Nucleotide sequence of conjugative prophage Φ1207.3 (formerly Tn1207.3) carrying the mef(A)/msr(D) genes for eﬄux resistance to macrolides in Streptococcus pyogenes.
ABSTRACT: Genetic element Φ1207.3 (formerly Tn1207.3) is a prophage of Streptococcus pyogenes which carries the macrolide eﬄux resistance genes mef(A)/msr(D) and is capable of conjugal transfer among streptococci. Complete nucleotide sequence showed that Φ1207.3 is 52,491 bp in length and contained 58 open reading frames (ORFs). A manual homology-based annotation with functional prediction of the hypothetical gene product was possible only for 34 out of 58 ORFs. Φ1207.3 codes for two different C-methylation systems, several phage structural genes, a lysis cassette (composed by a holin and a peptidoglycan hydrolase), and three site-specific resolvases of the serine recombinase family.
Project description:Macrolide resistance, emerging in Streptococcus pneumoniae and other Gram-positive bacteria, is increasingly due to efflux pumps encoded by mef/mel(msr) operons found on discrete mobile genetic elements. The regulation of mef/mel(msr) in these elements is not well understood. We identified the mef(E)/mel transcriptional start, localized the mef(E)/mel promoter, and demonstrated attenuation of transcription as a mechanism of regulation of macrolide-inducible mef-mediated macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae. The mef(E)/mel transcriptional start site was a guanine 327 bp upstream of mef(E). Consensus pneumococcal promoter -10 (5'-TATACT-3') and -35 (5'-TTGAAC-3') boxes separated by 17 bp were identified 7 bp upstream of the start site. Analysis of the predicted secondary structure of the 327 5' region identified four pairs of inverted repeats R1-R8 predicted to fold into stem-loops, a small leader peptide [MTASMRLR, (Mef(E)L)] required for macrolide induction and a Rho-independent transcription terminator. RNA-seq analyses provided confirmation of transcriptional attenuation. In addition, expression of mef(E)L was also influenced by mef(E)L-dependent mRNA stability. The regulatory region 5' of mef(E) was highly conserved in other mef/mel(msr)-containing elements including Tn1207.1 and the 5612IQ complex in pneumococci and Tn1207.3 in Group A streptococci, indicating a regulatory mechanism common to a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria containing mef/mel(msr) elements.
Project description:Chromosomal resistance islands containing the methicillin resistance gene mecD (McRI mecD ) have been reported in Macrococcus caseolyticus Here, we identified novel macrolide resistance genes in Macrococcus canis on similar elements, called McRI msr These elements were also integrated into the 3' end of the 30S ribosomal protein S9 gene (rpsI), delimited by characteristic attachment (att) sites, and carried a related site-specific integrase gene (int) at the 5' end. They carried novel macrolide resistance genes belonging to the msr family of ABC subfamily F (ABC-F)-type ribosomal protection protein [msr(F) and msr(H)] and the macrolide efflux mef family [mef(D)]. Highly related mef(D)-msr(F) fragments were found on diverse McRI msr elements in M. canis, M. caseolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus Another McRI msr -like element identified in an M. canis strain lacked the classical att site at the 3' end and carried the msr(H) gene but no neighboring mef gene. The expression of the novel resistance genes in S. aureus resulted in a low-to-moderate increase in the MIC of erythromycin but not streptogramin B. In the mef(D)-msr(F) operon, the msr(F) gene was shown to be the crucial determinant for macrolide resistance. The detection of circular forms of McRI msr and the mef(D)-msr(F) fragment suggested mobility of both the island and the resistance gene subunit. The discovery of McRI msr in different Macrococcus species and S. aureus indicates that these islands have a potential for dissemination of antibiotic resistance within the Staphylococcaceae family.
Project description:Recently, two related chimeric genetic elements (Tn1207.3 and Phi10394.4) were shown to carry the macrolide efflux gene mef in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]). The dissemination of elements belonging to the Tn1207.3/Phi10394.4 family in recent isolates of GAS, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae recovered in Portugal was surveyed. In total, 149 GAS, 18 S. pneumoniae, 4 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and 5 S. agalactiae isolates from infections, presenting the M phenotype of macrolide resistance and containing the mef gene, were screened for the presence of Tn1207.3/Phi10394.4 by PCR targeting open reading frames (ORFs) specific for these related elements. All the GAS isolates tested and one of the S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates carried Tn1207.3. However, neither of these elements was found in the isolates of the other streptococcal species. It was also noted that the DNAs of the isolates carrying Tn1207.3 were resistant to cleavage by the endonuclease SmaI. Cloning and expression of ORF12 of Tn1207.3 in Escherichia coli showed that it encoded a methyltransferase that rendered DNA refractory to cleavage by SmaI (M.Spy10394I). Using this characteristic as a marker for the presence of the Tn1207.3/Phi10394.4 family, we reviewed the literature and concluded that these genetic elements are widely distributed among tetracycline-susceptible GAS isolates presenting the M phenotype from diverse geographic origins and may have played an important role in the dissemination of macrolide resistance in this species.
Project description:The staphylococcal msr(A) gene, coding for a macrolide efflux protein, was identified in three new gram-positive genera and one gram-negative genus. These msr(A) genes shared 99 to 100% identity with each other and the staphylococcal gene. This study demonstrates that the msr(A) gene has a wider host range than previously reported.
Project description:The ABCF family protein Msr(A) confers high resistance to macrolides but only low resistance to ketolides in staphylococci. Mutations in conserved functional regions of ClpX as well as deletion of clpX significantly increased Msr(A)-mediated resistance to the ketolide antibiotic telithromycin. ClpX is the chaperone component of the ClpXP two-component proteolytic system. Nevertheless, no changes in resistance were observed in a clpP knockout strain expressing msr(A), demonstrating that ClpX affects Msr(A) independently of ClpP.
Project description:Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize unique organelles, the magnetosomes, which are intracellular nanometer-sized, membrane-enveloped magnetite. The biomineralization of magnetosomes involves the uptake of large amounts of iron. However, the iron metabolism of MTB is not well understood. The genome of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 contains two ferrous iron transport genes, feoB1 and feoB2. The FeoB1 protein was reported to be responsible mainly for the transport of ferrous iron and to play an accessory role in magnetosome formation. To determine the role of feoB2, we constructed an feoB2 deletion mutant (MSR-1 ?feoB2) and an feoB1 feoB2 double deletion mutant (MSR-1 NfeoB). The single feoB2 mutation did not affect magnetite crystal biomineralization. MSR-1 NfeoB had a significantly lower average magnetosome number per cell (?65%) than MSR-1 ?feoB1, indicating that FeoB2 plays a role in magnetosome formation when the feoB1 gene is deleted. Our findings showed that FeoB1 has a greater ferrous iron transport ability than FeoB2 and revealed the differential roles of FeoB1 and FeoB2 in MSR-1 iron metabolism. Interestingly, compared to the wild type, the feoB mutants showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and lower activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, indicating that the FeoB proteins help protect bacterial cells from oxidative stress.
Project description:Herein, 15 phenylpiperazine 3-benzyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoin derivatives (1-15) were screened for modulatory activity towards Msr(A) efflux pump present in S. epidermidis bacteria. Synthesis, crystallographic analysis, biological studies in vitro and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis were performed. The efflux pump inhibitory (EPI) potency was determined by employing ethidium bromide accumulation assay in both Msr(A) efflux pump overexpressed (K/14/1345) and deficient (ATCC 12228) S. epidermidis strains. The series of compounds was also evaluated for the capacity to reduce the resistance of K/14/1345 strain to erythromycin, a known substrate of Msr(A). The study identified five strong modulators for Msr(A) in S. epidermidis. The 2,4-dichlorobenzyl-hydantoin derivative 9 was found as the most potent EPI, inhibiting the efflux activity in K/14/1345 at a concentration as low as 15.63 µM. Crystallography-supported SAR analysis indicated structural properties that may be responsible for the activity found. This study identified the first synthetic compounds able to inhibit Msr(A) efflux pump transporter in S. epidermidis. Thus, the hydantoin-derived molecules found can be an attractive group in search for antibiotic adjuvants acting via Msr(A) transporter.
Project description:Macrolide resistance, increasingly identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae and a wide range of other Gram-positive bacteria, is often due to efflux pumps encoded by the mef/mel(msr) operon found on discrete mobile genetic elements. The regulation of mef/mel(msr) in these elements is not well understood. We defined the promoter controlling the mef(E)/mel operon in S. pneumoniae, identified cis-acting 5′ regulatory elements and determined the mechanism of macrolide-inducible expression of the efflux pump. The mef(E)/mel transcriptional start site was a guanine 327 bp upstream of the mef(E) start codon. Consensus pneumococcal promoter -10 (5′-TATACT-3′) and -35 (5′-TTGAAC-3′) boxes separated by a 17 bp spacer were identified 7 bp upstream of the start site. Analysis of the predicted secondary structure of the 327 bp 5’ region identified four pairs of inverted repeats R1-R8 predicted to fold into stem-loops, a small leader peptide (MTASMRLR) required for macrolide induction and a Rho-independent transcription terminator involving the R5/R6 stem loop. Mutational analyses of the regulatory region identified transcriptional attenuation as the model for the inducible expression of macrolide efflux, which was confirmed by RNA-Seq expression data. The 327 bp region 5’ of mef(E) was highly conserved in other mef/mel(msr)-containing genetic elements complexes including Tn1207.1 and the 5612IQ complex in pneumococci and Tn1207.3 in Group A streptococci. Induction of the mef(E)/mel operon and macrolide efflux occurs by anti-attenuation in the presence of inducing macrolides and appears to be a mechanism RNA-seq was performed on wild type and mutant cultures of four strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae untreated, or treated with spiramycin, LL-37 or erythromycin
Project description:We report the complete genomic sequence of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 (DSM 6361), a type strain of the genus Magnetospirillum belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria. Compared to the reported draft sequence, extensive rearrangements and differences were found, indicating high genomic flexibility and "domestication" by accelerated evolution of the strain upon repeated passaging.
Project description:The mef(A) gene was originally identified as the resistance determinant responsible for type M resistance to macrolides, a phenotype frequently found in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. MefA was defined as a secondary transporter of the major facilitator superfamily driven by proton-motive force. However, when characterizing the mef(A)-carrying elements Tn1207.1 and ?1207.3, another macrolide resistance gene, msr(D), was found adjacent to mef(A). To define the respective contribution of mef(A) and msr(D) to macrolide resistance, three isogenic deletion mutants were constructed by transformation of a S. pneumoniae strain carrying ?1207.3: (i) ?mef(A)-?msr(D); (ii) ?mef(A)-msr(D); and (iii) mef(A)-?msr(D). Susceptibility testing of mutants clearly showed that msr(D) is required for macrolide resistance, while deletion of mef(A) produced only a twofold reduction in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for erythromycin. The contribution of msr(D) to macrolide resistance was also studied in S. pyogenes, which is the original host of ?1207.3. Two isogenic strains of S. pyogenes were constructed: (i) FR156, carrying ?1207.3, and (ii) FR155, carrying ?1207.3/?msr(D). FR155 was susceptible to erythromycin, whereas FR156 was resistant, with an MIC value of 8 ?g/ml. Complementation experiments showed that reintroduction of the msr(D) gene could restore macrolide resistance in ?msr(D) mutants. Radiolabeled erythromycin was retained by strains lacking msr(D), while msr(D)-carrying strains showed erythromycin efflux. Deletion of mef(A) did not affect erythromycin efflux. This data suggest that type M resistance to macrolides in streptococci is due to an efflux transport system of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, in which mef(A) encodes the transmembrane channel, and msr(D) the two ATP-binding domains.