Correlates and Consequences of Opioid Misuse among High-Risk Young Adults.
ABSTRACT: Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18-25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16-25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse, recency of misuse, and alternate modes of administration within the past 12 months, 3 months, and 30 days. Results. Four latent classes emerged that were differentially associated with heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use, tranquilizer misuse, daily opioid misuse, and opioid withdrawal. Alternate modes of administering opioids were associated with increased risk for these outcomes. Sociodemographic factors, homelessness, prescription history, and history of parental drug use were significantly associated with riskier opioid misuse trajectories. Conclusion. Young adults who reported more debilitating experiences as children and adolescents misused opioids longer and engaged in higher risk alternate modes of administering opioids. Data on decisions both to use and to alter a drug's form can be combined to describe patterns of misuse over time and predict important risk behaviors.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Prescription opioids were responsible for approximately 17,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2016. One in five prescription opioid deaths also involve alcohol. Drinkers who misuse prescription opioids (i.e., use without a prescription or use only for the experience or feeling it causes) are at a heightened risk of overdose. However, little is known about the relationship between drinking patterns and prescription opioid misuse. METHODS:Data were analyzed from 160,812 individuals (aged ?12 years) who responded to questions about prescription opioid misuse and alcohol consumption in the 2012, 2013, or 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (analyzed in 2017-2018). The prevalence of self-reported past-30-days prescription opioid misuse was assessed by sociodemographic characteristics, other substance use (i.e., cigarettes, marijuana), and drinking patterns. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate AORs. RESULTS:From 2012 to 2014, 1.6% (95% CI=1.5, 1.7) of all individuals aged ?12 years (estimated 4.2 million) and 3.5% (95% CI=3.3, 3.8) of binge drinkers (estimated 2.2 million) reported prescription opioid misuse. Prescription opioid misuse was more common among binge drinkers than among nondrinkers (AOR=1.7, 95% CI=1.5, 1.9). Overall, the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse increased significantly with binge drinking frequency (p-value<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:More than half of the 4.2 million people who misused prescription opioids during 2012-2014 were binge drinkers, and binge drinkers had nearly twice the odds of misusing prescription opioids, compared with nondrinkers. Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing binge drinking might reduce opioid misuse and overdoses involving alcohol.
Project description:BACKGROUND:US opioid overdose deaths continue to climb, with a 12.0% increase from 2016 to 2017. Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, has been a major contributor to opioid-related overdose deaths. While fentanyl-related overdose is driven by illicit fentanyl, little is known about individuals who misuse prescription fentanyl, which is also linked to elevated overdose and mortality risk. This work aimed to fill that gap through analyses of prescription fentanyl misuse correlates. METHODS:Data were from the 2015-16 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N?=?114,043), a nationally representative survey of the non-institutionalized US population. Respondents were (all past-year): those misusing prescription fentanyl (PF); those misusing other (non-fentanyl) prescription opioids (NFPO); and population controls. Respondent groups were compared using multinomial regression on sociodemographics, physical health, mental health and substance use. The PF and NFPO misuse groups were compared on opioid misuse characteristics, using logistic regression. RESULTS:An estimated 4.4% misused NFPO, and 0.1% misused PF (past-year). Past-year heroin use was more common in those who misused PF (44.3%) than those who misused other NFPO (4.4%; relative risk ratio [RRR]?=?7.1, 95%CI?=?3.7-13.9) or population controls (0.1%, RRR?=?35.1, 95%CI?=?17.3-71.1). Non-alcohol substance use disorder (SUD) was similarly elevated in those who misused PF (78.7%) versus the other NFPO group (27.5%, RRR?=?3.8, 95%CI?=?1.8-8.2) or population controls (1.6%, RRR?=?20.6, 95%CI?=?9.4-45.5). CONCLUSIONS:Respondents who misused prescription fentanyl were both more drug-involved generally and opioid-involved specifically; and likely need a combination of significant interventions and monitoring for their polysubstance use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prescription opioid misuse has become a leading cause of unintentional injury and death among adolescents and young adults in the United States. However, there is limited information on how adolescents and young adults obtain prescription opioids. There are also inadequate recent data on the prevalence of additional drug abuse among those misusing prescription opioids. In this study, we evaluated past-year prevalence of prescription opioid use and misuse, sources of prescription opioids, and additional substance use among adolescents and young adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This was a retrospective analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for the years 2015 and 2016. Prevalence of opioid use, misuse, use disorder, and additional substance use were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by age group and other demographic variables. Sources of prescription opioids were determined for respondents reporting opioid misuse. We calculated past-year prevalence of opioid use and misuse with or without use disorder, sources of prescription opioids, and prevalence of additional substance use. We included 27,857 adolescents (12-17 years of age) and 28,213 young adults (18-25 years of age) in our analyses, corresponding to 119.3 million individuals in the extrapolated national population. There were 15,143 respondents (27.5% [95% CI 27.0-28.0], corresponding to 32.8 million individuals) who used prescription opioids in the previous year, including 21.0% (95% CI 20.4-21.6) of adolescents and 32.2% (95% CI 31.4-33.0) of young adults. Significantly more females than males reported using any prescription opioid (30.3% versus 24.8%, P < 0.001), and non-Hispanic whites and blacks were more likely to have had any opioid use compared to Hispanics (28.9%, 28.1%, and 25.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Opioid misuse was reported by 1,050 adolescents (3.8%; 95% CI 3.5-4.0) and 2,207 young adults (7.8%; 95% CI 7.3-8.2; P < 0.001). Male respondents using opioids were more likely to have opioid misuse without use disorder compared with females (23.2% versus 15.8%, respectively; P < 0.001), with similar prevalence by race/ethnicity. Among those misusing opioids, 55.7% obtained them from friends or relatives, 25.4% from the healthcare system, and 18.9% through other means. Obtaining opioids free from friends or relatives was the most common source for both adolescents (33.5%) and young adults (41.4%). Those with opioid misuse reported high prevalence of prior cocaine (35.5%), hallucinogen (49.4%), heroin (8.7%), and inhalant (30.4%) use. In addition, at least half had used tobacco (55.5%), alcohol (66.9%), or cannabis (49.9%) in the past month. Potential limitations of the study are that we cannot exclude selection bias in the study design or socially desirable reporting among participants, and that longitudinal data are not available for long-term follow-up of individuals. CONCLUSIONS:Results from this study suggest that the prevalence of prescription opioid use among adolescents and young adults in the US is high despite known risks for future opioid and other drug use disorders. Reported prescription opioid misuse is common among adolescents and young adults and often associated with additional substance abuse, underscoring the importance of drug and alcohol screening programs in this population. Prevention and treatment efforts should take into account that greater than half of youths misusing prescription opioids obtain these medications through friends and relatives.
Project description:Objective: To provide a broad overview of the state of drug misuse research, particularly focusing on opioid drug use in the U.S.A. Design: An overview of published reviews of the literature. Results: Prescription opioid use has increased globally from 2008 to 2013, while use of opiates such as heroin and opium have remained stable in many countries, although, decreases have been observed in parts of Europe. Opioid misuse is highest in the United States; approximately 11.8 million Americans misused opioids in 2016. Demographic, genetic, psychosocial and structural/environmental factors all play a role in determining who will become an opioid misuser. Strategies such as increased prescribing of non-opioid derived pain relievers, expansion of medication treatment, distribution of naloxone for overdose reversal and supervised consumption sites are some of the solutions posed to reduce the spread and consequences of opioid misuse. Conclusion: Research focused on understanding of opioid neurobiology, as well as empirically based, effective alternatives to pain management and implementation studies on combined prevention and treatment approaches are needed. It will take the combined effort of community members, healthcare professionals, policymakers and researchers in order to prevent and treat opioid misuse.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The authors sought to simultaneously examine the prevalence and correlates of prescription stimulant use, misuse, use disorders, and motivations for misuse in the U.S. adult population. METHOD:This was a nationally representative household population study of adults age 18 or older from the 2015 and 2016 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=102,000). Measurements included prescription stimulant use, use without misuse, misuse without use disorders, and misuse with use disorders, as well as sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and mental health factors. RESULTS:Among U.S. adults, 6.6% (annual average) used prescription stimulants overall; 4.5% used without misuse, 1.9% misused without use disorders, and 0.2% had use disorders. Adults with past-year prescription stimulant use disorders did not differ from those with misuse without use disorders in any of the examined sociodemographic characteristics and in many of the examined substance use problems. The most commonly reported motivations for misuse were to help be alert or concentrate (56.3%). The most likely source of misused prescription stimulants was by obtaining them free from friends or relatives (56.9%). More frequent prescription stimulant misuse and use disorder were associated with an increased likelihood of obtaining medications from physicians or from drug dealers or strangers and less likelihood of obtaining them from friends or relatives. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately 16.0 million U.S. adults used prescription stimulants in the preceding year (annual average), 5.0 million misused prescription stimulants, and 0.4 million had use disorders. Cognitive enhancement was the most commonly reported reason for misusing prescription stimulants. Patients who are using their medication for cognitive enhancement or diverting their medication to others present a high risk.
Project description:Despite increasing rates of prescription opioid (PO) misuse in adults 50 years of age and older, little research has investigated such misuse in this population. This work aimed to examine sources of misused opioid medication in adults 50 years and older, with comparisons to younger groups. Data were from the 2009 to 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health surveys. Prevalence rates of PO sources, misuse, and PO use disorder (POUD) symptoms were estimated. Design-based logistic regression investigated age-based differences in these factors and the association of sources with POUD symptoms and other concurrent substance use. Nearly half (47.7%) of adults 65 years and older used physician sources for past 30-day PO misuse, with the second highest rates in those 50 to 64 years old (39.2%). Conversely, use of theft (5.3%), purchases (8.5%), or friends/family (for free; 23.2%) to obtain opioids were least common in adults 65 years and older, with prevalence rates of these sources in those 50 years and older closer to those of younger groups. Across those 50 years and older, use of purchases, physician, or multiple sources were associated with elevated POUD symptom prevalence. Older adults, particularly those 65 years and older, use a different pattern of PO sources than adolescents or younger adults, and those using physician sources have elevated POUD symptoms. Physicians are a key avenue for older adults to obtain opioids for misuse, highlighting the potential role of clinicians in limiting such misuse.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Overuse and misuse of prescription opioids have become signi?cant public health burdens in the United States. About 11.5 million people are estimated to have misused prescription opioids for nonmedical purposes in 2016. This has led to a signi?cant number of drug overdose deaths in the United States. Previous studies have examined spatiotemporal clusters of opioid misuse, but they have been restricted to circular shaped regions. OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study was to identify spatiotemporal hot spots of opioid users and opioid prescription claims using Medicare data. METHODS:We examined spatiotemporal clusters with signi?cantly higher number of bene?ciaries and rate of prescriptions for opioids using Medicare payment data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. We used network scan statistics to detect signi?cant clusters with arbitrary shapes, the Kulldorff scan statistic to examine the signi?cant clusters for each year (2013, 2014, and 2015) and an expectation-based version to examine the signi?cant clusters relative to past years. Regression analysis was used to characterize the demographics of the counties that are a part of any signi?cant cluster, and data mining techniques were used to discover the specialties of the anomalous providers. RESULTS:We examined anomalous spatial clusters with respect to opioid prescription claims and bene?ciary counts and found some common patterns across states: the counties in the most anomalous clusters were fairly stable in 2014 and 2015, but they have shrunk from 2013. In Virginia, a higher percentage of African Americans in a county lower the odds of the county being anomalous in terms of opioid beneficiary counts to about 0.96 in 2015. For opioid prescription claim counts, the odds were 0.92. This pattern was consistent across the 3 states and across the 3 years. A higher number of people in the county with access to Medicaid increased the odds of the county being in the anomalous cluster to 1.16 in both types of counts in Virginia. A higher number of people with access to direct purchase of insurance plans decreased the odds of a county being in an anomalous cluster to 0.85. The expectation-based scan statistic, which captures change over time, revealed different clusters than the Kulldorff statistic. Providers with an unusually high number of opioid beneficiaries and opioid claims include specialties such as physician's assistant, nurse practitioner, and family practice. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis of the Medicare claims data provides characteristics of the counties and provider specialties that have higher odds of being anomalous. The empirical analysis identifies highly refined spatial hot spots that are likely to encounter prescription opioid misuse and overdose. The methodology is generic and can be applied to monitor providers and their prescription behaviors in regions that are at a high risk of abuse.
Project description:This study examined the distribution of opioid prescribing across providers and patients and the extent to which concentrated distribution predicts opioid misuse.Using 2013 Oregon Medicaid claims and the National Provider Identifier Registry, this study identified patients who filled at least one opioid prescription and providers who prescribed opioids for those patients (N=61,477 Medicaid beneficiaries). This study examined the distribution of opioid prescriptions by provider and patient, the extent to which high-volume opioid use was associated with potential opioid misuse, and how this association changed when patients received opioids from providers in the top decile of morphine-equivalent doses (MEQ) prescribed in 2013. This study used four indicators of opioid misuse: doctor and pharmacy shopping for opioid prescriptions, opioid prescription overlap, and opioid and benzodiazepine prescription overlap.Opioid use and prescriptions were heavily concentrated among the top 10% of opioid users and prescribers. Those high-volume opioid users and prescribers accounted for, respectively, 83.2% and 80.8% in MEQ of entire opioids prescribed. Patients' increasing use of opioids (by MEQ) was associated with most measures of opioid misuse. Patients receiving opioids from high-volume prescribers had a higher probability of opioid prescription overlap and opioid and benzodiazepine prescription overlap compared with other patients, but the difference was significant only among patients who received high doses of opioids, and the size of the difference was modest.Whereas current policies emphasize reducing opioid prescriptions across all patients and providers, study results suggest that focusing policies on high-volume opioid users and prescribers may be more beneficial.
Project description:Prior research has shown associations between opioid misuse and suicidal behaviors, but the relationship between medical opioid use and suicidal behaviors is not known. We assessed associations of opioid use and misuse with suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among adults aged 18-64 years (n = 86,186) using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015 and 2016 administrations of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate associations between opioid use/misuse and suicidal behaviors and propensity score-weighted logistic regression analysis to examine the counterfactual scenario in which persons with misuse had instead not misused opioids. In propensity score-weighted analyses, compared with opioid misuse, opioid use without misuse was associated with lower odds of suicidal ideation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45, 0.72) and suicide plans (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.80), and no use was associated with lower odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.80), suicide plans (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79), and suicide attempts (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.89). These findings suggest that opioid misuse is associated with greater odds of suicidal behaviors, but opioid use without misuse is not. Compared with persons with opioid misuse, similar persons without misuse have a reduced risk of suicidal behaviors. Clinical and public health interventions should focus on preventing misuse of opioids.
Project description:Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention.