Dietary tomato and lycopene impact androgen signaling- and carcinogenesis-related gene expression during early TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Consumption of tomato products containing the carotenoid lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. To identify gene expression patterns associated with early testosterone-driven prostate carcinogenesis, which are impacted by dietary tomato and lycopene, wild-type (WT) and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice were fed control or tomato- or lycopene-containing diets from 4 to 10 weeks of age. Eight-week-old mice underwent sham surgery, castration, or castration followed by testosterone repletion (2.5 mg/kg/d initiated 1 week after castration). Ten-week-old intact TRAMP mice exhibit early multifocal prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Of the 200 prostate cancer-related genes measured by quantitative NanoString, 189 are detectable, 164 significantly differ by genotype, 179 by testosterone status, and 30 by diet type (P < 0.05). In TRAMP, expression of Birc5, Mki67, Aurkb, Ccnb2, Foxm1, and Ccne2 is greater compared with WT and is decreased by castration. In parallel, castration reduces Ki67-positive staining (P < 0.0001) compared with intact and testosterone-repleted TRAMP mice. Expression of genes involved in androgen metabolism/signaling pathways is reduced by lycopene feeding (Srd5a1) and by tomato feeding (Srd5a2, Pxn, and Srebf1). In addition, tomato feeding significantly reduced expression of genes associated with stem cell features, Aldh1a and Ly6a, whereas lycopene feeding significantly reduced expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related genes, Ngfr and Syp. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a profile of testosterone-regulated genes associated with early prostate carcinogenesis that are potential mechanistic targets of dietary tomato components. Future studies on androgen signaling/metabolism, stem cell features, and neuroendocrine differentiation pathways may elucidate the mechanisms by which dietary tomato and lycopene impact prostate cancer risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human plasma and tissue lycopene concentrations are heterogeneous even when consuming controlled amounts of tomato or lycopene. OBJECTIVES:Our objective is to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near known or putative carotenoid metabolism genes [?-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase 1 (BCO1), scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), apolipoprotein B-48, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 2 (ELOVL2), and ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), and an intergenic superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial-associated SNP] are predictive of plasma lycopene responses to steady state tomato juice consumption. METHODS:Secondary linear regression analyses of data from a dose-escalation study of prostate cancer patients [n = 47; mean ± SEM age: 60 ± 1 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 32 ± 1] consuming 0, 1, or 2 cans of tomato-soy juice/d (163 mL/can; 20.6 mg lycopene 1.2 mg ?-carotene/can) for 24 ± 0.7 d before prostatectomy were conducted to explore 11 SNP genotype effects on the change in plasma lycopene and plasma and prostate tissue concentrations of lycopene, ?-carotene, phytoene, and phytofluene. RESULTS:Two BCO1 SNP genotypes were significant predictors of the change in plasma lycopene, with SNP effects differing in magnitude and direction, depending on the level of juice intake (rs12934922 × diet group P = 0.02; rs6564851 × diet group P = 0.046). Further analyses suggested that plasma ?-carotene changes were predicted by BCO1 rs12934922 (P < 0.01), prostate lycopene by trending interaction and main effects of BCO1 SNPs (rs12934922 × diet group P = 0.09; rs12934922 P = 0.02; rs6564851 P = 0.053), and prostate ?-carotene by BCO1 SNP interaction and main effects (rs12934922 × diet group P = 0.01; rs12934922 P < 0.01; rs7501331 P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, SNPs in BCO1 and other genes may modulate human plasma and prostate tissue responses to dietary lycopene intake and warrant validation in larger, human controlled feeding intervention and cohort studies. Genetic variants related to carotenoid metabolism may partially explain heterogeneous human blood and tissue responses and may be critical covariates for population studies and clinical trials. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01009736.
Project description:Studies suggest that micronutrients may modify the risk or delay progression of prostate cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We examined the effects of lycopene and fish oil on prostate gene expression in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.Eighty-four men with low risk prostate cancer were stratified based on self-reported dietary consumption of fish and tomatoes and then randomly assigned to a 3-month intervention of lycopene (n?=?29) or fish oil (n?=?27) supplementation or placebo (n?=?28). Gene expression in morphologically normal prostate tissue was studied at baseline and at 3 months via cDNA microarray analysis. Differential gene expression and pathway analyses were performed to identify genes and pathways modulated by these micronutrients.Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant individual genes that were associated with high intake of fish or tomato at baseline or after 3 months of supplementation with lycopene or fish oil. However, exploratory pathway analyses of rank-ordered genes (based on p-values not corrected for multiple comparisons) revealed the modulation of androgen and estrogen metabolism in men who routinely consumed more fish (p?=?0.029) and tomato (p?=?0.008) compared to men who ate less. In addition, modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism (p?=?0.01) was observed after 3 months of fish oil supplementation compared with the placebo group; and modulation of nuclear factor (erythroid derived-2) factor 2 or Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response for either supplement versus placebo (fish oil: p?=?0.01, lycopene: p?=?0.001).We did not detect significant individual genes associated with dietary intake and supplementation of lycopene and fish oil. However, exploratory analyses revealed candidate in vivo pathways that may be modulated by these micronutrients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00402285.
Project description:Animal and epidemiological studies suggest that lycopene and fish oil may modify the risk or delay progression of prostate cancer, however, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We examined the effects of these micronutrients on prostate gene expression in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (Molecular Effects of Nutritional Supplements, MENS). Eighty-four men with low risk prostate cancer were stratified based on self-reported dietary consumption of fish and tomatoes and then randomly assigned to a 3-month intervention of lycopene (intervention B; n = 29) or fish oil (intervention C; n = 27) supplementation or placebo (intervention A; n = 28). Gene expression in morphologically normal prostate tissue was studied at baseline and at 3 months via cDNA microarray analysis. Differential gene expression and pathway analyses were performed to identify genes and pathways modulated by dietary intake of fish or tomato or by lycopene or fish oil supplementation.
Project description:Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) ?mol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) ?mol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) ?mol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) ?mol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and biodistribution.
Project description:Lycopene is more bioavailable in processed tomato products than in raw tomatoes, since arrangement of cis-isomers of lycopene during food processing and storage may increase its biological activity. The aim of the study is evaluate the influence of lycopene content from different tomato-based food products (extract, paste, ketchup and sauce) on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and rate of apoptosis of human prostate cancer cell lines. DU-145 and PC-3 cell lines were treated with lycopene content from different tomato-based food products (500-5000 μg/mL) for 96 h. The data showed a decrease in cell viability in both DU-145 and PC-3 cells after treatment with all lycopene extracts from tomato-based food products. Analysis of cell cycle revealed a decrease in the percentage of prostate cancer cells in G0/G1 and G2/M phases after 96 h of treatment when using lycopene content from tomato paste and tomato extract. However, lycopene extracted from tomato sauce and ketchup promoted a decrease in the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase and an increase in S and G2/M phases after 96 h of treatment. Lycopene content from all of those tomato-based food products also increased apoptosis in both prostate cancer cell lines. In this regard, lycopene has proved to be a potent inhibitor of cell viability, arrest cell cycle and increase the apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells, suggesting an effect in the balance of human prostate cancer cell lines growth.
Project description:The most appropriate time to introduce androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer remains controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of early versus delayed surgical castration on prostate cancer progression and survival in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. TRAMP mice were randomly divided into three groups: the early castration group (on which castration was performed at the age of 4 weeks), the delayed castration group (on which castration was performed when abdominal tumours could be palpated), and the sham-castrated group. Mice were monitored daily throughout their lives until cancer-related death or the development of an obviously moribund appearance, at which time the individual mouse was killed. Androgen receptor expression in prostate tumours was also evaluated. The results shows that the average lifespan in early castration, delayed castration and sham-castrated groups were 54.1 weeks, 59.9 weeks and 39.1 weeks, respectively. Both early castration and delayed castration conferred a statistically significant survival advantage when compared with the sham-castrated group (P<0.001). However, the difference in lifespan between the early castration group and the delayed castration group was not statistically significant (P=0.85). The increase in lifespan in the TRAMP mice that received either early or delayed castration correlated with lower G/B value (genitourinary tract weight/body weight) at death than the sham-castrated mice. In conclusion, early and delayed castrations in TRAMP mice prolonged survival to a similar extent. This finding may provide a guide for clinical practice in prostate cancer therapy.
Project description:Animal and epidemiological studies suggest that lycopene and fish oil may modify the risk or delay progression of prostate cancer, however, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We examined the effects of these micronutrients on prostate gene expression in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (Molecular Effects of Nutritional Supplements, MENS). Overall design: Eighty-four men with low risk prostate cancer were stratified based on self-reported dietary consumption of fish and tomatoes and then randomly assigned to a 3-month intervention of lycopene (intervention B; n = 29) or fish oil (intervention C; n = 27) supplementation or placebo (intervention A; n = 28). Gene expression in morphologically normal prostate tissue was studied at baseline and at 3 months via cDNA microarray analysis. Differential gene expression and pathway analyses were performed to identify genes and pathways modulated by dietary intake of fish or tomato or by lycopene or fish oil supplementation.
Project description:Background:Tomato and soy intake is associated with reduced prostate cancer risk or severity in epidemiologic and experimental studies. Objective:On the basis of the principle that multiple bioactives in tomato and soy may act on diverse anticancer pathways, we developed and characterized a tomato-soy juice for clinical trials. In this phase 2 dose-escalating study, we examined plasma, prostate, and urine biomarkers of carotenoid and isoflavone exposure. Methods:Men scheduled for prostatectomy were recruited to consume 0, 1, or 2 cans of tomato-soy juice/d before surgery (mean ± SD duration: 24 ± 4.6 d). The juice provided 20.6 mg lycopene and 66 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents/177-mL can. Plasma carotenoids and urinary isoflavone metabolites were quantified by HPLC-photometric diode array and prostate carotenoids and isoflavones by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Results:We documented significant dose-response increases (P < 0.05) in plasma concentrations of tomato carotenoids. Plasma concentrations were 1.86-, 1.69-, 1.73-, and 1.69-fold higher for lycopene, ?-carotene, phytoene, and phytofluene, respectively, for the 1-can/d group and 2.34-, 3.43-, 2.54-, and 2.29-fold higher, respectively, for the 2-cans/d group compared with 0 cans/d. Urinary isoflavones daidzein, genistein, and glycitein increased in a dose-dependent manner. Prostate carotenoid and isoflavone concentrations were not dose-dependent in this short intervention; yet, correlations between plasma carotenoid and urinary isoflavones with respective prostate concentrations were documented (R2 = 0.78 for lycopene, P < 0.001; R2 = 0.59 for dihydrodaidzein, P < 0.001). Secondary clustering analyses showed urinary isoflavone metabolite phenotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the phytoene and phytofluene in prostate tissue after a dietary intervention. Secondary analysis showed that the 2-cans/d group experienced a nonsignificant decrease in prostate-specific antigen slope compared with 0 cans/d (P = 0.078). Conclusion:These findings provide the foundation for evaluating a well-characterized tomato-soy juice in human clinical trials to define the impact on human prostate carcinogenesis. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01009736.
Project description:Consumption of tomato products is associated with a decreased risk of developing prostate cancer, and lycopene, the red carotenoid in the tomato, is a potent antioxidant that might contribute to this chemoprevention activity. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 105 African American men veterans, recommended for prostate biopsy to detect cancer, was carried out to investigate whether oral administration of lycopene increases lycopene levels in blood and prostate tissue and lowers markers of oxidative stress. Urology patients were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg/d of lycopene as a tomato oleoresin or placebo for 21 days prior to prostate biopsy for possible diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 47 men had a diagnosis of prostate cancer, and 58 men had a diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia. Diet, smoking, and drinking habits were assessed. For the men receiving lycopene, the mean lycopene concentration increased from 0.74 ± 0.39 to 1.43 ± 0.61 ?mol/L in plasma (P < 0.0001) and from 0.45 ± 0.53 to 0.59 ± 0.47 pmol/mg in prostate tissue (P = 0.005). No significant changes in the DNA oxidation product 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde were observed in prostate tissue and plasma, respectively, as a result of lycopene administration.