Identification of novel nuclear targets of human thioredoxin 1.
ABSTRACT: The dysregulation of protein oxidative post-translational modifications has been implicated in stress-related diseases. Trx1 is a key reductase that reduces specific disulfide bonds and other cysteine post-translational modifications. Although commonly in the cytoplasm, Trx1 can also modulate transcription in the nucleus. However, few Trx1 nuclear targets have been identified because of the low Trx1 abundance in the nucleus. Here, we report the large-scale proteomics identification of nuclear Trx1 targets in human neuroblastoma cells using an affinity capture strategy wherein a Trx1C35S mutant is expressed. The wild-type Trx1 contains a conserved C32XXC35 motif, and the C32 thiol initiates the reduction of a target disulfide bond by forming an intermolecular disulfide with one of the oxidized target cysteines, resulting in a transient Trx1-target protein complex. The reduction is rapidly consummated by the donation of a C35 proton to the target molecule, forming a Trx1 C32-C35 disulfide, and results in the concurrent release of the target protein containing reduced thiols. By introducing a point mutation (C35 to S35) in Trx1, we ablated the rapid dissociation of Trx1 from its reduction targets, thereby allowing the identification of 45 putative nuclear Trx1 targets. Unexpectedly, we found that PSIP1, also known as LEDGF, was sensitive to both oxidation and Trx1 reduction at Cys 204. LEDGF is a transcription activator that is vital for regulating cell survival during HIV-1 infection. Overall, this study suggests that Trx1 may play a broader role than previously believed that might include regulating transcription, RNA processing, and nuclear pore function in human cells.
Project description:Transnitrosylation and denitrosylation are emerging as key post-translational modification events in regulating both normal physiology and a wide spectrum of human diseases. Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) is a conserved antioxidant that functions as a classic disulfide reductase. It also catalyzes the transnitrosylation or denitrosylation of caspase 3 (Casp3), underscoring its central role in determining Casp3 nitrosylation specificity. However, the mechanisms that regulate Trx1 transnitrosylation and denitrosylation of specific targets are unresolved. Here we used an optimized mass spectrometric method to demonstrate that Trx1 is itself nitrosylated by S-nitrosoglutathione at Cys(73) only after the formation of a Cys(32)-Cys(35) disulfide bond upon which the disulfide reductase and denitrosylase activities of Trx1 are attenuated. Following nitrosylation, Trx1 subsequently transnitrosylates Casp3. Overexpression of Trx1(C32S/C35S) (a mutant Trx1 with both Cys(32) and Cys(35) replaced by serine to mimic the disulfide reductase-inactive Trx1) in HeLa cells promoted the nitrosylation of specific target proteins. Using a global proteomics approach, we identified 47 novel Trx1 transnitrosylation target protein candidates. From further bioinformatics analysis of this set of nitrosylated peptides, we identified consensus motifs that are likely to be the determinants of Trx1-mediated transnitrosylation specificity. Among these proteins, we confirmed that Trx1 directly transnitrosylates peroxiredoxin 1 at Cys(173) and Cys(83) and protects it from H(2)O(2)-induced overoxidation. Functionally, we found that Cys(73)-mediated Trx1 transnitrosylation of target proteins is important for protecting HeLa cells from apoptosis. These data demonstrate that the ability of Trx1 to transnitrosylate target proteins is regulated by a crucial stepwise oxidative and nitrosative modification of specific cysteines, suggesting that Trx1, as a master regulator of redox signaling, can modulate target proteins via alternating modalities of reduction and nitrosylation.
Project description:Despite the significance of redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) in regulating diverse signal transduction pathways, the enzymatic systems that catalyze reversible and specific oxidative or reductive modifications have yet to be firmly established. Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) is a conserved antioxidant protein that is well known for its disulfide reductase activity. Interestingly, Trx1 is also able to transnitrosylate or denitrosylate (defined as processes to transfer or remove a nitric oxide entity to/from substrates) specific proteins. An intricate redox regulatory mechanism has recently been uncovered that accounts for the ability of Trx1 to catalyze these different redox PTMs. In this review, we will summarize the available evidence in support of Trx1 as a specific disulfide reductase, and denitrosylation and transnitrosylation agent, as well as the biological significance of the diverse array of Trx1-regulated pathways and processes under different physiological contexts. The dramatic progress in redox proteomics techniques has enabled the identification of an increasing number of proteins, including peroxiredoxin 1, whose disulfide bond formation and nitrosylation status are regulated by Trx1. This review will also summarize the advancements of redox proteomics techniques for the identification of the protein targets of Trx1-mediated PTMs. Collectively, these studies have shed light on the mechanisms that regulate Trx1-mediated reduction, transnitrosylation, and denitrosylation of specific target proteins, solidifying the role of Trx1 as a master regulator of redox signal transduction.
Project description:S-Nitrosylation is a reversible PTM for regulating protein function. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) catalyzes either transnitrosylation or denitrosylation of specific proteins, depending on the redox status of the cysteines within its conserved oxidoreductase CXXC motif. With a disulfide bond formed between the two catalytic cysteines, Trx1 is not only inactive as a denitrosylase, but it may also be nitrosylated at Cys73 and serve as a transnitrosylating agent. Identification of Trx1-mediated transnitrosylation or denitrosylation targets will contribute to a better understanding of Trx1's function. Previous experimental approaches based on the attenuation of CXXC oxidoreductase activity cannot readily distinguish Trx1 transnitrosylation targets from denitrosylation targets. In this study, we used the ICAT method in conjunction with the biotin switch technique to differentiate Trx1 transnitrosylation targets from denitrosylation target proteins from neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that the ICAT approach is effective for quantitative identification of putative Trx1 transnitrosylation and denitrosylation target peptides. From these analyses, we confirmed reports that peroxiredoxin 1 is a Trx1 transnitrosylation, but not a denitrosylation target, and we found several other proteins, including cyclophilin A to be modulated in this manner. Unexpectedly, we found that many nitrosylation sites are reversibly regulated by Trx1, suggesting a more prominent role for Trx1 in regulating S-nitrosylation.
Project description:Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) is ? antioxidant protein that regulates protein disulfide bond reduction, transnitrosylation, denitrosylation and other redox post-translational modifications. In order to better understand how Trx1 modulates downstream protective cellular signaling events following cardiac ischemia, we conducted an expression proteomics study of left ventricles (LVs) after thoracic aortic constriction stress treatment of transgenic mice with cardiac-specific over-expression of Trx1, an animal model that has been proven to withstand more stress than its non-transgenic littermates. Although previous redox post-translational modifications proteomics studies found that several cellular protein networks are regulated by Trx1-mediated disulfide reduction and transnitrosylation, we found that Trx1 regulates the expression of a limited number of proteins. Among the proteins found to be upregulated in this study was SET and MYND domain-containing protein 1 (SMYD1), a lysine methyltransferase highly expressed in cardiac and other muscle tissues and an important regulator of cardiac development. The observation of SMYD1 induction by Trx1 following thoracic aortic constriction stress is consistent with the retrograde fetal gene cardiac protection hypothesis. The results presented here suggest for the first time that, in addition to being a master redox regulator of protein disulfide bonds and nitrosation, Trx1 may also modulate lysine methylation, a non-redox post-translational modification, via the regulation of SMYD1 expression. Such crosstalk between redox signaling and a non-redox PTM regulation may provide novel insights into the functions of Trx1 that are independent from its immediate function as a protein reductase.
Project description:Energetic nutrients are oxidized to sustain high intracellular NADPH/NADP+ ratios. NADPH-dependent reduction of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) disulfide and glutathione disulfide by thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) and glutathione reductase (Gsr), respectively, fuels antioxidant systems and deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Mouse livers lacking both TrxR1 and Gsr sustain these essential activities using an NADPH-independent methionine-consuming pathway; however, it remains unclear how this reducing power is distributed. Here, we show that liver-specific co-disruption of the genes encoding Trx1, TrxR1, and Gsr (triple-null) causes dramatic hepatocyte hyperproliferation. Thus, even in the absence of Trx1, methionine-fueled glutathione production supports hepatocyte S phase deoxyribonucleotide production. Also, Trx1 in the absence of TrxR1 provides a survival advantage to cells under hyperglycemic stress, suggesting that glutathione, likely via glutaredoxins, can reduce Trx1 disulfide in vivo. In triple-null livers like in many cancers, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis places a critical yet relatively low-volume demand on these reductase systems, thereby favoring high hepatocyte turnover over sustained hepatocyte integrity.
Project description:The thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) is known to be secreted by leukocytes and to exhibit cytokine-like properties. Extracellular effects of Trx1 require a functional active site, suggesting a redox-based mechanism of action. However, specific cell surface proteins and pathways coupling extracellular Trx1 redox activity to cellular responses have not been identified so far. Using a mechanism-based kinetic trapping technique to identify disulfide exchange interactions on the intact surface of living lymphocytes, we found that Trx1 catalytically interacts with a single principal target protein. This target protein was identified as the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 8 (TNFRSF8/CD30). We demonstrate that the redox interaction is highly specific for both Trx1 and CD30 and that the redox state of CD30 determines its ability to engage the cognate ligand and transduce signals. Furthermore, we confirm that Trx1 affects CD30-dependent changes in lymphocyte effector function. Thus, we conclude that receptor-ligand signaling interactions can be selectively regulated by an extracellular redox catalyst.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Oxidative stress occurs with disturbed blood flow, inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet free-radical scavenging antioxidants have shown limited benefit in human CVD. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) is a thiol antioxidant protecting against non-radical oxidants by controlling protein thiol/disulfide status; Trx1 translocates from cytoplasm to cell nuclei due to stress signaling, facilitates DNA binding of transcription factors, e.g., NF-?B, and potentiates inflammatory signaling. Whether increased nuclear Trx1 contributes to proatherogenic signaling is unknown.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In vitro and in vivo atherogenic models were used to test for nuclear translocation of Trx1 and associated proinflammatory signaling. Disturbed flow by oscillatory shear stress stimulated Trx1 nuclear translocation in endothelial cells. Elevation of nuclear Trx1 in endothelial cells and transgenic (Tg) mice potentiated disturbed flow-stimulated proinflammatory signaling including NF-?B activation and increased expression of cell adhesion molecules and cytokines. Tg mice with increased nuclear Trx1 had increased carotid wall thickening due to disturbed flow but no significant differences in serum lipids or weight gain compared to wild type mice. Redox proteomics data of carotid arteries showed that disturbed flow stimulated protein thiol oxidation, and oxidation was higher in Tg mice than wild type mice.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Translocation of Trx1 from cytoplasm to cell nuclei plays an important role in disturbed flow-stimulated proatherogenesis with greater cytoplasmic protein oxidation and an enhanced nuclear transcription factor activity. The results suggest that pharmacologic interventions to inhibit nuclear translocation of Trx1 may provide a new approach to prevent inflammatory diseases or progression.
Project description:Thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa (TRP14, also called TXNDC17 for thioredoxin domain containing 17, or TXNL5 for thioredoxin-like 5) is an evolutionarily well-conserved member of the thioredoxin (Trx)-fold protein family that lacks activity with classical Trx1 substrates. However, we discovered here that human TRP14 has a high enzymatic activity in reduction of l-cystine, where the catalytic efficiency (2,217 min(-1)?µM(-1)) coupled to Trx reductase 1 (TrxR1) using NADPH was fivefold higher compared with Trx1 (418 min(-1)?µM(-1)). Moreover, the l-cystine reduction with TRP14 was in contrast to that of Trx1 fully maintained in the presence of a protein disulfide substrate of Trx1 such as insulin, suggesting that TRP14 is a more dedicated l-cystine reductase compared with Trx1. We also found that TRP14 is an efficient S-denitrosylase with similar efficiency as Trx1 in catalyzing TrxR1-dependent denitrosylation of S-nitrosylated glutathione or of HEK293 cell-derived S-nitrosoproteins. Consequently, nitrosylated and thereby inactivated caspase 3 or cathepsin B could be reactivated through either Trx1- or TRP14-catalyzed denitrosylation reactions. TRP14 was also, in contrast to Trx1, completely resistant to inactivation by high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. The oxidoreductase activities of TRP14 thereby complement those of Trx1 and must therefore be considered for the full understanding of enzymatic control of cellular thiols and nitrosothiols.
Project description:All organisms contain thioredoxin (TRX), a regulatory thiol:disulfide protein that reduces disulfide bonds in target proteins. Unlike animals and yeast, plants contain numerous TRXs for which no function has been assigned in vivo. Recent in vitro proteomic approaches have opened the way to the identification of >100 TRX putative targets, but of which none of the numerous plant TRXs can be specifically associated. In contrast, in vivo methodologies, including classical yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) systems, failed to reveal the expected high number of TRX targets. Here, we developed a yeast strain named CY306 designed to identify TRX targets in vivo by a Y2H approach. CY306 contains a GAL4 reporter system but also carries deletions of endogenous genes encoding cytosolic TRXs (TRX1 and TRX2) that presumably compete with TRXs introduced as bait. We demonstrate here that, in the CY306 strain, yeast TRX1 and TRX2, as well as Arabidopsis TRX introduced as bait, interact with known TRX targets or putative partners such as yeast peroxiredoxins AHP1 and TSA1, whereas the same interactions cannot be detected in classical Y2H strains. Thanks to CY306, we also show that TRXs interact with the phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase MET16 through a conserved cysteine. Moreover, interactions visualized in CY306 are highly specific depending on the TRX and targets tested. CY306 constitutes a relevant genetic system to explore the TRX interactome in vivo and with high specificity, and opens new perspectives in the search for new TRX-interacting proteins by Y2H library screening in organisms with multiple TRXs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: LEDGF/p75 (LEDGF) is the main cellular cofactor of HIV-1 integrase (IN). It acts as a tethering factor for IN, and targets the integration of HIV in actively transcribed gene regions of chromatin. A recently developed class of IN allosteric inhibitors can inhibit the LEDGF-IN interaction. RESULTS: We describe a new series of IN-LEDGF allosteric inhibitors, the most active of which is Mut101. We determined the crystal structure of Mut101 in complex with IN and showed that the compound binds to the LEDGF-binding pocket, promoting conformational changes of IN which explain at the atomic level the allosteric effect of the IN/LEDGF interaction inhibitor on IN functions. In vitro, Mut101 inhibited both IN-LEDGF interaction and IN strand transfer activity while enhancing IN-IN interaction. Time of addition experiments indicated that Mut101 behaved as an integration inhibitor. Mut101 was fully active on HIV-1 mutants resistant to INSTIs and other classes of anti-HIV drugs, indicative that this compound has a new mode of action. However, we found that Mut101 also displayed a more potent antiretroviral activity at a post-integration step. Infectivity of viral particles produced in presence of Mut101 was severely decreased. This latter effect also required the binding of the compound to the LEDGF-binding pocket. CONCLUSION: Mut101 has dual anti-HIV-1 activity, at integration and post-integration steps of the viral replication cycle, by binding to a unique target on IN (the LEDGF-binding pocket). The post-integration block of HIV-1 replication in virus-producer cells is the mechanism by which Mut101 is most active as an antiretroviral. To explain this difference between Mut101 antiretroviral activity at integration and post-integration stages, we propose the following model: LEDGF is a nuclear, chromatin-bound protein that is absent in the cytoplasm. Therefore, LEDGF can outcompete compound binding to IN in the nucleus of target cells lowering its antiretroviral activity at integration, but not in the cytoplasm where post-integration production of infectious viral particles takes place.