Risk factors and clinical features of ovarian pregnancy: a case-control study.
ABSTRACT: To identify risk factors for ovarian pregnancy (OP) and compare clinical features between OP and tubal pregnancy (TP) patients.Case-control study.University hospital.A case-control study was conducted from January 2005 to May 2014. Women diagnosed with OP were recruited as the case group (n=71), 145 women with TP and 146 with intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) were matched as controls at a ratio of 1:2:2. Women who refused interviews or provided incomplete information were excluded.OP risk was lower than TP risk in women with serological evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (adjusted OR1 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.52), previous adnexal surgery (adjusted OR1 0.25, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.95), and current levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive use (adjusted OR1 0.24, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.78). In vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) carried a higher risk of OP (adjusted OR1 12.18, 95% CI 2.23 to 66.58) than natural conception. When Controlled by IUP women, current users of intrauterine devices (IUDs) carried a higher risk of OP than non-users of any contraceptives (adjusted OR2 9.60, 95% CI 1.76 to 42.20). ?-Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels on the day of surgery were higher in OP patients than in TP patients (p<0.01). Women with OP were less likely to initially present with vaginal bleeding than those with TP (p=0.02). Moreover, shock (p=0.02), rupture (p<0.01), haemoperitoneum (p<0.01) and emergency laparotomy (p<0.01) were more common in the OP group than in the TP group.IVF-ET and IUD use may be risk factors for OP, and OP patients tend to have high ?-hCG levels and a poor clinical outcome (shock, rupture, haemoperitoneum and need for emergency laparotomy). Our findings may contribute to the prevention and early diagnosis of OP.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between the risk of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and the use of common contraceptives during the previous and current conception/menstrual cycle. METHODS:A multi-center case-control study was conducted in Shanghai. Women diagnosed with EP were recruited as the case group (n?=?2,411). Women with intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) (n?=?2,416) and non-pregnant women (n?=?2,419) were matched as controls at a ratio of 1?1. Information regarding the previous and current use of contraceptives was collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidential intervals (CIs). RESULTS:Previous use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) was associated with a slight risk of ectopic pregnancy (AOR1?=?1.87 [95% CI: 1.48-2.37]; AOR2?=?1.84 [1.49-2.27]), and the risk increased with the duration of previous use (P1 for trend <10-4, P2 for trend <10-4). The current use of most contraceptives reduced the risk of both unwanted IUP (condom: AOR?=?0.04 [0.03-0.05]; withdrawal method: AOR?=?0.10 [0.07-0.13]; calendar rhythm method: AOR?=?0.54 [0.40-0.73]; oral contraceptive pills [OCPs]: AOR?=?0.03 [0.02-0.08]; levonorgestrel emergency contraception [LNG-EC]: AOR?=?0.22 [0.16-0.30]; IUDs: AOR?=?0.01 [0.005-0.012]; tubal sterilization: AOR?=?0.01 [0.001-0.022]) and unwanted EP (condom: AOR1?=?0.05 [0.04-0.06]; withdrawal method: AOR1?=?0.13 [0.09-0.19]; calendar rhythm method: AOR1?=?0.66 [0.48-0.91]; OCPs: AOR1?=?0.14 [0.07-0.26]; IUDs: AOR1?=?0.17 [0.13-0.22]; tubal sterilization: AOR1?=?0.04 [0.02-0.08]). However, when contraception failed and pregnancy occurred, current use of OCPs (AOR2?=?4.06 [1.64-10.07]), LNG-EC (AOR2?=?4.87 [3.88-6.10]), IUDs (AOR2?=?21.08 [13.44-33.07]), and tubal sterilization (AOR2?=?7.68 [1.69-34.80]) increased the risk of EP compared with the non-use of contraceptives. CONCLUSION:Current use of most contraceptives reduce the risk of both IUP and EP. However, if the contraceptive method fails, the proportions of EP may be higher than those of non-users. In the case of contraceptive failure in the current cycle, EP cases should be differentiated according to current use of OCPs, LNG-EC, IUDs, and tubal sterilization. In addition, attention should be paid to women with previous long-term use of IUDs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (EP) in a population of Cameroonian women. SAMPLE AND METHODS:We performed a matched case-control study; 88 women with diagnosed EP (cases), and 176 women with first trimester intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) (controls), who underwent questionnaires. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and adjusted for potential confounding factors via multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Of the fifteen identified risk factors, 4 were independently associated with increased odds of EP: prior pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 13.18; 95% CI 6.19-27.42), followed by current use of levonorgestrel-only pills for emergency contraception (LNG-EC) (AOR 10.15; 95% CI 2.21-46.56), previous use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) (AOR 3.01; 95% CI 1.04-8.69) and smoking at the time of conception (AOR 2.68; 95% CI 1.12-6.40). CONCLUSION:The present study confirms the wide variety of EP's risk factors. Moreover, some new findings including current use of LNG-EC, previous use of DMPA, smoking at the time of conception are noteworthy. Thus, in our limited resources country where prevention remains the cornerstone for reducing EP chances of occurrence, clinicians should do enough counselling, especially to women with known risk factors. The necessity to facilitate access to more equipment to enable early diagnosis of EP is very crucial and should be seriously considered, in order to reduce the burden of EP in Cameroonian women.
Project description:Although prior studies have shown that smoking reduces preeclampsia/eclampsia risk, the consequence of giving up this habit during pregnancy should be assessed. The aims of the current study were threefold: (i) describe maternal characteristics of women with preeclampsia/eclampsia; (ii) examine a possible association between the number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy and the development of this affliction; and (iii) determine if first-trimester discontinuation of smoking during pregnancy influences the risk.A registry-based study was conducted using data from the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). It included women without pre-existing hypertension, who delivered a singleton infant during 2006-2011 and had attended the first antenatal visit before 12 week of gestation. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression.The prevalence of preeclampsia/eclampsia was 8.3% (95%CI: 8.0-8.6). Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia (adjusted OR1-5 cig/day = 0.69 with 95%CI: 0.56-0.87; OR6-10 cig/day = 0.65 with 95%CI: 0.51-0.82; and OR≥11 cig/day = 0.49 with 95%CI: 0.30-0.81). There was no difference in this risk among women who smoked before and during pregnancy and those who did so before but not during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.10 with 95%CI: 0.91-1.32).Preeclampsia/eclampsia was associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain, and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a negative dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the odds of preeclampsia/eclampsia. However, women who gave up smoking during the first trimester of gestation had the same risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia as those who smoked while pregnant. Consequently, antenatal clinic specialists are advised to take these various observations into account when counselling women on smoking cessation during pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pregnant teenage women are prime targets of violence against women perpetrated by intimate partners, family members, and miscreants in their neighborhoods. This study estimated the prevalence of Teenage pregnancy (TP) and Physical Violence (PV) and further assessed the relationship between TP and PV in five Low-and-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). METHODS:The study was conducted among five LIMCs (Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania) using data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in these countries. Modified Poisson with the robust standard error was used to quantify the association between TP and PV. All analyses adjusted for the complex survey design structure (clustering, weighting, and stratification). RESULTS:The analysis involved a total of 26055 adolescent women aged 15-19 years across the five countries. The overall prevalence of TP was 25.4% (95%CI = 24.4-26.4) with the highest prevalence occurring among Malawians [29.0% (95%CI = 27.4-30.7)]. Meanwhile, the prevalence of TP among older adolescents (18-19 years) was approximately two-thirds significantly higher compared with young adolescents [aPR(95%CI) = 1.60[1.49-1.71)]. The prevalence of PV among teenagers across the five countries was 24.2% (95%CI = 22.3-26.2). The highest prevalence of PV was recorded among Nigerian adolescent women [31.8% (95%CI = 28.5-35.3)]. The prevalence of PV among adolescent women who were pregnant was approximately 5-folds significant compared to those who were not pregnant (adjusted prevalence ratio; aPR = 4.70; 95% CI: 3.86-5.73; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION:There was a high prevalence of pregnancy among older teenagers aged 18-19 years. Close to a quarter of teenage women ever experienced physical violence. Pregnant teenage women ever experience of physical violence was very high compared to non-pregnant peers. Intervention should target PV and TP by adopting a gender-sensitive approach to eliminate physical violence, particularly among teenagers to prevent TP.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the association of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) with the risk of diabetes in Koreans. Korean men (n = 790, 40-79 years) who had been never diagnosed for diabetes before participating were enrolled. Subjects were categorized into normal fasting glucose (NFG, n = 519), impaired fasting glucose (IFG, n = 188) and newly-onset diabetes (n = 83) according to fasting glucose levels. Age was not significantly different among the subgroups. Mean values of BMI, waist circumference, Blood pressure(BP), triglyceride, non-HDL cholesterol were significantly higher in IFG or newly-onset diabetic subjects compared to NFG subjects. The levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, insulin resistance and ApoB were highest in diabetic patients and lowest in NFG subjects. According to ApoB level, subjects were divided into two groups (high-ApoB group: ? 87.0 mg/dL vs. low-ApoB group: < 87.0 mg/dL). The risk of diabetes was higher in the high-ApoB group than the low-ApoB group [OR0: 2.392, (95% CI: 1.470-3.893), P0 < 0.001]. This association was maintained after adjusted for age and BMI [OR1: 2.228, (95% CI: 1.362-3.646), P1 = 0.001] and further adjustment for blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, ApoA1 and adiponectin [OR2: 1.984, (95% CI: 1.001-4.064), P2 = 0.049]. The association was much greater in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) [OR1: 2.805 (95% CI: 1.137-5.737), P1 = 0.005] than in those without [OR1: 1.917 (95% CI: 0.989-3.718), P1 = 0.054]. After 3-month, further investigation was randomly performed in subjects with NFG or IFG who agreed to reinvestigation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that net change of ApoB levels was a main contributor to the net change of glucose levels (standardized b-coefficient: 0.315, p = 0.002). In conclusion, ApoB levels are closely associated with the increased risk of diabetes in Korean men.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare the natural fertility outcomes of salpingotomy and salpingectomy among women treated for tubal pregnancy. METHODS:An online database search including PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and Web of Science was performed to identify studies comparing salpingotomy and salpingectomy to treat women with tubal pregnancy. The search included papers published after the databases were established until May 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and then extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of all of the included studies. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software. The registration number is CRD42015017545 in PROSPERO. RESULTS:Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and eight cohort studies, including a total of 1,229 patients, were znalyzed. The meta-analysis of the RCT subgroup indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in IUP rates (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.89-1.21, P = 0.61) nor the repeat ectopic pregnancy (REP) rate (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.72-2.38, P = 0.39) between the salpingotomy and salpingectomy group. In contrast, the cohort study subgroup analysis revealed that the IUP rate was higher in the salpingotomy group compared with the salpingectomy group (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.08-1.42, P = 0.002); Salpingotomy also increased the risk of REP rate (RR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.12-4.58, P = 0.02). The persistent ectopic pregnancy (PEP) occurred more frequently in the salpingotomy group than the salpingectomy group (RR = 11.61, 95% CI = 3.17-42.46, P = 0.0002). An IUP would be more likely to occur after salpingotomy than salpingectomy when the follow-up time was more than 36 months (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02-1.32, P = 0.03). The IUP rate (RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01-1.26, P = 0.03), and the REP rate (RR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02-2.56, P = 0.04) was higher after salpingotomy than salpingectomy among patients from Europe compared with those from America. CONCLUSIONS:Based on the available evidence, we believe that for patients with a healthy contralateral tube operated for tubal pregnancy, the subsequent fertility after salpingectomy and salpingotomy are similar in the long term. The fertility prospects will not be improved via salpingotomy compared with salpingectomy.
Project description:Tumor suppressor p53 directly regulated the abundance of the miR-34b/c. The interaction might contribute to certain cancer. We hypothesized that rs4938723 in the promoter region of pri-miR-34b/c and TP-53 Arg72Pro may be related to the risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 784 patients with PTC and 1006 healthy controls were recruited to participate in this study. The variants were discriminated using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Additionally, the relative expression levels of miR-34b/c and TP-53 in 44 paired samples were revealed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A significantly increased risk of PTC was observed in the miR-34b/c rs4938723 CT, CC, and CT/CC genotypes compared with the TT genotype (CT vs TT: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95%confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-1.85; CC vs TT: adjusted OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.39-2.63; CT/CC vs TT: adjusted OR = 1.59, 95%CI = 1.30-1.92, respectively). Significantly increased PTC susceptibility was also associated with the TP-53 Arg72Pro CC and CG/CC genotypes compared with the GG genotype (CC vs GG: adjusted OR = 2.04, 95%CI = 1.54-2.70; CG/CC vs GG: adjusted OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.11-1.67, respectively). Stratification analysis revealed that patients carrying the TP-53 Arg72Pro C allele and CC genotype had a significantly increased risk for developing N1 (C vs. G: OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.03-1.56; CC vs. GG: OR = 1.62, 95%CI = 1.07-2.46, respectively). Combined analysis showed that the genotypes of rs4938723 CT/CC + TP-53CG/CC increased the risk of PTC compared with rs4938723TT + TP-53GG (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = 1.67-3.03). Additionally, level of miR-34b was significantly upregulated in PTC patients.These findings indicate that the miR-34b/c rs4938723 and TP-53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms may contribute to the susceptibility of PTC.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most commonly used insecticides. OPs have been linked to cancer risk in some epidemiological studies, which have been largely conducted in predominantly male populations. We evaluated personal use of specific OPs and cancer incidence among female spouses of pesticide applicators in the prospective Agricultural Health Study cohort. METHODS:At enrolment (1993-1997), spouses provided information about ever use of specific pesticides, including 10 OPs, demographic information, reproductive health history and other potential confounders. We used Poisson regression to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs for all cancers diagnosed through 2010 for North Carolina and through 2011 for Iowa. RESULTS:Among 30,003 women, 25.9% reported OP use, and 718 OP-exposed women were diagnosed with cancer during the follow-up period. Any OP use was associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer (RR=1.20, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.43). Malathion, the most commonly reported OP, was associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer (RR=2.04, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.63) and decreased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.99). Diazinon use was associated with ovarian cancer (RR=1.87, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.43). CONCLUSIONS:We observed increased risk with OP use for several hormonally-related cancers, including breast, thyroid and ovary, suggesting potential for hormonally-mediated effects. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of OP use and cancer risk among women, and thus demonstrates a need for further evaluation.
Project description:Background:Clinical evidence suggests that body muscle mass is positively associated with bone mass, of significance for the elderly population at risk of osteoporosis (OP). Furthermore, muscle and bone interact mechanically and functionally, via local interactions as well as remotely via secreted components. Thus, it was of interest to compare muscle transcriptomes in postmenopausal OP and healthy women, and study effects of strength training on the muscle transcriptome, muscle stress proteins and bone mineral density (BMD). Methods:Skeletal muscle histological and genetic properties were compared in postmenopausal healthy (n?=?18) and OP (n?=?17) women before and after heavy-load strength training for 13-15?weeks. The cohorts were of similar age and body mass index without interfering diseases, medication or difference in lifestyle factors. Muscle biopsies obtained before and after intervention were studied histologically, and stress proteins and transcriptomes analyzed. Results:The OP women showed distinct muscle transcription profiles when compared with healthy women and had higher levels of the stress proteins HSP70 and ?-?-crystalline. A set of 12 muscle transcripts, including ACSS3, FZD4, GNAI1 and IGF1, were differentially expressed before and after intervention (false discovery rate??0.10, p??0.001), and their corresponding bone transcripts were associated with BMD. Experimental data underline and describe the functionality of these genes in bone biology. OP women had 8% (p?<0.01) higher proportion of type I fibres, but muscle fibre cross-sectional area did not differ. Muscle strength increased in both groups (p?<0.01). Conclusions:Postmenopausal healthy and OP women have distinct muscle transcriptomes [messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and microRNAs] that are modulated by strength training, translating into key protein alterations and muscle fibre changes. The function of common skeletal muscle and bone genes in postmenopausal OP is suggestive of a shared disease trait.
Project description:Pesticides have been associated with reproductive disorders, but there is limited research on pesticide exposures and human fertility.We aimed to investigate the effects of preconception exposure to pesticides on time to pregnancy (TTP) and on infertility in a general population of couples planning to become pregnant in Shanghai, China.A total of 615 women who were planning a pregnancy were enrolled before conception and were prospectively followed for 1 y to observe their TTP. Preconception pesticide exposures were assessed by measuring urinary metabolites of organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids (PYRs). Fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and odds ratios (ORs) of infertility were estimated using Cox and logistic regression models, respectively. All analyses were repeated after restricting the sample to nulliparous women (n=569).After adjusting for age, prepregnancy BMI, current smoking, education, annual household income, age at menarche, and two items from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), women in the highest quartile of diethylthiophosphate (DETP; an OP metabolite) had significantly longer TTP [adjusted FOR=0.68 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.92)] and increased infertility [adjusted OR=2.17 (95% CI: 1.19, 3.93)] compared with women in the lowest quartile. The highest versus lowest quartile of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA; a PYR metabolite) was associated with longer TTP and infertility, with significant associations in nulliparous women [adjusted FOR=0.72 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.98); adjusted OR for infertility=2.03 (95% CI: 1.10, 3.74)].Our study provides some of the first evidence that preconception OP and PYR exposures are associated with decreased fertility in Chinese couples. Given that OPs and PYRs are rapidly metabolized in humans, more studies are needed to confirm our findings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2987.