tissues.
ABSTRACT: Accurate normalization is a primary component of a reliable gene expression analysis based on qRT-PCR technique. While the use of one or more reference genes as internal controls is commonly accepted as the most appropriate normalization strategy, many qPCR-based published studies still contain data poorly normalized and reference genes arbitrarily chosen irrespective of the particular tissue and the specific experimental design. To date, no validated reference genes have been identified for endometrial cancer tissues. In this study, 10 normalization genes (GAPDH, B2M, ACTB, POLR2A, UBC, PPIA, HPRT1, GUSB, TBP, H3F3A) belonging to different functional and abundance classes in various tissues and used in different studies, were analyzed to determine their applicability. In total, 100 endometrioid endometrial cancer samples, which were carefully balanced according to their tumor grade, and 29 normal endometrial tissues were examined using SYBR Green Real-Time RT-PCR. The expression stability of candidate reference genes was determined and compared by means of geNorm and NormFinder softwares. Both algorithms were in agreement in identifying GAPDH, H3F3A, PPIA, and HPRT1 as the most stably expressed genes, only differing in their ranking order. Analysis performed on the expression levels of all candidate genes confirm HPRT1 and PPIA as the most stably expressed in the study groups regardless of sample type, to be used alone or better in combination. As the stable expression of HPRT1 and PPIA between normal and tumor endometrial samples fulfill the basic requirement of a reference gene to be used for normalization purposes, HPRT1 expression showed significant differences between samples from low-grade and high-grade tumors. In conclusion, our results recommend the use of PPIA as a single reference gene to be considered for improved reliability of normalization in gene expression studies involving endometrial tumor samples at different tumor degrees.
Project description:Reverse transcription followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a powerful and commonly used tool for gene expression analysis. It requires the right choice of stably expressed reference genes for accurate normalization. In this work, we aimed to select the optimal reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization within different brain areas during the first week following pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in immature (P20-22) Wistar rats. We have tested the expression stability of a panel of nine housekeeping genes: Actb, Gapdh, B2m, Rpl13a, Sdha, Ppia, Hprt1, Pgk1, and Ywhaz. Based on geometric averaging of ranks obtained by four common algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Comparative Delta-Ct), we found that the stability of tested reference genes varied significantly between different brain regions. The expression of the tested panel of genes was very stable within the medial prefrontal and temporal cortex, and the dorsal hippocampus. However, within the ventral hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex and amygdala expression levels of most of the tested genes were not steady. The data revealed that in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model in juvenile rats, Pgk1, Ppia, and B2m expression are the most stable within the medial prefrontal cortex; Ppia, Rpl13a, and Sdha within the temporal cortex; Pgk1, Ppia, and Rpl13a within the entorhinal cortex; Gapdh, Ppia, and Pgk1 within the dorsal hippocampus; Rpl13a, Sdha, and Ppia within the ventral hippocampus; and Sdha, Pgk1, and Ppia within the amygdala. Our data indicate the need for a differential selection of reference genes across brain regions, including the dorsal and ventral hippocampus.
Project description:Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in thyroid tumors require accurate data normalization, however, there are no sufficient studies addressing the suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in malignant and normal thyroid tissue specimens. The purpose of this study was to identify valid internal control genes for normalization of relative qRT-PCR studies in human papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue samples. The expression characteristics of 12 candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, TBP, B2M, PPIA, 18SrRNA, HMBS, GUSB, PGK1, RPLP0, and PGM1) were assessed by qRT-PCR in 45 thyroid tissue samples (15 papillary thyroid carcinoma, 15 paired normal tissues and 15 multinodular goiters). These twelve candidate reference genes were selected by a systematic literature search. GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper statistical algorithms were applied to determine the most stable reference genes. The three algorithms were in agreement in identifying GUSB and HPRT1 as the most stably expressed genes in all thyroid tumors investigated. According to the NormFinder software, the pair of genes including 'GUSB and HPRT1' or 'GUSB and HMBS' or 'GUSB and PGM1' were the best combinations for selection of pair reference genes. The optimal number of genes required for reliable normalization of qPCR data in thyroid tissues would be three according to calculations made by GeNorm algorithm. These results suggest that GUSB and HPRT1 are promising reference genes for normalization of relative qRT-PCR studies in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Gene expression analysis using real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is increasingly important in biological research due to the high-throughput and accuracy of qRT-PCR. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against housekeeping genes or internal control genes is required. The stability of reference genes has a tremendous effect on the results of relative quantification of gene expression by qRT-PCR. The expression stability of reference genes could vary according to tissues, age of individuals and experimental conditions. In the pig however, very little information is available on the expression stability of reference genes. The aim of this research was therefore to develop a new set of reference genes which can be used for normalization of mRNA expression data of genes expressed in varieties of porcine tissues at different ages. RESULTS: The mRNA expression stability of nine commonly used reference genes (B2M, BLM, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) was determined in varieties of tissues collected from newborn, young and adult pigs. geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software were used to rank the genes according to their stability. geNorm software revealed that RPL4, PPIA and YWHAZ showed high stability in newborn and adult pigs, while B2M, YWHAZ and SDHA showed high stability in young pigs. In all cases, GAPDH showed the least stability in geNorm. NormFinder revealed that TBP was the most stable gene in newborn and young pigs, while PPIA was most stable in adult pigs. Moreover, geNorm software suggested that the geometric mean of three most stable gene would be the suitable combination for accurate normalization of gene expression study. CONCLUSIONS: Although, there was discrepancy in the ranking order of reference genes obtained by different analysing software methods, the geometric mean of the RPL4, PPIA and YWHAZ seems to be the most appropriate combination of housekeeping genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data in different porcine tissues at different ages.
Project description:Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis.
Project description:Long-term expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under defined culture conditions is necessary in human stem cell therapy. However, it alters the characteristics of MSCs. Since quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used as one of the key analytical methods for comparative characterization, the validation of reference genes (RGs) for normalization under each experimental condition is important to achieve reliable qRT-PCR results. Therefore, the most stable RGs for long-term expanded bone marrow- and umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs and UCB-MSCs) under defined culture conditions for up to 20 passages were evaluated. The more apparent alterations in characteristics such as differentiation capacity, proliferation, senescence, and the expression of RGs were noted in BM-MSCs than UCB-MSCs during long-term expansion. The RG validation programs (GeNorm and NormFinder) suggested that PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ were suitable for normalization in qRT-PCR regardless of MSC types and long-term culture expansion, and the traditional RGs (ACTB and GAPDH) were less stable in long-term expanded MSCs. In addition, the use of these RGs for normalization of OCT4 expression in long-term expanded BM-MSCs showed that a less stable RG (GAPDH) showed contrasting data compared to other RGs. Therefore, the use of RGs such as PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ for normalization in qRT-PCR experiments is highly recommended for long-term expanded MSCs to generate accurate and reliable data.
Project description:BACKGROUND: As an in vitro model porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is frequently used as for immunogenetic research with the stimulation of bacterial antigens. To investigate the immunocompetence of PBMCs for recognition of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and in order to dissect the pathogenesis of diseases, gene expression assay is most commonly used. The gene expressions are required to normalize for reference genes which have tremendous effect on the results of expression study. The reference genes should be stably expressed between different cells under a variety of experimental conditions, but recent influx of data showed that expression stability of reference genes are varied under different experimental conditions. But data regarding the expression stability of reference genes in porcine PBMCs are limited. Therefore, this study was aimed to know whether the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in PBMCs is affected by various bacterial antigens under different experimental conditions in pigs. RESULTS: The mRNA expression stability of nine commonly used reference genes (B2M, BLM, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) was determined by RT-qPCR in PBMCs that were stimulated by LPS and LTA in vitro as well as cells un-stimulated control and non-cultured were also consider for this experiment. mRNA expression levels of all genes were found to be affected by the type of stimulation and duration of the stimulation (P?<?0.05). geNorm software revealed that in case of irrespective of stimulation (without considering the type of stimulation), RPL4, PPIA and B2M were the most stable reference genes in PBMCs; in case of the control group, PPIA, BLM and GAPDH were the most stable reference genes. PPIA, B2M and RPL4 were the most stable reference genes in LPS stimulated PBMCs; and YWHAZ, RPL4 and PPIA were the most stably expressed reference genes in the case of LTA stimulated PBMCs. When LPS was used combined with LTA for the stimulation, YWHAZ, B2M and SDHA remained the most stable genes. PPIA, BLM and GAPDH were found to be most stably expressed reference genes when PBMCs were not cultured. NormFinder revealed different sets of stably expressed reference genes in PBMCs under different experimental conditions. Moreover, geNorm software suggested that the geometric mean of the three most stable genes would be the suitable combination for accurate normalization of gene expression study. CONCLUSION: There was discrepancy in the ranking order of reference genes obtained by different analysing algorithms (geNorm and NormFinder). In conclusion, the geometric mean of the RPL4, B2M and PPIA seemed to be the most appropriate combination of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data in porcine PBMCs without knowing the type of bacterial pathogenic status of the animals and in the case of mixed infection with Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In case of PBMCs without any stimulation, PPIA, BLM and GAPDH could be suggested as suitable reference genes.
Project description:Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is characterized by the disturbance of ventricle's performance due to its abnormal relaxation or to its increased stiffness during the diastolic phase. The molecular mechanisms underlying LVDD remain unknown. We aimed to identify normalization genes for accurate gene-expression analysis of LVDD using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in a new rabbit model of LVDD. Eighteen rabbits were fed with a normal diet (n?=?7) or a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with vitamin D2 (n?=?11) for an average of 14.5 weeks. We validated the presence of LVDD in this model using echocardiography for diastolic function assessment. RT-PCR was performed using cDNA derived from left ventricle samples to measure the stability of 10 genes as candidate reference genes (Gapdh, Hprt1, Ppia, Sdha, Rpl5, Actb, Eef1e1, Ywhaz, Pgk1, and G6pd). Using geNorm analysis, we report that Sdha, Gapdh and Hprt1 genes had the highest stability (M <0.2). By contrast, Hprt1 and Rpl5 genes were found to represent the best combination for normalization when using the Normfinder algorithm (stability value of 0.042). Comparison of both normalization strategies highlighted an increase of natriuretic peptides (Bnp and Anp), monocytes chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1) and NADPH oxidase subunit (Nox-2) mRNA expressions in ventricle samples of the hypercholesterolemic rabbits compared to controls (P<0.05). This increase correlates with LVDD echocardiographic parameters and most importantly it molecularly validates the presence of the disease in our model. This is the first study emphasizing the selection of stable reference genes for RT-PCR normalization in a rabbit model of LVDD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The accurate normalization of differentially expressed genes in lung cancer is essential for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers by real time RT-PCR and microarrays. Although classical "housekeeping" genes, such as GAPDH, HPRT1, and beta-actin have been widely used in the past, their accuracy as reference genes for lung tissues has not been proven. RESULTS: We have conducted a thorough analysis of a panel of 16 candidate reference genes for lung specimens and lung cell lines. Gene expression was measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR and expression stability was analyzed with the softwares GeNorm and NormFinder, mean of |Delta Ct| (= |Ct Normal-Ct tumor|) +/- SEM, and correlation coefficients among genes. Systematic comparison between candidates led us to the identification of a subset of suitable reference genes for clinical samples: IPO8, ACTB, POLR2A, 18S, and PPIA. Further analysis showed that IPO8 had a very low mean of |Delta Ct| (0.70 +/- 0.09), with no statistically significant differences between normal and malignant samples and with excellent expression stability. CONCLUSION: Our data show that IPO8 is the most accurate reference gene for clinical lung specimens. In addition, we demonstrate that the commonly used genes GAPDH and HPRT1 are inappropriate to normalize data derived from lung biopsies, although they are suitable as reference genes for lung cell lines. We thus propose IPO8 as a novel reference gene for lung cancer samples.
Project description:The study of uterine gene expression patterns is valuable for understanding the biological and molecular mechanisms that occur during embryo implantation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extremely sensitive technique that allows for the precise quantification of mRNA abundance; however, selecting stable reference genes suitable for the normalization of qRT-PCR data is required to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. This study employs several mouse models, including an early pregnancy, a pseudopregnancy, a delayed implantation and activation, an artificial decidualization and a hormonal treatment model; ten candidate reference genes (PPIA, RPLP0, HPRT1, GAPDH, ACTB, TBP, B2M, 18S, UBC and TUBA) that are found in uterine tissues were assessed for their suitability as internal controls for relative qRT-PCR quantification. GeNorm(PLUS), NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate these candidate reference genes, and all of these methods identified RPLP0 and GAPDH as the most stable candidates and B2M and 18S as the least stable candidates. However, when the different models were analyzed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the expression stabilities of 12 common internal reference genes for the relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in human laryngeal cancer. METHODS:Hep-2 cells and 14 laryngeal cancer tissue samples were investigated. The expression characteristics of 12 internal reference gene candidates (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, RPL29, HMBS, PPIA, ALAS1, TBP, PUM1, GUSB, and B2M) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The data were analyzed by three commonly used software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. RESULTS:The use of the combination of four internal reference genes was more appropriate than the use of a single internal reference gene. The optimal combination was PPIA + GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 for both the cell line and tissues; while the most appropriate combination was GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 + HMBS for the tissues. CONCLUSIONS:Our recommended internal reference genes may improve the accuracy of relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by the RT-qPCR method in further gene expression research on laryngeal tumors.