Comparison of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC) in single-cell sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Single-cell sequencing promotes our understanding of the heterogeneity of cellular populations, including the haplotypes and genomic variability among different generation of cells. Whole-genome amplification is crucial to generate sufficient DNA fragments for single-cell sequencing projects. Using sequencing data from single sperms, we quantitatively compare two prevailing amplification methods that extensively applied in single-cell sequencing, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC). Our results show that MALBAC, as a combination of modified MDA and tweaked PCR, has a higher level of uniformity, specificity and reproducibility.
Project description:Recently, Multiple Annealing and Looping-Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) has been developed for whole genome amplification of an individual cell, relying on quasilinear instead of exponential amplification to achieve high coverage. Here we adapt MALBAC for single-cell transcriptome amplification, which gives consistently high detection efficiency, accuracy and reproducibility. With this newly developed technique, we successfully amplified and sequenced single cells from 3 germ layers from mouse embryos in the early gastrulation stage, and examined the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program among cells in the mesoderm layer on a single-cell level.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To select an optimal whole-genome amplification (WGA) method to improve the efficiency of the preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD/PGS) of beta-thalassaemia disorders.<h4>Methods</h4>Fifty-seven fibroblast samples with defined beta-thalassaemia variations and forty-eight single-blastomere samples were amplified from single-, two-, and five-cell samples by multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC) and the multiple displacement amplification (MDA) method. Low-depth, high-throughput sequencing was performed to evaluate and compare the coefficiencies of the chromosomal copy number variation (CNV) detection rate and the allele dropout (ADO) rate between these two methods.<h4>Results</h4>At the single-cell level, the success rates of the CNV detection in the fibroblast samples were 100% in the MALBAC group and 91.67% in the MDA group; the coefficient of variation in the CNV detection in the MALBAC group was significantly superior to that in the MDA group (0.15 vs 0.37). The total ADO rate in the HBB allele detection was 4.55% in the MALBAC group, which was significantly lower than the 22.5% rate observed in the MDA group. However, when five or more cells were used as the starting template, the ADO rate significantly decreased, and these two methods did not differ significantly.<h4>Conclusions</h4>For the genetic diagnosis of HBB gene variation at the single-cell level, MALBAC is a more suitable method due to its higher level of uniformity and specificity. When five or more cells are used as the starting template, both methods exhibit similar efficiency, increased accuracy, and a similar success rate in PGD/PGS.
Project description:Single-cell resequencing (SCRS) provides many biomedical advances in variations detection at the single-cell level, but it currently relies on whole genome amplification (WGA). Three methods are commonly used for WGA: multiple displacement amplification (MDA), degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR) and multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC). However, a comprehensive comparison of variations detection performance between these WGA methods has not yet been performed.We systematically compared the advantages and disadvantages of different WGA methods, focusing particularly on variations detection. Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing revealed that DOP-PCR had the highest duplication ratio, but an even read distribution and the best reproducibility and accuracy for detection of copy-number variations (CNVs). However, MDA had significantly higher genome recovery sensitivity (~84 %) than DOP-PCR (~6 %) and MALBAC (~52 %) at high sequencing depth. MALBAC and MDA had comparable single-nucleotide variations detection efficiency, false-positive ratio, and allele drop-out ratio. We further demonstrated that SCRS data amplified by either MDA or MALBAC from a gastric cancer cell line could accurately detect gastric cancer CNVs with comparable sensitivity and specificity, including amplifications of 12p11.22 (KRAS) and 9p24.1 (JAK2, CD274, and PDCD1LG2).Our findings provide a comprehensive comparison of variations detection performance using SCRS amplified by different WGA methods. It will guide researchers to determine which WGA method is best suited to individual experimental needs at single-cell level.
Project description:Single-cell genomic analysis has grown rapidly in recent years and finds widespread applications in various fields of biology, including cancer biology, development, immunology, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, and neurobiology. To date, the amplification bias, amplification uniformity and reproducibility of the three major single cell whole genome amplification methods (GenomePlex WGA4, MDA and MALBAC) have not been systematically investigated using mammalian cells. In this study, we amplified genomic DNA from individual hippocampal neurons using three single-cell DNA amplification methods, and sequenced them at shallow depth. We then systematically evaluated the GC-bias, reproducibility, and copy number variations among individual neurons. Our results showed that single-cell genome sequencing results obtained from the MALBAC and WGA4 methods are highly reproducible and have a high success rate. The MALBAC displays significant biases towards high GC content. We then attempted to correct the GC bias issue by developing a bioinformatics pipeline, which allows us to call CNVs in single cell sequencing data, and chromosome level and sub-chromosomal level CNVs among individual neurons can be detected. We also proposed a metric to determine the CNV detection limits. Overall, MALBAC and WGA4 have better performance than MDA in detecting CNVs.
Project description:Current whole genome amplification (WGA) methods lead to amplification bias resulting in over- and under-represented regions in the genome. Nevertheless, certain WGA methods, such as SurePlex and subsequent arrayCGH analysis, make it possible to detect copy number alterations (CNAs) at a 10?Mb resolution. A more uniform WGA combined with massive parallel sequencing (MPS), however, could allow detection at higher resolution and lower cost. Recently, MALBAC, a new WGA method, claims unparalleled performance. Here, we compared the well-established SurePlex and MALBAC WGA for their ability to detect CNAs in MPS generated data and, in addition, compared PCR-free MPS library preparation with the standard enrichment PCR library preparation. Results showed that SurePlex amplification led to more uniformity across the genome, allowing for a better CNA detection with less false positives compared to MALBAC amplified samples. An even more uniform coverage was observed in samples following a PCR-free library preparation. In general, the combination of SurePlex and MPS led to the same chromosomal profile compared to a reference arrayCGH from unamplified genomic DNA, underlining the large potential of MPS techniques in CNA detection from a limited number of DNA material.
Project description:Single-cell sequencing is emerging as an important tool for studies of genomic heterogeneity. Whole genome amplification (WGA) is a key step in single-cell sequencing workflows and a multitude of methods have been introduced. Here, we compare three state-of-the-art methods on both bulk and single-cell samples of E. coli DNA: Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA), Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC), and the PicoPLEX single-cell WGA kit (NEB-WGA). We considered the effects of reaction gain on coverage uniformity, error rates and the level of background contamination. We compared the suitability of the different WGA methods for the detection of copy-number variations, for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and for de-novo genome assembly. No single method performed best across all criteria and significant differences in characteristics were observed; the choice of which amplifier to use will depend strongly on the details of the type of question being asked in any given experiment.
Project description:With the development and clinical application of genomics, more and more concern is focused on single-cell sequencing. In the process of single-cell sequencing, whole genome amplification is a key step to enrich sample DNA. Previous studies have compared the performance of different whole genome amplification (WGA) strategies on Illumina sequencing platforms, but there is no related research aimed at Ion Proton platform, which is also a popular next-generation sequencing platform. Here by amplifying cells from six cell lines with different karyotypes, we estimated the data features of four common commercial WGA kits (PicoPLEX WGA Kit, GenomePlex Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification Kit, MALBAC Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification Kit, and REPLI-g Single Cell Kit), including median absolute pairwise difference, uniformity, reproducibility, and fidelity, and examined their performance of copy number variation detection. The results showed that both MALBAC and PicoPLEX could yield high-quality data and had high reproducibility and fidelity; and as for uniformity, PicoPLEX was slightly superior to MALBAC.
Project description:Sperm typing is an effective way to study recombination rate on a fine scale in regions of interest. There are two strategies for the amplification of single meiotic recombinants: repulsion-phase allele-specific PCR and whole genome amplification (WGA). The former can selectively amplify single recombinant molecules from a batch of sperm but is not scalable for high-throughput operation. Currently, primer extension pre-amplification is the only method used in WGA of single sperm, whereas it has limited capacity to produce high-coverage products enough for the analysis of local recombination rate in multiple large regions. Here, we applied for the first time a recently developed WGA method, multiple displacement amplification (MDA), to amplify single sperm DNA, and demonstrated its great potential for producing high-yield and high-coverage products. In a 50 mul reaction, 76 or 93% of loci can be amplified at least 2500- or 250-fold, respectively, from single sperm DNA, and second-round MDA can further offer >200-fold amplification. The MDA products are usable for a variety of genetic applications, including sequencing and microsatellite marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The use of MDA in single sperm amplification may open a new era for studies on local recombination rates.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Single-cell whole-genome sequencing provides novel insights into the nature of genetic heterogeneity in normal and diseased cells. However, amplification of formalin-fixed tissues with low cell numbers is still problematic and multiple annealing, and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC) is a commonly used whole-genome amplification (WGA) method with low cell numbers.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed a low-input tailing method to evaluate the MALBAC-based WGA from sub-nanogram or less quantities of input DNA. The tailing method uses 2100 BioAnalyzer to evaluate the size distribution of MALBAC products, and comparing the tailing with 10380 bp.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with a 22 loci qPCR panel, the tailing method provided a similar WGA evaluation efficiency in 13 samples on one set of study, with lower input, cheaper cost, shorter manual time, and a clear filtering cut off. Later, we demonstrated a strong correlation between tailing size and coverage breadth in another 29 samples on two sets of assays. As a result, the tailing method showed that it could predict whether a sequence breadth achieved 70% or not with 100% accuracy on these three sets of assays. Although further studies are needed, this tailing method is expected to be used as an excellent tool to select high-quality WGA products before library construction.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our tailing method can provide a new WGA quality test to evaluate the WGA efficiency with 100% accuracy (42/42). Compared with qPCR panel, our tailing method needs lower input, cheaper cost, shorter manual time, a clear filtering cut off, and extendable high throughput as well as the same sensitivity.
Project description:Single-cell DNA sequencing is a powerful tool to evaluate the state of heterogeneity of heterogeneous tissues like cancer in a quantitative manner that bulk sequencing can never achieve. DOP-PCR (Degenerate Oligonucleotide-Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction), MDA (Multiple Displacement Amplification), MALBAC (Multiple Annealing and Looping-Based Amplification Cycles), LIANTI (Linear Amplification via Transposon Insertion) and TnBC (Transposon Barcoded) have been the primary choices to prepare single-cell libraries. TnBC library prep method is a simple and versatile methodology, to detect copy number variations or to obtain the absolute copy numbers of genes per cell.